List of human evolution fossils

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The following tables give an overview of notable finds of hominin fossils and remains relating to human evolution, beginning with the formation of the Hominini tribe (the divergence of the human and chimpanzee lineages) in the late Miocene, roughly 7 to 8 million years ago.

As there are thousands of fossils, mostly fragmentary, often consisting of single bones or isolated teeth with complete skulls and skeletons rare, this overview is not complete, but does show some of the most important finds. The fossils are arranged by approximate age as determined by radiometric dating and/or incremental dating and the species name represents current consensus; if there is no clear scientific consensus the other possible classifications are indicated.

Most of the early fossils shown are not considered direct ancestors to Homo sapiens but are closely related to direct ancestors and are therefore important to the study of the lineage. After 1.5 million years ago (extinction of Paranthropus), all fossils shown are human (genus Homo). After 11,500 years ago (11.5 ka, beginning of the Holocene), all fossils shown are Homo sapiens (anatomically modern humans), illustrating recent divergence in the formation of modern human sub-populations.

Late Miocene (7.2 – 5.5 million years old)[edit]

The chimpanzee–human divergence likely took place during about 10 to 7 million years ago.[1] The list of fossils begins with Graecopithecus, dated some 7.2 million years ago, which may or may not still be ancestral to both the human and the chimpanzee lineage. For the earlier history of the human lineage, see Timeline_of_human_evolution#Hominidae, Hominidae#Phylogeny.

Name Age Species Year
Country Site Discovered by Now located at
Graecopithecus tooth.png El Graeco 7.2 Ma Graecopithecus freybergi 2017 (1944) Greece, Bulgaria Pyrgos Vassilissis, Azmakia Böhme (Tübingen), Spassov (BAS) Met, Athens; Tübingen, Germany
Sahelanthropus tchadensis - TM 266-01-060-1.jpg TM 266 (Toumai) 7 Ma[2] Sahelanthropus tchadensis 2001 Chad Toros-Menalla, Djurab Desert Alain Beauvilain, Fanone Gongdibe, Mahamat Adoum and Ahounta Djimdoumalbaye N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
Orrorin tugenensis.jpg BAR 1000'00 6 Ma[3] Orrorin tugenensis 2000 Kenya Lukeino Martin Pickford, Kiptalam Cheboi, Dominique Gommery, Pierre Mein, Brigitte Senut,
Ardipithecus kadabba fossils.jpg ALA-VP 1/20[4] 5.65±0.15 Ma Ardipithecus kadabba 1997 Ethiopia Middle Awash Yohannes Haile-Selassie

Pliocene (5.3 – 2.58 million years old)[edit]

Image Name Age Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Lothagam mandible (KNM-LT 329) [5] 5.25±0.25 Ma Australopithecus(?) 1967 Kenya A.D. Lewis[6]
Ardi.jpg Ardi 4.4 Ma[7] Ardipithecus ramidus 1994 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
KNM-LT 329. Réplica at Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales of Madrid KNM-LT 329 4.6±0.4 Ma[8] Australopithecus anamensis 1967 Kenya Arnold Lewis, Bryan Patterson[9][10][11]
KNM-TH 13150 4.7±0.55 Ma[12] Australopithecus anamensis 1984 Kenya Kiptalam Cheboi[9]
Australopithecus anamensis bone (University of Zurich).JPG KNM-KP 271 4 Ma[13] Australopithecus anamensis 1965 Kanapoi, Kenya Bryan Patterson[9]
Laetoli footprints replica.jpg Laetoli Footprints 3.7 Ma Bipedal hominin 1976 Tanzania Mary Leakey
LH 4 Replica 03.jpg LH 4 3.4±0.5 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[14]
Kadanuumuu.jpg KSD-VP-1/1 (Kadanuumuu) 3.58 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2005 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Mandible of an Australopithecus bahrelghazali KT-12/H1 (Abel) 3.5 Ma Australopithecus bahrelghazali 1995 Chad Mamelbaye Tomalta and Michel Brunet N'Djamena (Chad), BEAC
Kenyanthropus platyops, skull (model).JPG KNM-WT 40000 (Flat Faced Man)[15] 3.5 Ma Kenyanthropus platyops 1999 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Justus Erus and Meave Leakey[16]
BRT-VP-3/14 3.4±0.1 Ma Australopithecus deyiremeda 2015 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie[17]
Little Foot 01.jpg Stw 573 (Little foot) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus ? 1994 Sterkfontein, South Africa Ronald J. Clarke
SelamAustralopithecus.jpg DIK-1 (Selam) 3.3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 2000 Ethiopia Zeresenay Alemseged
Lucy Mexico.jpg AL 288-1 (Lucy) 3.2 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1974 Ethiopia Tom Gray, Donald Johanson, Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb National Museum of Ethiopia
AL 200-1 and AL 400-1. Australopithecus afarensis AL 200-1 3.1±0.1 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1975 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson Yves Coppens and Maurice Taieb
Johanson's knee, AL 129-1 AL 129-1 3.1±0.1 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1973 Afar Region, Ethiopia Donald Johanson
AL 444-2. Replica.jpg AL 444-2[18] 3 Ma Australopithecus afarensis 1992 Afar Region, Ethiopia Yoel Rak
[19] LD 350-1 2.775±0.025 Ma[20] Homo(?) 2013 Ethiopia Chalachew Seyoum


Lower Paleolithic: 2.58 – 0.3 million years old[edit]

Name Age Species Date
Country Discovered by Now located at
Australopithecus africanus - Cast of taung child Face.jpg Taung 1
(Taung Child)
2.5 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1924 South Africa Raymond Dart
Paranthropus aethiopicus.JPG KNM WT 17000
(The Black Skull)
2.5 Ma Paranthropus aethiopicus 1985 Kenya Alan Walker
Musée national d'Ethiopie-Australopithecus garhi (1).jpg BOU-VP-12/130[21] 2.5 Ma Australopithecus garhi 1997 Ethiopia Yohannes Haile-Selassie
Original UR 501 (Uraha jawbone) 2.4±0.1 Ma Homo rudolfensis[22] 1991 Malawi Tyson Msiska, Timothy Bromage, Friedemann Schrenk
STS 71. STS 71[23] 2.6±0.2 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom and John T. Robinson
STS 52a and STS 52b STS 52 2.3 Ma Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom
Mrs Ples Face.jpg STS 5 (Mrs. Ples)
(STS 14)[24]
2.05 Ma[25] Australopithecus africanus 1947 Sterkfontein, South Africa Robert Broom
Sterkfontein Caves 67.jpg TM 1517[26] 2 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1938 South Africa Gert Terblanche
Australopithecus sediba.JPG MH1 (Karabo)[27][28] 1.98 Ma[29] Australopithecus sediba 2008 Malapa, South Africa Lee R. Berger
Homo habilis-KNM ER 1813.jpg KNM ER 1813 1.9 Ma Homo habilis 1973 Kenya Kamoya Kimeu
Homo rudolfensis.jpg KNM ER 1470 1.9 Ma Homo rudolfensis 1972 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo[30]
Replica made with a 3D printer OH 24
1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1968 Tanzania Peter Nzube
Original of Paranthropus robustus Face.jpg SK 48 1.8 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1948 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom
OH 8 Replica 03.jpg OH 8[32] 1.8 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania
Paranthropus boisei skull.jpg OH 5
(Zinj or
nutcracker man)
1.8 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1959 Tanzania Mary Leakey
Dmanisi cranium D2700 (B).jpg D2700 (Dmanisi Skull 3) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2001 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze and Abesalom Vekua
Dmanisi skull 4, D3444 D3444 (Dmanisi Skull 4) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2003 Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
Dmanisi skull 5 de Dmanisi D4500 (Dmanisi Skull 5) 1.8 Ma Homo erectus 2005 (published in 2013) Dmanisi, Georgia David Lordkipanidze
KNM ER 62000–62003[33] 1.84±0.06 Ma Homo rudolfensis 2012 Koobi Fora, Kenya Meave Leakey's team
Homo Habilis Oh7.jpg OH 7 1.75 Ma Homo habilis 1960 Tanzania Jonathan Leakey
Homo ergaster.jpg KNM ER 3733 1.75 Ma Homo ergaster[34] (aka Homo erectus) 1975 Kenya Bernard Ngeneo
StW 53 1.75±0.25 Ma[35] Homo gautengensis 1976 Sterkfontein, South Africa A. R. Hughes
Panel 02-SK 847.jpg SK 847[36] 1.75±0.25 Ma Homo habilis 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa
Sterkfontein Caves 66.jpg DNH 7
1.75±0.25 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1994 South Africa André Keyser
KNM ER 1805. Pannel 2.jpg KNM ER 1805 1.74 Ma Homo habilis 1973/4 Kenya Paul Abell
Yuanmou Man 1.7 Ma
or 0.6-0.5 Ma (disputed)[38]
Homo erectus 1965 China Fang Qian
Paranthropus-boisei-Nairobi.JPG KNM ER 406 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1969 Kenya Richard Leakey
Frammenti di cranio di australopithecus boisei e australopithecus robustus - Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano detail KNM-ER 732.jpg KNM ER 732[39] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1970 Kenya Richard Leakey
KNMER 23000-cast.jpg KNM ER 23000[40] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1990 Koobi Fora, Kenya Benson Kyongo
KNM-WT 17400.JPG KNM WT 17400[41][42] 1.7 Ma Paranthropus boisei Not known[43] Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana) Kenya unknown[43] National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi (Kenia)
Turkana Boy.jpg KNM WT 15000
(Turkana Boy)
1.6 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1984 Lake Turkana (West Lake Turkana), Kenya Kamoya Kimeu Kenya National Museum
Sterkfontein Caves 63.jpg SK 46[44] 1.65±0.15 Ma Paranthropus robustus 1949 Swartkrans, South Africa Robert Broom
Replica of the mandible of Peninj, P. boisei Peninj Mandible 1.5 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1964 Tanzania Richard Leakey
OH 9, partial skull OH 9
(Chellean Man)
1.5 Ma Homo erectus 1960 Olduvai, Tanzania Louis Leakey
KNM-ER 992. Replica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid KNM ER 992 1.5 Ma Homo ergaster (aka Homo erectus) 1971 Kenya Richard Leakey
Pithecanthropus modjokertensis Tjokro Handojo.JPG Mojokerto 1
(Mojokerto child)
1.46±0.03 Ma Homo erectus 1936 Indonesia Andojo, G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Fossil KNM-ER 3883.JPG KNM ER 3883 1.5±0.1 Ma Homo erectus 1976 Kenya Richard Leakey
KGA 10-525[46][47] 1.4 Ma Paranthropus boisei 1993 Konso-Gardula, Ethiopia A. Amzaye
The Mandible of Sima del Elefante (Atapuerca) Atapuerca Jawbone[48] 1.2 Ma Homo sp. 2008 Spain Eudald Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
The Kocabas hominin calvaria. Kocabas 1.1 Ma[49] Homo erectus [50] 2002 Turkey M. Cihat Alçiçek
Daka homo erectus calvaria.jpg Daka 1.0 Ma Homo erectus 1997 Ethiopia Henry Gilbert
Sangiran IV (Palate).jpg Sangiran 4 1 Ma Homo erectus 1939 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Homo antecessor.jpg ATD6-15 and ATD6-69

(Niño de la Gran Dolina 342)

0.9 Ma[51] Homo erectus 1994 Spain Bermúdez & Arsuaga Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Calvaria Sangiran II (B).jpg Sangiran 2 1.15±0.45 Ma Homo erectus 1937 Indonesia G.H.R. von Koenigswald
Madam Buya Madam Buya[52] 1.0±0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1997 Eritrea Ernesto Abbate National Museum of Eritrea
1911 Britannica-Anthropology-5.png Trinil 2
Java Man
0.85±0.15 Ma Homo erectus 1891 Indonesia Eugène Dubois
Mandible Ternifine III Ternifine 2-3 now Tighennif[54] 0.7 Ma Homo erectus 1954 Algeria C. Arambourg & B. Hoffstetter
Sangiran 17-02.JPG Sangiran 17[55] 0.7 Ma Homo erectus 1969 Indonesia S. Sartono
Peking Man Skull (replica) presented at Paleozoological Museum of China.jpg Peking Man 0.73±0.05 Ma[56] Homo erectus 1921 China Davidson Black Lost/stolen
Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Bodo[57] 0.6 Ma Homo heidelbergensis or Homo erectus 1976 Ethiopia A. Asfaw
Unterkiefer von Mauer (Replika).JPG Mauer 1
(Heidelberg Man)
0.5 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1907 Germany Daniel Hartmann
Saldanha man-Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Saldanha man[58] 0.5 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1953 South Africa
Boxgrove Man 0.5 Ma[59] Homo heidelbergensis 1994 UK Natural History Museum
Arago XXI Arago 21
(Tautavel Man)
0.45 Ma Homo erectus 1971 France Henry de Lumley
[60] Hexian[61] 0.45±0.5 Ma Homo erectus 1980 China
Ceprano Man[62][63]
0.45±0.5 Ma Homo cepranensis
/Homo heidelbergensis
1994 Ceprano, Italy Italo Biddittu Servizio di antropologia, Soprintendenza ai beni culturali, Regione Lazio, Italy
Gawiscranium.-detallejpg.jpg Gawis cranium 0.35±1.5 Ma Homo erectus/Homo sapiens 2006 Ethiopia Asahmed Humet
Homo heidelbergensis-Cranium -5.jpg Skull 5 (Miguelón) 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1992 Spain Bermúdez, Arsuaga & Carbonell Museo de la Evolución Humana, Burgos (Spain)
Aroeira3.jpg Aroeira 3 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 2014 Portugal Professor João_Zilhão Portuguese paleoanthropologist, Faculty of Geography and History of the University of Barcelona
Rolf Quam, Associate Professor, Biological Anthropologist
Museu Nacional de Arqueologia, Lisbon
Replica Swanscombe Man 0.4 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1935 UK Alvan T Marston
Sale skull.jpg Salé[64][65][66] 0.4 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1971 Morocco A quarry worker
Replica Swanscombe Man[67] 0.4 Ma Homo Neanderthalensis 1935, 1936, 1955 Swanscombe Alvan T Marston, John J Wymer and Adrian Gibson Natural History Museum
Replica made by a 3D printer Ndutu[68] 0.35 Ma Homo rhodesiensis 1973 Tanzania A.A. Mturi
Steinheimer Urmensch Schaedel.jpg Steinheim Skull 0.35 Ma Homo heidelbergensis 1933 Germany
Homo naledi skeletal specimens.jpg Dinaledi Chamber hominins 0.325±0.09 Ma[69] Homo naledi 2013 South Africa Rick Hunter and Steven Tucker University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa)

Middle Paleolithic: 300,000 – 50,000 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Year
Country Discovered by Now located at
Jebel Irhoud 1 Jebel Irhoud 1–5 286±32 ka[70] Homo sapiens 1991 Morocco
Homo erectus palaeohungaricus.JPG Samu 275±25 ka Homo heidelbergensis 1964 Hungary László Vértes
Florisbad-Helmei-Homo heidelbergensis.jpg Florisbad Skull 259±35 ka early Homo sapiens
or Homo heidelbergensis
or Homo helmei
1932 South Africa T. F. Dreyer, G. Venter
IMJ view 20130115 192522.jpg Galilee Man 250±50 ka Homo heidelbergensis 1925 Israel Francis Turville-Petre
Saccopastore 1.JPG
Saccopastore 1 250 ka[71] Homo neanderthalensis 1929 Italy Mario Grazioli
Ngandong 7-Homo erectus.jpg Ngandong 7 250 ka Homo erectus 1931 Indonesia C. ter Haar and G. H. R. von Koenigswald
Bontnewydd (Pontynewydd) 230 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1981 UK
[72] Dali 209±23 ka (disputed)[73][74] Homo erectus
Homo sapiens
1978 China Shuntang Liu
Petralona 1 Petralona 1 200±40 ka[75] Homo heidelbergensis (uncertain) 1960 Greece
Misliya-1 187±13 ka[76] Homo sapiens 2002 Israel Israel Hershkovitz
Omo remains 195±5 ka[77] Homo sapiens 1967 Ethiopia Richard Leakey
Fossil of Mandible of Penghu 1.JPG Penghu 1 160±30 ka or 40±30 ka[78] Homo tsaichangensis[79][80][81] c. 2008 Taiwan National Museum of Natural Science
Herto's skull Herto remains[82] 160 ka Homo sapiens 1997 Ethiopia Tim White
[83] Altamura Man 151±21 ka[84] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Italy in situ
[85] LH 18 120±30 ka Homo sapiens 1976 Ngaloba beds at Laetoli, Tanzania Mary Leakey[86]
Tabun C1. Low resolution Tabun C1[87] 120 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1967 Israel Arthur Jelinek
Denisova 8 110 ka[88][89] Homo sp. Altai 2010 Russia
Krapina 3.jpg Krapina 3[90] 113.5±13.5 ka[91] Homo neanderthalensis 1899 Croatia Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
Rhodesian Man.jpg Broken Hill 1
(Kabwe 1, Rhodesian Man)
c. 110 ka(?) Homo rhodesiensis (Homo heidelbergensis) 1921 Zambia Tom Zwiglaar
Panel1-Qafezh 6 01-01-1980 0-39-18 327x239.jpg Qafzeh 6[92] 95±5 ka[91] Homo sapiens 1930 Israel R. Neuville M Stekelis
Qafzeh.JPG Qafzeh 9 100-90 ka[91] Homo sapiens[93] 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Scladina 103±23 ka[91] Homo neanderthalensis 1993 Belgium
Skhul.JPG Skhul 5 100±20 ka Homo sapiens 1933 Israel T. McCown and H. Moivus, Jr.
Skhul 9 100±20 ka Homo sapiens Israel
[94] Klasies River Caves 100±25 ka Homo sapiens 1960 South Africa Ray Inskeep, Robin Singer, John Wymer, Hilary Deacon
Eve Footprints replica.jpg Eve's footprints 117 ka Homo sapiens 1995 South Africa David Roberts & Lee R. Berger
[95] Denny[96][97] 90 ka Hybrid – (Homo neanderthalensis/Homo sapiens denisova) 2012 Denisova Cave / Siberia / Russia Viviane Slon & Svante Pääbo Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany)
Obi-Rakhmat 1[98] 75 ka[91] Homo neanderthalensis 2003 Uzbekistan
Teshik-Task. Homo neanderthalensis child.jpg Teshik-Tash Skull[99] 70 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1938 Uzbekistan A. Okladnikov
Ferrassie skull.jpg La Ferrassie 1 70 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France R. Capitan and D. Peyrony
Shanidar skull.jpg Shanidar 1 70±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Iraq Ralph Solecki
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis.jpg La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 60 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1908 France A. and J. Bouyssonie and L. Bardon
Neanderthal-burial.gif Kebara 2 (Moshe)[100] 60 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1983 Israel Lynne Schepartz
[101] Amud 7 55±5 ka Homo neanderthalensis Israel
LB 1 skeleton LB 1 (Hobbit) 55±5 ka Homo floresiensis 2003 Liang Bua, Indonesia Peter Brown
Manot 1 55 ka Homo sapiens 2008 Israel [102]
La Quina. H 5. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg La Quina 5[citation needed] 52.5±7.5 ka[91] Homo neanderthalensis France
La Quina 18. Homo neanderthalensis child.jpg La Quina 18[citation needed] 52.5±7.5 ka[91] Homo neanderthalensis France
TPL2 mandible Tam Pa Ling Cave[103] 54.5±8.5 ka[103][104] Homo sapiens 2009 Laos

Upper Paleolithic: 50,000 – 11,500 years old[edit]

Name Age Species Date
Country Discovered by Now located at
Mungo Man.jpg Mungo Man 50±10 ka Homo sapiens 1974 Australia
Mt. Circeo 1 Mt. Circeo 1[105] 50±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1939 Italy Prof. Blanc
SID-00B 49.2±2.5 ka[106] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Kents Cavern 4 maxilla 43.5±2.5 ka Homo sapiens 1927 UK
Amud 1. Homo neanderthalensis.jpg Amud 1[107] 41 ka[108] Homo neanderthalensis 1961 Israel Hisashi Suzuki
Neanderthal 1 Neanderthal 1[109] 40 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1856 Germany Johann Carl Fuhlrott
Denisova phalanx distalis Denisova hominin (X-Woman) 40 ka Homo sp. Altai 2008 Russia Johannes Krause, et al.
Denisova toe bone. hominin toe bone 40 ka Homo sp. Altai (possible Neanderthal-Denisovan hybrid) 2010 Russia
Oase 2 Oase 1 42-37 ka[110] Homo sapiens (EEMH x Neanderthal hybrid) 2002 Romania
Kostenki-14 (Markina Gora) 40-37 ka[111] Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1954 Russia
SID-20[112] 37.30±0.83 ka[106] Homo neanderthalensis 1994 Sidrón Cave, Spain
Balangoda man 37 ka Homo sapiens 2012 Sri Lanka
Hofmeyr Skull.jpg Hofmeyr Skull 36 ka Homo sapiens 1952 South Africa
Wadjak 1, aka Java Man. Wadjak 1[113] 33±4.5 ka[114] Homo sapiens (proto-Australoid[115]) 1888 Indonesia
Red Lady of Paviland 33 ka Homo sapiens 1823 UK William Buckland
Yamashita-Cho Man 32 ka Homo sapiens 1962 Japan
Engis 2 Engis 2 40±10 ka[91][116] Homo neanderthalensis 1829 Belgium Philippe-Charles Schmerling
Gibraltar 1 Gibraltar 1 40±10 ka[91] Homo neanderthalensis 1848 Gibraltar Captain Edmund Flint
Le Moustier 1 Le Moustier 40±10 ka Homo neanderthalensis 1909 France
Denisova molar Denisovan tooth 40±10 ka Homo sp. Altai 2000 Russia
Cro-Magnon 1 Cro-Magnon 1 30 ka Homo sapiens (EEMH) 1868 France Louis Lartet
WLH-50 29±5 ka Homo sapiens 1982 Australia
Replica of Predmosti 3 Predmost 3[117] 26 ka Homo sapiens 1894 Czech Republic K.J. Maska
[118] Lapedo Child 24.5 ka Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens 1998 Portugal João Zilhão
[118] Eel Point 24 ka Homo sapiens 1997
MA-1 (Mal'ta boy) 24 ka Homo sapiens (ANE) 1920s
Minatogawa 1. Replica at the Museum of Tokyo[119] Minatogawa 1 17±1 ka Homo sapiens 1970 Japan Anthropology Museum, Tokyo University
Tandou[120][121] 17 ka Homo sapiens 1967 Australia Duncan Merrilees
Skull of Gough's Cave.jpg Gough's Cave[122][123] 14.7 ka Homo sapiens 2010 UK
Iwo Eleru Skull 13 ka[124] Homo sapiens 1965 Nigeria
"Kotias"[125] 13 ka Homo sapiens (CHG) Kotias Klde cave, Georgia
Arlington Springs Man 13 ka[126] Homo sapiens 1959 United States Phil Orr
Moulage de crâne, Raymonden, Chancelade, Dordogne.jpg Chancelade find 14.5±2.5 ka[127] Homo sapiens 1888 France
Villabruna 1 14 ka Homo sapiens (WHG) 1988 Italy
Bichon man 13.7 ka Homo sapiens (WHG) 1956 Switzerland
Red Deer cave skull
Red Deer Cave 13±1.5 ka Uncertain, possibly Homo sapiens 1979 China Darren Curnoe?

Holocene (11,500 – 5,000 years old)[edit]

Name Age Culture /
Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1-Homo Sapiens 11,500 Years Old.jpg Luzia 11.5 ka[128] Paleo-Indian 1975 Brazil
[129] Cerro Sota 2[130] 11 ka 1936 Chile
"Satsurblia" 10 ka Caucasian Epipaleolithic (CHG)[125] Georgia
Kow Swamp1-Homo sapiens.jpg Kow Swamp 1 13–9 ka 1968 Australia
Talgai Skull Talgai Skull[131] 10±1 ka 1886 Australia
La Brea woman.jpg La Brea Woman 10 ka Paleo-Indian 1914 United States
Homo sapiens Combe Capelle.jpg Combe Capelle 9.6 ka (7600 BC)[132] European Mesolithic 1909 France
Cheddar Man scull.jpg Cheddar Man 9 ka (7000 BC) British Mesolithic 1903 UK
Tepexpan 1.Homo Sapiens 4,700 Years Old.jpg Tepexpan man 8±3 ka Paleo-Indian 1947 Mexico
Loschbur-Mann IMG 4779.jpg Loschbour man[133] 8 ka (6000 BC) European Mesolithic (WHG) 1935 Luxembourg
Mnwomanskull.jpg Minnesota Woman 7.9±0.1 ka Paleo-Indian 1931 Minnesota, United States
Lothagam 4b (Lo 4b)[134] 7.5±1.5 ka[135] 1965-1975 Kenya
Otzi-Quinson.jpg Ötzi 5.3 ka (3300 BC) European Neolithic 1991 Ötztal Alps, Italy

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Gibbons, Ann. The First Human: The Race to Discover our Earliest Ancestor. Anchor Books (2007). ISBN 978-1-4000-7696-3
  • Hartwig, Walter Carl (2002-04-11). Hartwig, Walter, ed. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press (2002). Reprinted 2004. ISBN 978-0-521-08141-2.
  • Johanson, Donald & Wong, Kate. Lucy's Legacy: The Quest for Human Origins. Three Rivers Press (2009). ISBN 978-0-307-39640-2
  • Jones, Steve; Martin, Robert D.; Pilbeam, David R (Editors). (1994). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human evolution. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5 (Note: this book contains very useful, information dense chapters on primate evolution in general, and human evolution in particular, including fossil history).
  • Leakey, Richard & Lewin, Roger. Origins Reconsidered: In Search of What Makes us Human. Little, Brown and Company (1992). ISBN 0-316-90298-5
  • Lewin, Roger. Bones of Contention: Controversies in the Search for Human Origins. Penguin Books (1987). ISBN 0-14-022638-9
  • Morwood, Mike & van Oosterzee, Penny. A New Human: The Startling Discovery and Strange Story of the 'Hobbits' of Flores, Indonesia. Smithsonian Books (2007). ISBN 978-0-06-089908-0
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen. Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World. Constable (2003). ISBN 1-84119-697-5
  • Roberts, Alice. The Incredible Human Journey: The Story of how we Colonised the Planet. Bloomsbury (2009). ISBN 978-0-7475-9839-8
  • Shreeve, James. The Neanderthal Enigma: Solving the Mystery of Modern Human Origins. Viking (1996). ISBN 0-670-86638-5
  • Stringer, Chris. The Origin of Our Species. Allen Lane (2011). ISBN 978-1-84614-140-9
  • Stringer, Chris & Andrews, Peter. The Complete World of Human Evolution. Thames & Hudson (2005). ISBN 0-500-05132-1
  • Stringer, Chris & McKie, Robin. African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity. Jonathan Cape (1996). ISBN 0-224-03771-4
  • van Oosterzee, Penny. The Story of Peking Man. Allen & Unwin (1999). ISBN 1-86508-632-0
  • Walker, Allan & Shipman, Pat. The Wisdom of the Bones: In Search of Human Origins. Weidenfeld & Nicolson (1996). ISBN 0-297-81670-5
  • Wade, Nicholas. Before the Dawn: Recovering the Lost History of our Ancestors. Penguin Press (2006). ISBN 978-0-7156-3658-9
  • Weiss, M.L., & Mann, A.E. (1985). 'Human Biology and Behaviour: An anthropological perspective (4th ed.). Boston: Little Brown. ISBN 978-0-673-39013-4 (Note: this book contains very accessible descriptions of human and non-human primates, their evolution, and fossil history).
  • Wells, Spencer (2004). The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. New York, NY: Random House Trade Paperbacks. ISBN 978-0-8129-7146-0.


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