List of match fixing incidents

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Match fixing is when the outcome of a match in organized sports has been manipulated. The reason for fixing a match includes ensuring a certain team advances or gambling. Match fixing is seen as one of the biggest problems in organized sports. This page is a list of match fixing incidents.

American football[edit]

  • In 1998, four Northwestern University football players were indicted for lying to a federal grand jury when they testified they had not placed wagers on their own games in 1994. Only one player—tailback Dennis Lundy—was accused of fixing the game. Lundy denied in front of the grand jury to intentionally fumbling on a play during a game against the University of Iowa in 1994. Federal prosecutors attested the fumble was intentional for the purposes of point-shaving.[1]
  • 2009: On May 6, a federal grand jury in Detroit indicted six former University of Toledo athletes—three each from the school's football and basketball programs—on charges of conspiracy to commit sports bribery in relation to their alleged involvement in a point shaving scheme that ran from 2003 through 2006. It is believed to be the first major U.S. gambling case involving two sports at the same college.[2] Since then, four former Toledo athletes, including at least one not named in the original indictments, have pleaded guilty on charges related to the scheme. One of these, former Rockets running back Quinton Broussard, admitted he had deliberately fumbled during the 2005 GMAC Bowl against UTEP (a game ultimately won 45–13 by Toledo) in exchange for $500, and had been paid to provide confidential team information to one of the orchestrators of the scheme.[3]

Association football[edit]

  • In 1964, the great British football betting scandal of the 1960s was uncovered. A betting ring organized by Jimmy Gauld and involving several Football League players had been fixing matches. The most famous incident involved three Sheffield Wednesday players, including two England international players, who were subsequently banned from football for life and imprisoned after it was discovered they had bet against their team winning in a match against Ipswich Town. A similar scandal had occurred in 1915.
  • 1980 Italian football scandal ("Totonero"): In May 1980, the largest match fixing scandal in the history of Italian football was uncovered by Italian Guardia di Finanza, after the spalling of two Roman shopkeepers, Alvaro Trinca and Massimo Cruciani, who declared that some Italian football players sold the football-matches for money; implicating, among others, AC Milan and Lazio. Teams were suspected of rigging games by selecting favorable referees, and even superstar Italian World Cup team goalkeeper Enrico Albertosi and future 1982 FIFA World Cup winner Paolo Rossi banned with betting on football games.[4] Both clubs were forcibly relegated to Serie B and Milan's president, Felice Colombo, received a life ban.[5]
  • In February 1999 a Malaysian-based betting syndicate was caught attempting to install a remote-control device to sabotage the floodlights at FA Premier League team Charlton Athletic's ground with the aid of a corrupt security officer. If the match had been abandoned after half-time, then the result and bets would have stood. Subsequent investigations showed that the gang had been responsible for previously unsuspected "floodlight failures" at West Ham's ground in November 1997, and again a month later at Crystal Palace's ground during a home match of Palace's groundsharing tenant Wimbledon.[6][7]
  • The Italian Football Federation said in October 2000 it had found eight players guilty of match-fixing. Three were from Serie A side Atalanta and the other five played for Serie B side Pistoiese. The players were Giacomo Banchelli, Cristiano Doni and Sebastiano Siviglia (all Atalanta) and Alfredo Aglietti, Massimiliano Allegri, Daniele Amerini, Gianluca Lillo and Girolamo Bizzarri (all Pistoiese). The charges related to an Italian Cup first round tie between the two sides in Bergamo on August 20, 2000 which ended 1–1. Atalanta scored at the end of the first half and Pistoiese equalised three minutes from full-time. Atalanta qualified for the second round. Snai, which organises betting on Italian football, said later it had registered suspiciously heavy betting on the result and many of the bets were for a 1–0 halftime score and a full-time score of 1–1.
  • In 2004, Portuguese Police launched the operation Apito Dourado and named several Portuguese club presidents and football personalities as suspects of match fixing, including FC Porto's chairman Pinto da Costa. Some of the wiretaps used as proof, deemed unusable in court, can now be found on YouTube.[8][9]
  • In June 2004 in South Africa, thirty-three people (including nineteen referees, club officials, a match commissioner and an official of the South African Football Association) were arrested on match-fixing charges.[10]
  • In the summer of 2004, Betfair provided evidence of race fixing to City of London Police that led to the arrest of jockey Kieren Fallon and fifteen others on race fixing charges. On 7 December 2007 the judge in the case ordered the jury to find Fallon not guilty on all charges.
  • 2005 Bundesliga scandal: In January 2005, the German Football Association (DFB) and German prosecutors launched separate probes into charges that referee Robert Hoyzer bet on and fixed several matches that he worked, including a German Cup tie. Hoyzer later admitted to the allegations; it has been reported that he was involved with Croat gambling syndicates. He also implicated other referees and players in the match fixing scheme. The first arrests in the Hoyzer investigation were made on January 28 in Berlin, and Hoyzer himself was arrested on February 12 after new evidence apparently emerged to suggest that he had been involved in fixing more matches than he had admitted to. Hoyzer has been banned for life from football by the DFB. On March 10, a second referee, Dominik Marks, was arrested after being implicated in the scheme by Hoyzer. Still later (March 24), it was reported that Hoyzer had told investigators that the gambling ring he was involved with had access to UEFA's referee assignments for international matches and Champions League and UEFA Cup fixtures several days before UEFA publicly announced them. Ultimately, Hoyzer was sentenced to serve 2 years and 5 months in prison.
  • In July 2005, Italian Serie B champions Genoa was placed last in the division by the sporting justice, and therefore condemned to relegation in Serie C1, after it was revealed that they bribed their opponents in the final match of the season, Venezia to throw the match. His president Enrico Preziozi was banned for five years after being guilty by the sporting justice. Genoa won the match 3–2 and had apparently secured promotion to Serie A.
  • Brazilian football match-fixing scandal: In September 2005, a Brazilian magazine revealed that two football referees, Edílson Pereira de Carvalho (a member of FIFA's referee staff) and Paulo José Danelon, had accepted bribes to fix matches. Soon afterwards, sport authorities ordered the replaying of 11 matches in the country's top competition, the Campeonato Brasileiro, that had been worked by Edílson. Both referees have been banned for life from football and face possible criminal charges. Brazilian supporters have taken to shout "Edílson" at a referee who they consider to have made a bad call against their team, in a reference to the scandal.
  • 2008 The Fix: Book by Declan Hill alleges that in the 2006 World Cup, the group game between Ghana and Italy, the round-of-16 game between Ghana and Brazil, and the Italy-Ukraine quarter-final were all fixed by Asian gambling syndicates to whom the final scores were known in advance.[11] The German Football Federation (DFB) and German Football League (DFL) looked into claims made in a Der Spiegel[12] interview with Hill that two Bundesliga matches were fixed by William Bee Wah Lim a fugitive with a 2004 conviction for match-fixing.[13]
  • 2008: On October 1, it was reported that a Spanish judge who headed an investigation against Russian Mafia figures uncovered information alleging that the mobsters may have attempted to fix the 2007–08 UEFA Cup semi-final between eventual champion Zenit St. Petersburg and Bayern Munich. Both clubs denied any knowledge of the alleged scheme.[14] Prosecutors in the German state of Bavaria, home to Bayern, later announced that they did not have enough evidence to justify a full investigation.[15]
  • 2008: On October 4, suspicious online betting on the game between Norwich City and Derby County led some to question the validity of the Football League match. Gamblers in Asia were said to have placed a large amount of money down during halftime, which raised concerns over the outcome.[16] The inquiry by The Football Association found no evidence that would suggest the match was fixed.[17] Derby County ended up winning the match 2–1.
  • In November 2009, German police arrested 17 people on suspicion of fixing at least 200 soccer matches in 9 countries.[18] Among the suspected games were those from the top leagues of Austria, Bosnia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovenia, and Turkey, and games from the second highest leagues of Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland. Three contests from the Champions League were under investigation, and 12 from the Europa League.
  • In June 2011, trials started for people allegedly involved in fixing Finnish football matches. One team, Tampere United was indefinitely suspended from Finnish football for accepting payments from a person known for match-fixing.[19]
  • In July 2011, As part of a major match-fixing investigation by authorities in Turkey, nearly 60 people suspected to be involved with fixing games were detained by İstanbul Police Department Organized Crime Control Bureau and then arrested by the court. The case did not come to a conclusion yet and the teams that are being accused of match-fixing are participating in the Turkish league currently.[20]
  • The Match fixing investigations of Norwegian Second Division saw Norway and Sweden arresting individuals in 2012, including players of Follo FK and Asker Fotball.[21][22]
  • Operation VETO, a Europol investigation announced in 2013 that identified 380 fixed association football matches in 15 countries.[23]
  • In 2013 Lebanese match fixing scandal 22 Lebanese footballers were involved which led to a lifetime ban for Ramez Dayoub.
  • In December 2013, six people in Britain, including Blackburn forward DJ Campbell, were arrested for allegedly fixing football games. The arrests were made by the National Crime Agency after release of a report from FederBet, a Brussels-based gambling watchdog, an organization created by the online bookmakers to watch the flow of bets across Europe.[24][25]

Australian football[edit]

Badminton[edit]

Baseball[edit]

  • A game in September 1865 which resulted in a 23–11 victory for the Eckford of Brooklyn over the New York Mutuals was fixed according to confessions by those involved. Mutuals catcher Bill Wansley was approached by gambler Kane McLoughlin to throw the game for $100. Wansley enlisted the help of the Mutuals third baseman Ed Duffy who agreed to participate if they included shortstop Tom Devyr. Wansley took the two players by wagon to the Hoboken Ferry where the payment was divided. Duffy and Devyr both received $30 each and Wansley kept $40 for himself. The fielding of those in on the fix—particularly Wansley's performance—was so poor that rumors of a fix began almost instantly. Wansley had so many passed balls during the game that he was moved to right field in the seventh inning. Henry Chadwick wrote about the game for the New York Clipper and defended Wansley against the fixing allegations. Mutuals players who were not in on the fix became suspicious of Wansley and accused him of "wilful and designated inattention". After a formal investigation, Wansley admitted to the fix and the three players were banned from organized baseball. Devyr was allowed to return in 1867 for a short time before two complaints from opposing teams were filed against the Mutuals. In December 1867 the baseball's National Commission voted to reinstate Devyr. Duffy returned to the Mutuals in 1868, but was not reinstated by the National Commission, which led to one of the Mutuals opponents to file a complaint to void the games Duffy appeared in. The complaint was successful and the Mutuals were briefly expelled from organized baseball. The final convention of the amateur baseball National Commission was held on November 30, 1870. At the convention, Mutuals president John Wildly motioned to reinstate Wansley to good standing which was approved.[31]
  • On July 24, 1873 umpire Bob Ferguson declared a game between Baltimore Canaries and the New York Mutuals fixed by gamblers. Ferguson went into the stands to confront the gamblers following the game and then went back down to the field to confront players he believed were in on the fix. Two of the Mutuals players—John Hatfield and Nat Hicks—began accusing each other of being in on the fix. Hicks eventually grabbed a baseball bat and struck Ferguson in the arm which caused it to break. Ferguson, who was also a player as well as an umpire, was unable to play for one year because of the injury. No actions were taken against Hicks or any other player.[32]
  • In 1877, four players for the Louisville Grays were banned from organized baseball for throwing games. Louisville Courier-Journal sports writer John Haldeman, whose father Walter Haldeman owned the team, became suspicious of the play of the four members of the Grays and began writing in his columns that he believed the players were purposefully losing. His columns led to a formal investigation and four players—Jim Devlin, George Hall, Al Nichols and Bill Craver—were banned from organized professional baseball for life. Carver's involvement in the plot is debated by baseball historians including Bob Bailey for the Society of American Baseball Research.[33]
  • In 1882, due to his associations with gamblers, National League umpire Dick Higham was banned from organized baseball for life.[34] The information was uncovered by private investigators hired by owners of the Detroit Wolverines, who suspected Higham of fixing games.[35]
  • In 1908, National League umpires Jim Johnstone and Bill Klem reported to the league office that they were approached before a make-up game between the Chicago Cubs and the New York Giants and offered money to fix the game. The make-up game was on account of a baserunning mistake by Fred Merkle known as "Merkle's Boner".[36]
  • An American League game on September 25, 1919 between the Detroit Tigers and Cleveland Indians was fixed according to letters ascertained by league president Ban Johnson in 1926. The letters were between Detroit outfielder Ty Cobb and Cleveland outfielder Smokey Joe Wood. They were sold to Johnson by pitcher Dutch Leonard who was one of the four players in on the fix along with Cobb, Wood and Cleveland player-manager Tris Speaker. According to Leonard, Cobb suggested the players place bets on the game which they had already agreed to fix. Cobb denied placing any bets, but did confess to being involved in the fix. According to a retrospective of events by the Chicago Tribune in 1989, Leonard went to Johnson with the letters in 1926 after he became embittered at Cobb and Wood whom he felt had a hand in ending his career early. Johnson initially turned Leonard away and he went to Detroit owner Frank Navin with the letters. Navin advised Johnson to make a payment to Leonard to keep the letters from going public. Johnson then agreed to pay Leonard $20,000 for the letters. Following the 1926 season, Johnson called a secret meeting with Cobb and Speaker, who were the managers of their respective teams. Johnson laid out the facts and advised the men to resign their positions as managers, which both did. Cobb and Speaker both retired from playing in 1928 and neither took another managerial job.[37] The Associated Press broke the story on December 21, 1926.[38]
  • In 1919, gamblers bribed several members of the Chicago White Sox to throw the World Series. This became known as the Black Sox Scandal and was recounted in book and movie form as Eight Men Out.
  • Following the 1919 Pacific Coast League (PCL) season, first baseman Babe Borton alleged that as a member of the pennant winning Vernon Tigers, he was party to pay-offs to all other PCL teams to ensure they would lose to Vernon. Borton alleged that every member of the Tigers pooled their money to make the pay-offs. Nate Raymond of Seattle, Washington was responsible for the payments according to Borton. Seattle Indians first baseman Rod Murphy alleged that Raymond offered him a $2,000 bribe during the 1920 season and confided that during the 1919 season he won $50,000 from gambling on fixed PCL games. Ultimately no player was charged with fixing games because there were no state statutes that were violated. The PCL banned several players for life, but some like Bill Rumler was reinstated after several years.[39]
  • On September 27, 1924, before a game between the New York Giants and the Philadelphia Phillies, Giants backup outfielder Jimmy O'Connell approached Phillies shortstop Heinie Sand with a $500 bribe for to throw the game. If the Giants beat the Phillies it would have clinched them the National League pennant and a trip to the World Series. Sand rejected the offer and reported the incident which made its way up to the Commissioner of Baseball Kenesaw Mountain Landis. O'Connell confessed that he did attempt to bribe Sand, but contended Giants coach Cozy Dolan had put him up to it. Landis suspended O'Connell and Dolan from organized baseball for life.[40]
  • On June 5, 1947, National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues president George Trautman banned Western Association outfielder Marion McElreath for attempting to bribe an opposing player to fix a game on May 4. 1947.[41]
  • In 1947, a report by National Commission president William G. Bramham found that five players in the Evangeline League, a minor league based in Louisiana, fixed several playoff games in 1946 for gambling purposes. For their role in the alleged plot, the five players—Bill Thomas, Lanny Pecou, Alvin W. Kaiser, Paul Fugit and Don Vettorel—were banned from professional baseball for life. An investigation of the alleged actions of the five players by Society for American Baseball Research writer George W. Hilton found little proof that there was any match-fixing. One of the accused players, Bill Thomas, pitched a perfect 5–0 record in the playoffs. Hilton conducted an interview with an unnamed player in the Evangeline League who claimed he was approached to be a part of the fixing scheme, but declined. The unnamed player contended that the plot failed, which was highlighted by one instance where a player who was in on the fix tried to strike out but made contact with the ball for a double.[42]
  • Between 1969 and 1971, a series of events known as The Black Mist Scandal rocked Nippon Professional Baseball (NPB) in Japan. It was revealed that several NPB players had been paid off to fix games for gamblers. Ten players were banned from the NPB for life with several other players receiving penalties ranging from salary cuts to suspensions.
  • In 1978, outfielder Bárbaro Garbey was banned from Cuban baseball for his part in match-fixing. He defected from Cuba to the United States in 1980 and later that year signed a contract with the Detroit Tigers to join their minor league organization. The match-fixing incidents were revealed for the first time in the American press on May 22, 1983 by the Miami Herald. In an interview with Garbey, Herald writer Peter Richmond brought up match-fixing allegations and Garbey admitted to playing a part in the scheme. Garbey was allowed to continue his minor league career, but the Tigers were prevented from calling him up by ruling of the National Commission president John H. Johnson. The ruling was lifted in 1984 and the Tigers called Garbey up from the minors.[43][44] Garbey later returned to Cuba and became a manager.[45]
  • In 1982, the ten members of the Cuban national baseball team who participated in that year's Central American and Caribbean Games were arrested and sentenced to between two and four years in prison for fixing games.[46]
  • In 1997, 22 players in the Chinese Professional Baseball League were sentenced to between seven and 30 months in prison for match-fixing.[47] So many of the members of China Times Eagles were involved in the plot that the team fielded mostly rookies in that season's championship series.[48]
  • In 2005, Yunlin County, Taiwan prosecutor Wei-yu Hsu announced indictments of 16 baseball players, book makers and others involved in fixing professional baseball games. Five of the 16 people were players in the Chinese Professional Baseball League and one of them was a coach. Hsu named Macoto Cobras coach Sheng-fong Tsai and La New Bears catcher Chao-ying Chen as being the orchestrators of the fixings. One of the instances included in the indictment was evidence that La New Bears pitcher Long-shui Tai was paid by Chen to throw a game on July 14, 2005. Chen confessed to investigators that he accepted a payment of NT$600,000 to throw the game.[49]
  • In 2008, three players were suspended indefinitely from the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL) for match-fixing. Prosecutors said evidence of the fixing came to light after police detained six members of dmedia T-REX and four people identified as bookmakers. T-Rex executive director Shih Chien-hsin confessed to police that hatched the plan with people identified as "gangsters" by the Taipei Times. The three players banned from the CBPL were catcher Chen Ker-fan, center fielder Chen Yuan-chia and pitcher Cory Bailey. Chen Ker-fan and Chen Yuan-chia, who were both from Taiwan, were arrested and released on NT$50,000 in bail each. Bailey, who is an American national and previously played in Major League Baseball, was arrested and released on a NT$100,000 bond.[50] In 2008, Taiwan's Criminal Investigation Bureau looked into a total of 102 illegal betting allegations in the CPBL, which involved a total of 222 suspects.[51]
  • In 2009, another match-fixing scandal hit the Chinese Professional Baseball League (CPBL). Following the season, allegations arose that the Brother Elephants—one of Taiwan's most popular baseball clubs—had accepted money to lose during that year's Taiwan Series against the Uni-President 7-11 Lions.[52] By the end of a prosecutor's investigation, 23 Elephants players had been named as being in on the fix, including pitcher Chin-hui Tsao, who was the first Taiwanese pitcher to play in Major League Baseball.[51][52] Tsao denies having any involvement with match-fixings.[52] In 2009, President of the Republic of China Ying-jeou Ma convinced a meeting to address the systemic match fixing problems in the CPBL. Penalties for match-fixing were re-written to mirror the laws governing lotteries, which called for up to 10 years in prison for fraud.[51]
  • During the 2012 and 2013 Major League Baseball seasons, allegations were made by gamber Kris Barr that he was in on fixing Pittsburgh Pirates games with pitcher Jeff Locke. After an investigation, it was found that Barr had no contact with Locke relating to fixing games. Instead, Barr felt slighted by Locke—whom he knew from youth baseball—and created an elaborate story to damage his reputation. The Center for Investigative Reporting and Sports Illustrated released the details of the events on August 18, 2014 which included reporting on the aggressive tactics of the MLB investigators led by retired New York Police Department officer Rick Burnham. Locke recalled that the MLB investigators told him that they had proof that he was in on fixing games and pressured him to confess, in spite of his pleas of innocence and the fact the investigators presented no proof.[53]
  • In 2016, South Korean police released information about an alleged match-fixing scheme in the Korea Baseball Organization (KBO) dating back to 2014 that involved 21 people—three of whom played in the KBO. Pitchers Chang-sik Yoo and Sung-min Lee were named by police in the probe and one player was identified only by his surname 'Kim'.[54][55]

Basketball[edit]

Boxing[edit]

Heavyweight boxer Arthur Pelkey alleged his manager Tommy Burns (pictured) arranged a fixed fight on March 26, 1913.
  • In September 1913, heavyweight boxer Arthur Pelkey, who was the reigning World White Heavyweight Champion, submitted a signed letter to Roscoe Fawcett, sports editor of The Oregonian, which stated that he was involved in a fixed match on March 26, 1913 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada under the direction of his manager Tommy Burns. Pelkey further alleged that Burns made the heavyweight sign over fifty percent of his earnings when he was in police custody awaiting a determination by the coroner if he was responsible for the in-ring death of his opponent Luther McCarty on May 24, 1913. McCarty's death was eventually ruled unrelated to that match and Pelkey continued his boxing career with Burns as his manager.[67]
  • On September 22, 1922 at the Vélodrome Buffalo in Paris, France, the reigning World Light Heavyweight Champion Georges Carpentier took on Battling Siki in what was supposed to be a fixed fight, according to Siki. During the fight, Carpentier went back on a previous arrangement to not hurt Siki, although it is debated by Smithsonian.com writer Gilbert King whether or not Carpentier was in on the fix or if it was arranged by someone from his corner without his knowledge. Siki then decided to fight Carpenter without letting up, but was eventually disqualified in a controversial decision by referee M. Henri Bernstein. Later the decision was reversed and Siki was crowned the World Light Heavyweight Champion.[68]
  • In 1954, it was reported by Sports Illustrated that welterweight boxer Vince Martinez was offered $20,000 to lose to Carmine Fiore in a televised match on October 29 at Madison Square Garden in New York City, New York. Martinez ended up winning the bout and was escorted to New Jersey for his safety by members of District Attorney Frank Hogan's staff in a prearranged deal for information on the people who tried to fix the match.[69]
  • In 1955, California Governor Goodwin J. Knight created an investigative committee to look into allegations of match fixing in boxing. The following year, the committee convened a hearing where it was revealed they had evidence that boxing promoter Babe McCoy had fixed seven fights dating back to 1950.[70]
  • In 1993, Sports Illustrated reported that several fights arranged by boxing promoter Rick "Elvis" Parker were fixed according to boxer Sonny Barch, who claimed he was approached by Parker and told to lose the fight against Randall "Tex" Cobb scheduled on September 15, 1993. Cobb knocked out Barch in the first-round. Barch also claimed to have knowledge of another fix which occurred on the same card as his fight between football player turned boxer Mark Gastineau and Rick Hoard. In that match, Gastineau won by a technical knockout in the first round.[71] Cobb denied the claims and sued Sports Illustrated for libel. He was awarded $10.7 million by a federal jury in 1999.[72] The verdict was reversed on appeal on January 31, 2002.[73]
  • At the 2012 Summer Olympics, a match result was overturned and the referee was expelled from the tournament after a very controversial decision which included a boxer winning the match despite having been knocked down five times in one round, in violation of amateur boxing regulations. Under AIBA rules, both the mandatory eight count and three knockdown rule are in effect.[74] Eleven months earlier, BBC reported on a possible bribery attempt, which could be related.[75]
  • During the 2016 Summer Olympics, Sports Illustrated reported that several boxing judges and referees were dismissed by the International Boxing Association due to suspect decisions.[76]

Cricket[edit]

Indian cricketer S. Sreesanth received a lifetime ban in 2013 for his part a match-fixing scheme.
  • In 1979, Somerset deliberately declared their innings in their Benson & Hedges Cup one-day match against Worcestershire closed after only one over was completed. This plan was not motivated by gambling, but was instead meant to manipulate tie-breaking rules for Somerset's benefit and assure qualification for the quarterfinals of the tournament. Although the plan was not against the letter of the rules, it was widely condemned by both media and cricket officials, and Somerset was expelled from that year's tournament in response. For more details, see Worcestershire v Somerset, 1979.
  • In 2000 the Delhi police intercepted a conversation between a blacklisted bookie and the South African cricket captain Hansie Cronje in which they learnt that Cronje accepted money to throw matches. The South African government refused to allow any of its players to face the Indian investigation unit, which opened up a can of worms. A court of inquiry was set up and Cronje admitted to throwing matches. He was immediately banned from all cricket. He also named Saleem Malik (Pakistan), Mohammed Azharuddin and Ajay Jadeja (India). Jadeja was banned for 4 years. They too were banned from all cricket. As a kingpin, Cronje exposed the dark side of betting, however with his untimely death in 2002 most of his sources also have escaped law enforcement agencies. Two South African cricketers, Herschelle Gibbs and Nicky Boje, are also wanted by the Delhi police for their role in the match fixing saga. A few years before in 1998, Australian players Mark Waugh and Shane Warne were fined for revealing information about the 'weather' to a bookmaker.
  • The fourth Test of Pakistan's summer 2010 cricket tour of England was alleged to have contained several incidents of spot fixing, involving members of the Pakistan team deliberately bowling no-balls at specific points to facilitate the potential defrauding of bookmakers.[77]
  • In Indian Premier League in 2013, S. Sreesanth and 2 other players were banned for fixing in the match for incidents committed during bowling.[78]
  • In the 2012 Champions League T20 in South Africa, New Zealand cricketer Lou Vincent was reported to have fixed matches for Auckland Aces in the qualifiers against English side Hampshire Cricket Club, and again in the main stage against reigning Indian champions Kolkata Knight Riders.

Esports[edit]

Esports player Ma Jae-Yoon was implicated in a 2010 Starcraft match-fixing scandal
  • In 2010, several professional Starcraft players were suspected of being involved in illegal match fixing, with two people arrested and about seven gamers investigated, with two renowned gamers, Ma Jae-Yoon and By.CrocuS were confirmed as working as a broker between the bettors and the gamers.[79]
  • In January 2015, 6 Counter-Strike: Global Offensive players and a team owner were banned due to the IBuyPower and NetcodeGuides match fixing scandal.[80][81]
  • In June 2013, a Dota 2 pro player Alexey "Solo" Berezin was caught match fixing during a match against ZRage in SLTV Star Ladder Season VI as RoX.Kis. The match had no bearing on their standings since both teams could no longer qualify for the LAN finals. Solo bet $100 against his team and proceed to intentionally throw the game and supposedly won $322 from it. As a result of being caught Solo received a lifetime ban from Starladder (later reduced to one year[82] and was later removed from the team[83]), a three-year ban for the other players, and one-year ban for the organization.[84][85]
  • In October 2014, Dota 2 Pro players Kok Yi "ddz" Liong and Fua Hsien "Lance" Wan were both found guilty of match fixing during the match against CSW on Synergy SEA as Arrow Gaming as it has been found that both their girlfriends have betted expensive quality items against their team where they proceed to intentionally throw the match. Arrow Gaming repeatedly tried to deny this but conclusive evidence eventually proves this fact and as a result, the teams have been removed from Synergy SEA and disqualified from other tournaments such as Summit 2. Both ddz and Lance were removed from the Arrow Gaming and the rest of the team disbanded one day later.[86][87]

Handball[edit]

  • In 2012, several French handball players from the Montpellier club were arrested on allegations they fixed matches.[88] In June 2015, the French government pressed charges against the alleged Montpellier fixers who included Olympic medalist Nikola Karabatic, his brother Luka Karabatic and six others Montpellier players. Prosecutors alleged Montpellier, who had already sealed the French handball championship, purposefully lost to Cesson in May 2012. French authorities were tipped off to the alleged fix when discovering that over 100,000 euros in bets had been placed on the low-stakes game that prosecutors contend should have only garnered a few thousand euros in wagers. In July 2015, the 16 people indicted by French authorities for their part in the match fixing scandal—including the Karabatic brothers—were found guilty. Nikola Karabatic was fined 10,000 euros and the largest fine on 30,000 euros went to Mladen Bojinovic. None of the people were given jail sentences, despite the prosecutors request.[89] The Karabatic brothers appealed the decision and in 2017, but lost and a new ruling made by the Disciplinary Committee of the French Handball Federation required Nikola Karabatic to sit out six games and Luka Karabatic to sit out two.[90]

Motorsport[edit]

  • In September 2009, Formula 1 driver Nelson Piquet Jr. admitted to have intentionally wrecked his race-car during the 2008 Singapore Grand Prix due to team orders. It gave an advantage to his teammate Fernando Alonso who went on to win the race. Following a lawsuit by the Renault Formula 1 team against the Piquet family, a judge ruled in Piquet's favor due to overwhelming evidence against the team; fining the Renault Formula 1 team millions, lliquidating various employees, banning the team from Formula 1 for 2 years (on suspended sentence) and various key members of Renault Formula 1 team being banned for life (which was later appealed).

Snooker[edit]

Tennis[edit]

  • In 2007, French tennis player Arnaud Clément claimed he was offered a bribe to fix a match, which he turned down, but added, "I won't say where or under what circumstances". Clément feared divulging more details on the bribe would have negative consequences on his career.[97]
  • In 2008, the Association of Tennis Professionals cleared Russian tennis player Nikolay Davydenko from allegations that he fixed a match against Martin Vassallo Arguello in Poland in 2007.[98] In 2016, an investigation found that several millions of dollars were placed on the match from Russian-based accounts. Leaked files to the joint Buzzfeed and BBC investigators found 82 instances were Davydenko had sent or received text messages from the suspected head of an Italian sports betting syndicate.[99]
  • On 18 January 2016, a joint Buzzfeed and BBC investigation reported alleged widespread match-fixing, which involve Northern Italian, Sicilian, and Russian betting syndicates, which included suspicious betting at major tournaments such as Wimbledon. The reporters examined betting incidents on a total of 26,000 matches.[100]
  • In June 2018, Argentinian tennis player Nicolas Kicker was banned from the sport for at least three years for match-fixing. According to an investigation by the Tennis Integrity Unit, Kicker knowingly participated in at least two matches in 2015. The ruling prohibits Kicker from competing in or attending a sanctioned tennis match.[101]

Volleyball[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dedman, Bill (December 4, 1998). "COLLEGE FOOTBALL; 4 Are Indicted in Northwestern Football Scandal". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  2. ^ Fish, Mike (2009-05-06). "Six ex-players charged with conspiracy". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2009-05-12.
  3. ^ Associated Press (August 25, 2011). "Quinton Broussard pleads guilty". ESPN.com. Retrieved August 26, 2011.
  4. ^ UEFA target betting mob, Daily Mail, 2 December 2007.
  5. ^ Italian FA under emergency rule, BBC Sport, 16 May 2006.
  6. ^ "Football guard 'bribed for sabotage'". BBC News. 1999-08-17. Retrieved 2010-05-12.
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