Hussein of Jordan

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Hussein
حسين بن طلال
Hussein of Jordan 1997.jpg
Hussein in 1997
King of Jordan
Reign 11 August 1952 – 7 February 1999
Regency ended 2 May 1953
Predecessor Talal
Successor Abdullah II
Prime Ministers
Born (1935-11-14)14 November 1935
Amman, Transjordan
Died 7 February 1999(1999-02-07) (aged 63)
Amman, Jordan
Burial 8 February 1999
Raghadan Palace
Spouse Dina bint Abdul-Hamid
(m. 1955; div. 1957)

Antoinette Gardiner
(m. 1961; div. 1972)

Alia Touqan
(m. 1972–77; her death)
Lisa Halaby
(m. 1978–99; his death)
Issue
Details and adopted children
Princess Alia
King Abdullah II
Prince Faisal
Princess Aisha
Princess Zein
Princess Haya
Prince Ali
Prince Hamzah
Prince Hashim
Princess Iman
Princess Raiyah
Full name
Hussein bin Talal bin Abdullah bin Hussein bin Ali
House Hashemite
Father Talal of Jordan
Mother Zein Al-Sharaf
Religion Sunni Islam
Signature Husseinحسين بن طلال's signature
Jordanian royal family
Coat of arms of Jordan.svg

HM Queen Noor

Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال‎‎, Ḥusayn bin Ṭalāl; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) was King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal, on 11 August 1952, until his death in 1999. According to Hussein, he was a 40th-generation direct descendant of Muhammad as he belongs to the Hashemite family—who have ruled Jordan since 1921.

He was born in Amman as the first child of King Talal and his wife, Queen Zein. Hussein began his schooling in Amman, continuing his education abroad. Hussein was named crown prince shortly after his father became king in 1951. Talal was forced to abdicate by Parliament a year after he became king, due to mental illness. A Regency Council was appointed until Hussein came of age, who was enthroned at the age of 17 on 2 May 1953. He married four times and has eleven children: Princess Alia from Dina bint Abdul-Hamid; Abdullah II, Prince Faisal, Princess Aisha, Princess Zein from Antoinette Gardiner; Princess Haya, Prince Ali from Alia Touqan; Prince Hamzah, Prince Hashim, Princess Iman, Princess Raiyah from Lisa Halaby.

Hussein, a constitutional monarch, started his rule with what was termed as a "liberal experiment", in 1956 he allowed the formation of the only democratically elected government in Jordan's history. However, he forced its resignation, declared martial law and banned political parties after an alleged coup attempt a few months later. Jordan fought three wars with Israel under Hussein, including: the 1967 Six Day War when Jordan lost the West Bank. Hussein kicked Palestinian fighters (fedayeen) based in Jordan to Lebanon in 1970, after they had threatened the country's security in what became known as Black September. The King renounced ties to the West Bank in 1988 after the Palestine Liberation Organization was recognized internationally as the sole representative of the Palestinians. He lifted martial law in 1989 after riots over price hikes spread from Ma'an, but introduced a controversial "one-man one-vote" system to the parliament the next year. In 1994, he became the second Arab head of state sign a peace treaty with Israel.

Hussein had inherited a young kingdom and the then Jordanian controlled West Bank when he was a 17-year old schoolboy. The country had few natural resources, and a large Palestinian refugee population resulting from the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. Hussein led his country through four turbulent decades of the Arab–Israeli conflict and the Cold War, successfully balancing pressures from Arab nationalists and Western countries—transforming Jordan at the end of his 46-year reign to a modern stable state. He became widely regarded as the Middle East's peacemaker, and became known for pardoning political dissidents and opponents. Hussein, who survived dozens of assassination attempts and plots to overthrow him, was the region's longest reigning leader. King Hussein died from complications of cancer recurrence on 7 February 1999, his funeral was the largest gathering of world leaders since 1995. He was succeeded by his eldest son Abdullah II.

Early life[edit]

Hussein (aged six) and his mother Zein Al-Sharaf, 1941.

Hussein was born in Amman on 14 November 1935 to Crown Prince Talal and Princess Zein Al-Sharaf.[1] Hussein was the eldest among his siblings, three brothers and two sisters—Princess Asma, Prince Muhammad, Prince Hassan, Prince Muhsin and Princess Basma.[2] His baby sister Princess Asma died from pneumonia in a cold Ammani winter, an indication of how poor the royal family was then—they could not afford heating in their house.[2]

Hussein was the namesake of his great-grandfather, Hussein bin Ali (Sharif of Mecca), the leader of the 1916 Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire.[3] Hussein said that he was the 40th direct descendant of Muhammad through the Hashemite dynasty, which ruled Mecca for over 700 years—until its 1925 conquest by the House of Saud—and has ruled Jordan since 1921.[4] The Hashemites, the oldest ruling dynasty in the Muslim world, are the second-oldest-ruling dynasty in the world (after the Imperial House of Japan).[5]

The young prince started his elementary education in Amman, he was then educated at Victoria College in Alexandria, Egypt.[1] He proceeded to Harrow School in England, where he befriended his second cousin Faisal II of Iraq who was also studying there.[1] Faisal was then King of Hashemite Iraq, but was under regency since he was as old as Hussein.[1]

On 20 July 1951, 15-year old Prince Hussein traveled to Jerusalem to perform Friday prayers at the Al-Aqsa Mosque with his grandfather, King Abdullah I, the founder of modern Jordan.[1] A Palestinian assassin opened fire on Abdullah and his grandson, amid rumors that King Abdullah had been planning to sign a peace treaty with the newly established state of Israel.[4] Abdullah died, but Hussein survived the assassination attempt, and according to witnesses, pursued the assassin.[4] Hussein was also shot, but the bullet was deflected by a medal on his uniform that his grandfather had given him.[4]

Reign[edit]

Accession and coronation[edit]

King Hussein in uniform, 1953.

Abdullah's eldest son, Talal, was crowned King of Jordan.[6] Talal appointed his son Hussein as Crown Prince of Jordan on 9 September 1951.[6] The Monarch ruled for less than thirteen months after he was forced to abdicate by the Parliament owing to his mental state—doctors diagnosed schizophrenia.[6] Although Talal ruled for a short time, he had introduced a modern 1952 Constitution that allowed great civil liberties.[6] Hussein was proclaimed King on 11 August 1952, succeeding at the age of 17.[6] A telegram from Jordan was brought in to Hussein while he was staying with his mother abroad in Lausanne, addressed to 'His Majesty King Hussein'.[6] "I did not need to open it to know that my days as a schoolboy were over", Hussein later wrote in his memoirs.[6] He returned home to cheering crowds.[6]

A three-man Regency Council made up of the prime minister, heads of the Senate and the House of Representatives, was appointed until he became 17 (18 by the Muslim calendar).[7] Meanwhile, Hussein pursued further study at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.[1] He was enthroned on 2 May 1953, his cousin Faisal II also assumed his constitutional powers as king in Iraq on the same day.[6]

1950s[edit]

The 17-year-old king not only inherited the throne to Jordan, but to the West Bank which Jordan captured during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and annexed in 1950.[6] The country was poor in natural resources, and had a large Palestinian refugee population resulting from the war—the annexation made Palestinians two-thirds of the population, outnumbering Transjordanians.[6] Upon assuming the throne, he appointed Fawzi Mulki as prime minister, who served as Jordan's ambassador to London and had befriended Hussein during his stay there.[6] Mulki's liberal policies, including freedom of the press, led to unrest as opposition groups started a propaganda campaign against the monarchy.[8] Palestinian guerrillas used Jordanian territory to launch attacks against Israel, sometimes provoking heavy retaliation.[6] In one of the retaliatory raids, in the village of Qibya, resulted in the death of 66 civilians.[6] Hussein dismissed Mulki amid the unrest in 1954, and appointed staunch royalist Tawfik Abu Al-Huda.[6] The country held elections in October 1954, while the country's parties were still unorganized.[6] Abu Al-Huda's independent nominees won a majority that triggered street protests after allegations of vote-rigging spread.[6] Abu Al-Huda too lasted only a year, and there were three government reshuffles within the following year.[6]

The 1955 Baghdad Pact was a Western attempt to form a Middle Eastern alliance to counter Soviet influence and Gamal Abdel Nasser's Egypt.[6] Jordan then found itself in the middle of Cold War tensions.[6] Britain, Turkey and Iraq were members of the pact, and Jordan was pressured by Britain to join.[6] Nasserism swept the Arab World in the 1950s, and the proposal to join the Pact triggered large riots in the country.[6] Curfews imposed by the Arab Legion did little to alleviate the situation, and the tensions ensued throughout 1955.[6] The unrest, periodically fueled by propaganda transmitted from Egyptian radios, was only calmed after the King appointed a new prime minister who promised not to enter the Baghdad Pact.[6] Saudi Arabia found common ground with Egypt in their suspicions of the Hashemites, both in Jordan and in Iraq.[6] The Saudis massed troops near Aqaba on Jordan's southern borders in January 1956, and only withdrew after the British threatened to intervene on Jordan's behalf.[6] Hussein realized that the Arab nationalist trend had dominated Arab politics, and decided to start downgrading Jordan's relationship with the British.[6] On 1 March 1956, Hussein asserted Jordanian independence by Arabizing the Army: he dismissed Glubb Pasha as the commander of the Arab Legion, and replaced all the senior British officers with Jordanians, thereby renaming it into the Jordanian Armed Forces.[6] He anulled the Anglo-Jordanian treaty, and replaced British subsidies with American and Arab aid.[6] Hussein's bold decisions were met with admiration at home, and relations with Arab states improved.[6]

Nasser received an outpouring of support from the Arab public after the Egyptian–Czechoslovak arms deal was signed in September 1955.[9] His popularity in Jordan skyrocketed following the nationalization of the Suez Canal in July 1956, his actions were seen as a powerful stance against Western imperialism.[10] Hussein was also supportive of the moves.[10] The coinciding events in Egypt had leftist opposition parties lean greatly towards Nasser.[10] The parliament that was elected in 1954, was dissolved, and Hussein promised fair elections.[10] The election held on 21 October 1956 saw the National Socialist Party emerge as the largest party, winning 12 seats out of 40 in the House of Representatives.[11] Hussein consequently asked Suleiman Nabulsi, leader of the Party, to form a government, the first and last democratically elected government in Jordan's history.[11] Hussein called this a "liberal experience", to "see how they would react to responsibility".[12] On 29 October 1956, the Suez Crisis erupted in Egypt, a "tripartite aggression" by Britain, France and Israel.[11] Hussein was furious, but eventually did not intervene.[13] Nabulsi's government was short-lived, its policies frequently clashed with King Hussein, including on how to deal with the Eisenhower Doctrine.[14] The King had requested Nabulsi, as prime minister, to crack down on the Communist Party and the media it controlled.[14] Nabulsi wanted to move Jordan closer to Nasser's regime, but Hussein wanted it to stay in the Western camp.[14]

Hussein's rule was marked by repeated efforts to secure peace in the region. Meetings between King Hussein and Israeli foreign ministers Abba Eban and Golda Meir began on or before 1963. Jordan, sharing Israel's longest contiguous border, was interested in maintaining a peaceful coexistence with Israel. Avi Shlaim claims that Hussein's intentions "...throughout the 1960s was to see if there was any way to resolve the dispute with Israel peacefully."

Hussein addressing his troops in 1956, as Ali Abu Nuwar, the then Chief of Staff who was involved in an alleged coup attempt in 1957 observes.

King Hussein sought to understand Israel's position and preferred dialogue to the futility of war. Much of this desire grows out of the threat from other Arab states, specifically the Ba'athist regimes in Iraq and Syria and Nasser's ideology of Arab nationalism which had heavily influenced the Army. The first secret meeting took place on 24 September 1963 between King Hussein and Yaacov Herzog, a diplomat with wide experience and special emissary of prime minister Levi Eshkol.[15] Among other things such as discussions regarding water rights, the purpose of the meetings were to plan and support Israeli and Jordanian initiatives in combating Fatah guerrillas. He would later state "I told them I could not absorb a serious retaliatory raid, and they accepted the logic of this and promised there would never be one".[16]

On 13 November 1966, Israeli military conducted a major incursion into Jordanian territory, violating their secret agreement with King Hussein, in what became known as the Samu Incident. Two days later, in response to the incident, in a memo to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson, his Special Assistant Walt Rostow wrote: "retaliation is not the point in this case. This 3,000-man raid with tanks and planes was out of all proportion to the provocation and was aimed at the wrong target," and went on to describe the damage done to U.S. and Israeli interests:

They've wrecked a good system of tacit cooperation between Hussein and the Israelis. ... They've undercut Hussein. We've spent $500 million to shore him up as a stabilizing factor on Israel's longest border and vis-à-vis Syria and Iraq. Israel's attack increases the pressure on him to counterattack not only from the more radical Arab governments and from the Palestinians in Jordan but also from the Army, which is his main source of support and may now press for a chance to recoup its Sunday losses. ... They've set back progress toward a long term accommodation with the Arabs. ... They may have persuaded the Syrians that Israel didn't dare attack Soviet-protected Syria but could attack US-backed Jordan with impunity.[17]

Perception of King Hussein's efforts to come to peaceful terms with Israel led to great dissatisfaction among some Arab leaders. President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt often referred to Hussein as an, "imperialist lackey".[18] Army Commander-in-Chief General Sharif Zaid Ben Shaker warned in a press conference that "If Jordan does not join the war a civil war will erupt in Jordan".[19] In order to maintain credibility in the Arab world and maintain stability at home, on 30 May 1967, King Hussein signed a mutual defense treaty with Egypt.

Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan[edit]

Hussein with his cousin King Faisal II of the Kingdom of Iraq, 1956.

In the late 1950s, King Hussein entered Jordan into a joint partnership with Iraq called the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. The Federation was formed on 14 February 1958, when King Faisal II of Iraq and his cousin, King Hussein of Jordan, sought to unite their two Hashemite kingdoms, as a response to the formation of the United Arab Republic. The union lasted only six months, being officially dissolved on 2 August 1958, after Faisal was deposed and assassinated by a military coup on 14 July.

Improving the lives of Jordanians[edit]

King Hussein (right) and Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser at the 1964 Arab League Summit in Alexandria, Egypt

Early on, King Hussein concentrated on building an economic and industrial infrastructure that would improve the quality of life of Jordanians. During the 1960s, Jordan's main industries – including phosphate, potash and cement – were developed, and a network of highways was built throughout the kingdom.

Social indicators reflect King Hussein's successes. While in 1950, water, sanitation and electricity were available to only 10% of Jordanians, today these reach 99% of the population. In 1960 only 33% of Jordanians were literate, while by 1996, this number had climbed to 85.5%. In 1961, the average Jordanian received a daily intake of 2198 calories, and by 1992, this figure had increased by 37.5% to reach 3022 calories. UNICEF statistics show that between 1981 and 1991, Jordan achieved the world's fastest annual rate of decline in infant mortality – from 70 deaths per 1000 births in 1981 to 37 per 1000 in 1991, a fall of over 47%.

Six-Day War[edit]

King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount in East Jerusalem while the West Bank was in Jordanian control, 1965.
King Hussein after checking an abandoned Israeli tank in the aftermath of the Battle of Karameh in 1968

In June 1967, as a result of what later became known as the Six-Day War, Jordan lost control of the West Bank and saw its military shattered. In addition the country was, for a second time, overrun with many Palestinian refugees. As a result, Palestinian refugees who fled the 1948 and 1967 wars outnumbered Jordan's natural citizens. Most refugees were provided citizenship by the Jordanian government. Due to their sheer numbers, Palestinian factions in Jordan were able to exercise considerable authority, essentially governing some areas of Jordan, leading to many considering them a state within a state, eroding Hussein's central authority and disturbing the geopolitical stability of the Middle East.[20]

Black September[edit]

In September 1970, Hussein ordered the expulsion of the Palestine Liberation Organization by the Jordanian military after the Dawson's Field hijackings. The attacks on Palestinian fighters lasted until July 1971, when thousands of Palestinians were expelled, mostly fleeing to Lebanon.[21]

Yom Kippur War[edit]

After the 1967 War and the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 242, Gunnar Jarring was appointed by the UN as a special envoy for the Middle East peace process, leading the Jarring Mission. Both Egypt and Israel responded to Jarring's proposals with support for a peace process, but the process did not move forward.[22] Egyptian president Anwar Sadat and Syrian president Hafez al-Assad met King Hussein in 1973 to discuss the possibility of war. Hussein, fearing another loss of territory to Israel, declined. Furthermore, Hussein was suspicious of Sadat's promise to PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat to hand over the West Bank to the Palestinians in the event of a victory, as he considered the West Bank to be Jordanian territory. On the night of 25 September, Hussein secretly flew to Tel Aviv by helicopter to warn Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir of an impending Syrian attack.[23] "Are (the Syrians) going to war without the Egyptians, asked Mrs. Meir. The king said he didn't think so. 'I think they [Egypt] would cooperate'".[24]

On 6 October 1973, Syria and Egypt attacked Israel without the aid of Jordan. A ceasefire was declared on 23 October, but fighting continued until January 1974. The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, after 14 months of diplomatic efforts by Egypt, Israel, and the United States.

Peace with Israel[edit]

Hussein shakes hands with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin in 13 September 1994 during peace negotiations as American President Bill Clinton looks.

In 1994, Hussein concluded negotiations to end the official state of war with Israel resulting in the Israel–Jordan Treaty of Peace which he had begun negotiating in secret with the Israelis in the 1960s. Between 1963 and 1994 he had held at least 55 secret meetings with leading Israelis including at least seven prime and foreign ministers.[25]

Due to the close relationship forged with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin during the negotiations of the treaty, Hussein was invited to give a speech during Rabin's funeral.

Summit of the Peacemakers[edit]

On 13 March 1996, the "Summit of the Peacemakers" was held at Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt hosted by Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. In addition to King Hussein, Turkish President Süleyman Demirel, Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres, US President Bill Clinton, and Russian President Boris Yeltsin were present at the summit. The summit was convened with the expressed aim of putting the Israeli-Palestinian peace process back on track after a period of increased tension and hostility.

Hebron Agreement[edit]

Hussein was often involved in negotiations between the Israelis and Palestinians. His 11th-hour intervention in January 1997 is said to have brought Palestinian chairman Yasser Arafat and Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to an agreement on the long-awaited withdrawal of Israeli troops from most of the West Bank town of Hebron.

Khaled Mashal assassination attempt[edit]

On 27 September 1997, the treaty was thrown into jeopardy when two Mossad agents attempted to poison Khaled Mashal, who was at the time living in Jordan. Condemning the attack as a violation of Jordanian sovereignty, King Hussein threatened to void the treaty if Mashal died. Jordanian doctors determined and administered the proper antidote in time, just as Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu bowed to international pressure and ordered Mossad to hand it over. Mashal recovered, and relations between Jordan and Israel thawed.[26]

Wye River Memorandum[edit]

In October 1998 U.S. President Bill Clinton invited Hussein, who was in the US undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer, to attend the Wye Plantation talks. Hussein received a standing ovation at the ceremony and praise from Clinton.[citation needed]

Illness and death[edit]

At the end of July 1998, it was made public that Hussein was diagnosed with lymphatic cancer by doctors at the Mayo Clinic. Hussein's lymphoma was of a type that responded to chemotherapy, which the King had already begun and his physicians were optimistic he could be cured. Speaking on Jordanian television via satellite, Hussein reassured the Jordanian people that the cancer was curable. Nevertheless, he looked fragile and pale. It was the 62-year-old monarch's second bout with cancer; he lost a kidney to the disease in 1992.[27]

On his way back to Jordan in January 1999, Hussein stopped in London.[28] Doctors advised him to rest and stay in England for a few weeks, as he was still too fragile to travel. According to Jordanian government sources, Hussein stated that:

"I need very much to feel the warmth of my people around me, there is work to be done and I will get the strength from my people to finish the business."[29]

Upon returning to Jordan Hussein was greeted by family members, ministers, parliament members, foreign dignitaries and crowds of Jordanian citizens, estimated by Jordanian government officials at 3 million.[20]

On 24 January 1999, Hussein made a change to his will revising the law of succession, which earlier had designated his brother Hassan as heir-apparent, in favour of his eldest son Abdullah. He abruptly returned to the U.S. on 25 January for further treatment; after a bone marrow transplant failed, he returned to Jordan.

On 7 February 1999, King Hussein died of complications related to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. At the time of his death, he was one of the longest-serving leaders in international politics.[4] He had been the King of Jordan for over 46 years, during which he was an important actor in various Middle East conflicts. Just prior to his death, during an interview with CNN's Christiane Amanpour, Hussein expressed his opinion that a peaceful resolution would eventually be reached in the Arab–Israeli conflict.[30]

King Hussein's funeral was held on 8 February 1999, in the presence of all five of his sons, foreign dignitaries and statesmen, and an estimated 800,000 Jordanians.[31][32] The UN General Assembly held an Emergency Special Session in "Tribute to the Memory of His Majesty the King of Jordan" on the same day.[33]

King Hussein was succeeded as king by his eldest son Abdullah II of Jordan.

Tributes[edit]

  • "He won the respect and admiration of the entire world and so did his beloved Jordan. He is a man who believed that we are all God's children, bound to live together in mutual respect and tolerance." (U.S. President Bill Clinton)[34]
  • "He was an extraordinary and immensely charismatic persuader for peace. At the peace talks in America when he was extremely ill, he was there, talking to both sides, urging them forward, telling them nothing must stand in the way of peace." (UK Prime Minister Tony Blair)[34]
  • "President Yasser Arafat and the Palestinian people and leadership have received with great sorrow and pain the news," it said in a statement. (The Palestinian Authority)
  • "He was a generous brother and a dear friend," said a statement. (Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.)
  • South African President Nelson Mandela believed the death would be "deeply mourned by all peace-loving people."
  • UN Secretary General Kofi Annan paid tribute to the late king, praising him for his "lifelong struggle to bring peace".

Personal life[edit]

Hussein with his 3 siblings in 1954.

King Hussein married four times:

King Hussein of Jordan (1980)

Hussein was an enthusiastic ham radio operator and an Honorary Member of The Radio Society of Harrow and a life member of the American Radio Relay League (ARRL)[37] [38] (callsign JY1). Hussein was popular in the amateur radio community and insisted that fellow operators refer to him without his title.

Hussein was a trained pilot, flying both airplanes and helicopters as a hobby. In a 1999 interview Henry Kissinger described being flown by Hussein, saying that "...he was a daring pilot, and he would be zooming along at treetop level, and my wife, in order to be politely insistent would say, "You know I didn't know helicopters could fly so low." "Oh!" said the king, "They can fly lower!" and went below tree top level just skimming along on the ground. That really aged me rapidly."[39]

Hussein was also a collector of motorcycles.[39] The cover of the paperback version of Queen Noor's book Leap of Faith: Memoirs of an Unexpected Life features a photo of the King and Queen riding a Harley-Davidson motorcycle.

Ancestry[edit]

[40]

Titles, honours and awards[edit]

Titles[edit]

Styles of
King Hussein of Jordan
Coat of arms of Jordan.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir
  • 14 November 1935 – 20 July 1951: His Royal Highness Prince Hussein of Jordan
  • 20 July 1951 – 11 August 1952: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Jordan
  • 11 August 1952 – 7 February 1999: His Majesty The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Honours[edit]

Streets, squares, parks

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Biography - His Majesty King Hussein". kinghussein.gov.jo. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  2. ^ a b Miller, Judith (8 February 1999). "Death of a King; Cautious King Took Risks In Straddling Two Worlds". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 July 2017. 
  3. ^ "Kingdom remembers Sharif Hussein Bin Ali". The Jordan Times. The Jordan Times. 3 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "King Hussein is dead". CNN. CNN. 7 February 1999. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  5. ^ "Profile: King Abdullah II of Jordan". themuslim500.com. 1 January 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "King Hussein of Jordan". The Telegraph. The Telegraph. 8 February 1999. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  7. ^ Shlaim 2008, p. 56.
  8. ^ Shlaim 2008, p. 65.
  9. ^ Shlaim 2008, p. 106.
  10. ^ a b c d Shlaim 2008, p. 107.
  11. ^ a b c Shlaim 2008, p. 112.
  12. ^ Shlaim 2008, p. 111.
  13. ^ Shlaim 2008, p. 117.
  14. ^ a b c Shlaim 2008, p. 128.
  15. ^ Shlaim 2007, p. 194–203 (Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace).
  16. ^ Bowen 2003, p. 26 (citing Amman Cables 1456, 1457, 11 December 1966, National Security Files (Country File: Middle East), LBJ Library (Austin, Texas), Box 146).
  17. ^ "Memorandum From the President's Special Assistant (Rostow) to President Johnson". Washington. 15 November 1966. Archived from the original on 31 August 2000. Retrieved 22 October 2005. 
  18. ^ BBC on this Day, Egypt and Jordan unite against Israel. Retrieved 8 October 2005.
  19. ^ quoted in Mutawi 2002, p. 102.
  20. ^ a b "Highlights of King Hussein's life". CNN. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  21. ^ Shlaim 2008, p. 301, 302.
  22. ^ "The Jarring initiative and the response," Israel's Foreign Relations, Selected Documents, vols. 1–2, 1947–1974 . Retrieved 9 June 2005.
  23. ^ Kumaraswamy, P.R. (2013-01-11). Revisiting the Yom Kippur War. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781136328954. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  24. ^ Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War, Schocken Books, 2004. Page 50
  25. ^ The Economist, 24 November 2007, p.88
  26. ^ "Kill Him Silently". Al Jazeera World. Al Jazeera English. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013. 
  27. ^ "King Hussein's eldest son handed power in Jordan". tribunedigital-baltimoresun. 
  28. ^ "King to address Jordanians tonight ahead of Tuesday return". Jordan embassy. 16 January 1999. Archived from the original on 31 August 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 
  29. ^ Mideastnews.com; 8 February 1999
  30. ^ CNN/Time "Newsstand" Interviewer: Christiane Amanpour. 24 January 2000
  31. ^ PBS NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, 1999 Online NewsHour
  32. ^ "Geocities.com". Archived from the original on 21 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  33. ^ "U.N. Tribute to the Memory of His Majesty King Hussein Ibn Talal of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. 8 February 1999". UN. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 
  34. ^ a b "7Feb1999 (King Hussein dies)". BBC News. 1999-02-07. Retrieved 2014-06-09. 
  35. ^ "International sports community pays tribute to FEI Honorary President HRH Princess Haya". FEI. 
  36. ^ The Office of HRH Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein. "HRH Princess Haya Biog - The Official Website of HRH Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein". princesshaya.net. 
  37. ^ "In Memory of JY1". Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  38. ^ "The Radio Society of Harrow - Dedication to JY1". G3EFX. Retrieved 5 March 2015. .
  39. ^ a b Nightline: Hussein of Jordan, ABC Evening News for Friday, 5 February 1999
  40. ^ "Hashemite Ancestry". alhussein.jo (in Arabic). 1 January 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2017. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av "Jordanian genealogy details". Royal Ark. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  42. ^ a b "Key Street in Astana Named After Late King Hussein". Petra News Agency. Jordanian Embassy in Washington DC. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  43. ^ "Deputy Mayor of Amman welcomes a Chechen delegation to discuss strengthening of relations between Amman and Grozny". Greater Amman Municipality. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Official

Media coverage

Hussein of Jordan
Born: 14 November 1953
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Talal
King of Jordan
1952–1999
Succeeded by
Abdullah II