Counties of Estonia

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Counties (Estonian: maakond, plural maakonnad) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Estonia. Estonian territory is composed of 15 counties, including 13 on the mainland and 2 on islands. The government (maavalitsus) of each county is led by a maavanem (governor) who represents the national government (Vabariigi Valitsus) at the regional level. Governors are appointed by the national government for a term of five years.

Each county is further divided into municipalities of two types: urban municipalities (towns, linnad) and rural municipalities (parishes, vallad).

The number and name of the counties was not affected, but their borders were changed, by the administrative reform at the municipal elections Sunday 15 October 2017 which brought the number of municipalities down from 213 to 79.

List of counties[edit]

Population figures are those of 1 January 2018.[1]

List of counties of Estonia
of arms
County Capital Area
Population Pop. density
(inhab. /km2)
Et-Harju maakond-coa.svg Harju County Tallinn 4,333 610,468 127.5
Hiiumaa vapp.svg Hiiu County Kärdla 989 9,580 8.6
Ida-Virumaa vapp.svg Ida-Viru County Jõhvi 3,364 142,562 44.4
Jõgevamaa vapp.svg Jõgeva County Jõgeva 2,604 29,544 12.1
Et-Järva maakond-coa.svg Järva County Paide 2,623 31,082 11.6
Läänemaa vapp.svg Lääne County Haapsalu 2,383 21,174 10.1
Lääne-Virumaa vapp.svg Lääne-Viru County Rakvere 3,627 60,694 16.5
Põlvamaa vapp.svg Põlva County Põlva 2,165 25,655 12.7
Et-Pärnu maakond-coa.svg Pärnu County Pärnu 4,807 87,681 17.2
Raplamaa vapp.svg Rapla County Rapla 2,980 33,774 11.7
Saaremaa vapp.svg Saare County Kuressaare 2,673 33,925 11.7
Tartumaa vapp.svg Tartu County Tartu 2,993 154,819 50.2
Valgamaa vapp.svg Valga County Valga 2,044 29,571 14.8
Viljandimaa vapp.svg Viljandi County Viljandi 3,422 47,563 13.9
Võrumaa vapp.svg Võru County Võru 2,305 36,897 14.5


Hiiu CountyLääne CountySaare CountyHarju CountyLääne-Viru CountyIda-Viru CountyRapla CountyPärnu CountyJärva CountyViljandi CountyJõgeva CountyTartu CountyValga CountyPõlva CountyVõru CountyCounties of Estonia
About this image
50 km
Counties with new borders after the Administrative Reform October 2017
Map of south Baltic region circa 1705.

In the first centuries AD,[citation needed] political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the parish (kihelkond) and the county (maakond). The parish consisted of several villages. Nearly all parishes had at least one fortress. The defense of the local area was directed by the highest official, the parish elder. The county was composed of several parishes, also headed by an elder. By the 13th century the following major counties had developed in Estonia: Saaremaa (Osilia), Läänemaa (Rotalia or Maritima), Harjumaa (Harria), Rävala (Revalia), Virumaa (Vironia), Järvamaa (Jervia), Sakala (Saccala), and Ugandi (Ugaunia).[2] Additionally there were several smaller elderships in central Estonia where danger of war was smaller – Vaiga, Mõhu, Nurmekund and Alempois. The exact number and borders of some elderships are disputed.

The first documented mentioning of Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written in the 13th Century during the Northern Crusades.

The Autonomy of the Estonia counties and parishes ended after conquered and divided between Denmark, Livonian Order, Bishopric of Dorpat and Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek. The name of Rävala became Reval, replacing the name of an Estonian town Lindanisse, later Tallinn. Ugandi, Sakala and the smaller elderships disappeared from common usage.

In the 1580s, after the Livonian war as Sweden had conquered Northern Estonia, Harju, Järva, Lääne and Viru counties were officially formed there. Southern Estonia, which belonged to Poland 1582-1625, was divided into voivodships of Pärnu and Tartu; the island of Saaremaa belonged to Denmark until 1645. They all became counties as they went under Swedish rule.

This administrative system mostly remained as Estonia went under Russian rule as a result of the Northern War. In 1793 were formed Võru County in the south of Tartumaa, Viljandi County between Tartu and Pärnu counties, and Paldiski County in the west of Harjumaa. In 1796 Paldiski County was joined with Harjumaa again. Until 1888 Võrumaa and Viljandimaa were not completely independent from Tartumaa and Pärnumaa respectively.

Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County (from parts of Võru, Tartu and Viljandi counties) and Petseri County (area acquired from Russia with the 1920 Tartu peace treaty).

During the Soviet rule, Petseri County once again became a part of Russia in 1945. Hiiumaa seceded from Läänemaa in 1946, Jõgevamaa from Tartumaa in 1949 and Jõhvimaa (modern Ida-Virumaa) from Virumaa in 1949. Counties were completely dissolved in 1950 as Estonian SSR was divided into regions (rajoonid) and (until 1953) oblasts. Until the 1960s the borders of regions changed often until 15 of them were left. Out of them, Põlva and Rapla regions became separate, while the others were roughly corresponding to the pre-1950 counties.

Counties were re-established on 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era regions. Due to the numerous differences between the current and historical (pre-1940) layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistic differences better.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Interior ministry (PDF) Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ Estonia and the Estonians (Studies of Nationalities) Toivo U. Raun p.11 ISBN 0-8179-2852-9

External links[edit]