|Active||1690 – 5 June 1967|
|Samuel Hood, Horatio Nelson, Andrew Cunningham|
The British Mediterranean Fleet also known as the Mediterranean Station  was part of the Royal Navy. The Fleet was one of the most prestigious commands in the navy for the majority of its history, defending the vital sea link between the United Kingdom and the majority of the British Empire in the Eastern Hemisphere. The first Commander-in-Chief for the Mediterranean Fleet may have been named as early as 1665 and the Fleet was in existence until 1967.
- 1 Pre-Second World War
- 2 Second World War
- 3 Post war
- 4 Administration of the command
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
Pre-Second World War
The Royal Navy gained a foothold in the Mediterranean Sea when Gibraltar was captured by the British in 1704 during the War of Spanish Succession, and formally allocated to Britain in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. Though the British had maintained a naval presence in the Mediterranean before, the capture of Gibraltar allowed the British to establish their first naval base there. The British also used Port Mahon, on the island of Menorca, as a naval base. However, British control there was only temporary; Menorca changed hands numerous times, and was permanently ceded to Spain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. In 1800, the British took Malta, which was to be handed over to the Knights of Malta under the Treaty of Amiens. When the Napoleonic Wars resumed in 1803, the British kept Malta for use as a naval base. Following Napoleon's defeat, the British continued their presence in Malta, and turned it into the main base for the Mediterranean Fleet. Between the 1860s and 1900s, the British undertook a number of projects to improve the harbours and dockyard facilities, and Malta's harbours were sufficient to allow the entire fleet to be safely moored there.
In the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Mediterranean Fleet was the largest single squadron of the Royal Navy, with 10 first-class battleships—double the number in the Channel Fleet—and a large number of smaller warships.
On 22 June 1893, the bulk of the fleet, eight battleships and three large cruisers, were conducting their annual summer exercises off Tripoli, Lebanon, when the fleet's flagship, the battleship HMS Victoria, collided with the battleship HMS Camperdown. Victoria sank within fifteen minutes, taking 358 crew with her. Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon, commander of the Mediterranean Fleet, was among the dead.
Of the three original Invincible-class battlecruisers which entered service in the first half of 1908, two (Inflexible and Indomitable) joined the Mediterranean Fleet in 1914. They and Indefatigable formed the nucleus of the fleet at the start of the First World War when British forces pursued the German ships Goeben and Breslau.
Second World War
Malta, as part of the British Empire from 1814, was a shipping station and was the headquarters for the Mediterranean Fleet until the mid-1930s. Due to the perceived threat of air-attack from the Italian mainland, the fleet was moved to Alexandria, Egypt shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War.
Sir Andrew Cunningham took command of the fleet from Warspite on 3 September 1939, and under him the major formations of the Fleet were the 1st Battle Squadron (Warspite, Barham, and Malaya) 1st Cruiser Squadron (Devonshire, Shropshire, and Sussex), 3rd Cruiser Squadron (Arethusa, Penelope, Galatea), Rear Admiral John Tovey, with the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Destroyer Flotillas, and the aircraft carrier Glorious.
In 1940, the Mediterranean Fleet carried out a successful aircraft carrier attack on the Italian Fleet at Taranto by air. Other major actions included the Battle of Cape Matapan and the Battle of Crete. The Fleet had to block Italian and later German reinforcements and supplies for the North African Campaign.
In October 1946, Saumarez hit a mine in the Corfu Channel, starting a series of events known as the Corfu Channel Incident. The channel was cleared in "Operation Recoil" the next month, involving 11 minesweepers under the guidance of Ocean, two cruisers, three destroyers, and three frigates.:154
In May 1948, Sir Arthur Power took over as Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean, and in his first act arranged a show of force to discourage the crossing of Jewish refugees into Palestine. When later that year Britain pulled out of the British Mandate of Palestine, Ocean, four destroyers, and two frigates escorted the departing High Commissioner, aboard the cruiser Euryalus. The force stayed to cover the evacuation of British troops into the Haifa enclave and south via Gaza.
From 1952 to 1967, the post of Commander in Chief Mediterranean Fleet was given a dual-hatted role as NATO Commander in Chief of Allied Forces Mediterranean in charge of all forces assigned to NATO in the Mediterranean Area. The British made strong representations within NATO in discussions regarding the development of the Mediterranean NATO command structure, wishing to retain their direction of NATO naval command in the Mediterranean to protect their sea lines of communication running through the Mediterranean to the Middle East and Far East. When a NATO naval commander, Admiral Robert B. Carney, C-in-C Allied Forces Southern Europe, was appointed, relations with the incumbent British C-in-C, Admiral Sir John Edelsten, were frosty. Edlesten, on making an apparently friendly offer of the use of communications facilities to Carney, who initially lacked secure communications facilities, was met with "I'm not about to play Faust to your Mephistopheles through the medium of communications!":261
From 1957 to 1959, Rear Admiral Charles Madden held the post of Flag Officer Malta, with responsibilities for three squadrons of minesweepers, an amphibious warfare squadron, and a flotilla of submarines stationed at the bases around Valletta Harbour. In this capacity, he had to employ considerable diplomatic skill to maintain good relations with Dom Mintoff, the nationalistic prime minister of Malta.
In the 1960s, as the importance of maintaining the link between the United Kingdom and British territories and commitments East of Suez decreased as the Empire dismantled, and the focus of Cold War naval responsibilities moved to the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean Fleet was gradually drawn down, finally disbanding in June 1967. Eric Grove, in Vanguard to Trident, details how by the mid-1960s the permanent strength of the Fleet was "reduced to a single small escort squadron [appears to have been 30th Escort Squadron with HMS Brighton, HMS Cassandra, HMS Aisne plus another ship] and a coastal minesweeper squadron.":297 Deployments to the Beira Patrol and elsewhere reduced the escort total in 1966 from four to two ships, and then to no frigates at all. The Fleet's assets and area of responsibility were given to the new Western Fleet. As a result of this change, the UK relinquished the NATO post of Commander in Chief Mediterranean, which was disbanded.
Administration of the command
Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet
|Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Saunders||January 1757||May 1757|
|Vice-Admiral Henry Osborn||May 1757||April 1760|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Saunders||April 1760||1763|
|Vice-Admiral Augustus Hervey||1763||?|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Spry||1766||1769|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Howe||1770||1774|
|Vice-Admiral Robert Man||1774||1778|
|Vice-Admiral Robert Duff||1778||1780|
|Vice-Admiral Sir John Lindsay||1783||1784|
|Vice-Admiral Phillips Cosby||1785||1789|
|Rear-Admiral Joseph Peyton||1789||1792|
|Rear-Admiral Samuel Granston Goodall||1792||1793|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood||February 1793||October 1794|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Hotham||October 1794||November 1795|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Jervis||1796||1799|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Keith||November 1799||1802|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Nelson ||May 1803||January 1805||Died after Battle of Trafalgar|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Collingwood||1805||1810|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Cotton||1810||1811|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew||1811||1814|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Penrose||1814||1815|
|Vice-Admiral Lord Exmouth||1815||1816|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Penrose||1816||1818|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Fremantle||1818||1820|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Graham Moore||1820||1823|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Harry Burrard-Neale||1823||1826|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Codrington||1826||1828|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm||1828||1831|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Henry Hotham||30 March 1831||19 April 1833||Died 19 April 1833|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm||3 May 1833||18 December 1833|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Josias Rowley||18 December 1833||9 February 1837|
|Admiral Sir Robert Stopford||9 February 1837||14 October 1841|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Owen||14 October 1841||27 February 1845|
|Vice-Admiral Sir William Parker||27 February 1845||13 July 1846||Parker was briefly First Naval Lord in July 1846 but requested permission to return to the Mediterranean on ground of his health.|
|Vice-Admiral Sir William Parker||24 July 1846||17 January 1852|
|Rear-Admiral Sir James Dundas||17 January 1852||1854||Vice-Adm. 17 December 1852|
|Rear-Admiral Sir Edmund Lyons||1854||22 February 1858||Vice-Adm. 19 March 1857|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur Fanshawe||22 February 1858||19 April 1860||Marlborough |
|Vice-Admiral Sir William Martin||19 April 1860||20 April 1863||Marlborough |
|Vice-Admiral Sir Robert Smart||20 April 1863||28 April 1866||Marlborough then Victoria |
|Vice-Admiral Lord Clarence Paget||28 April 1866||28 April 1869||Victoria then Caledonia|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Alexander Milne||28 April 1869||25 October 1870||Lord Warden ||Adm. 1 April 1870|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Hastings Yelverton||25 October 1870||13 January 1874||Lord Warden |
|Vice-Admiral Sir James Drummond||13 January 1874||15 January 1877||Lord Warden then Hercules |
|Vice-Admiral Sir Geoffrey Hornby||5 January 1877||5 February 1880||Alexandra ||Adm. 15 June 1879|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour||5 February 1880||7 February 1883||Inconstant and Alexandra||Adm. 6 May 1882|
|Vice-Admiral Lord John Hay||7 February 1883||5 February 1886||Alexandra||Adm. 8 July 1884|
|Vice-Admiral H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh||5 February 1886||11 March 1889||Alexandra:222||Adm. 18 October 1887|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Anthony Hoskins||11 March 1889||20 August 1891||Alexandra Mar 89 – Dec 89
Camperdown Dec 89 – May 90
Victoria May 90 onwards:222, 320, 336
|Adm. 20 June 1891|
|Vice-Admiral Sir George Tryon||20 August 1891||22 June 1893||Victoria||Died in commission; lost in Victoria|
|Admiral Sir Michael Culme-Seymour||29 June 1893||10 November 1896||Ramillies:362|
|Admiral Sir John Hopkins||10 November 1896||1 July 1899||Ramillies>|
|Admiral Sir John Fisher||1 July 1899||4 June 1902||Renown|
|Admiral Sir Compton Domvile||4 June 1902||June 1905||Bulwark|
|Admiral Lord Charles Beresford ||appointed 1 May 1905
assumed command 6 June 1905
|Admiral Sir Charles Drury||appointed 5 March 1907
assumed command 27 March 1907
|Admiral Sir Assheton Curzon-Howe ||appointed 20 November 1908
assumed command 20 November 1908
|Admiral Sir Edmund Poë ||appointed 30 April 1910
assumed command 30 April 1910
|Admiral Sir Berkley Milne :287, 289, 422||appointed 1 June 1912
assumed command 12 June 1912
|27 August 1914||Inflexible|
|During World War I plans were put in place to separate the Mediterranean into specific areas of responsibility. The British were charged with responsibility for Gibraltar, Malta, Egyptian coast, and Aegean in August 1917 Vice Admiral Somerset Gough-Calthorpe became CinC, MF commanding all British forces in the Mediterranean. Overall allied command would remain under the control of the Allied Commander in Chief, who was the head of the French Navy. Vice-Admiral Somerset Gough-Calthorpe was also responsible for coordinating other allied forces in Mediterranean. British forces were divided into a number of sub-commands namely Gibraltar, Malta, the British Adriatic Squadron, the British Aegean Squadron, the Egypt Division and Red Sea and the Black Sea and Marmora Force.  Post titles have been put in bold in the notes column.|
|Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe:323:80||26 August 1917||25 July 1919||Superb||Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean|
|Vice Admiral Sir John de Robeck:85 & 94||26 July 1919||14 May 1922||Iron Duke|
|Vice Admiral Sir Osmond Brock:92||15 May 1922||7 June 1925||Iron Duke||Admiral 31 July 1924|
|Admiral Sir Roger Keyes||8 June 1925||7 June 1928||Warspite|
|Admiral Sir Frederick Field||8 June 1928||28 May 1930||Queen Elizabeth:121|
|Admiral Sir Ernle Chatfield||27 May 1930||31 October 1932||Queen Elizabeth|
|Admiral Sir William Fisher ||31 October 1932||19 March 1936||Resolution later Queen Elizabeth:121 & 123|
|Admiral Sir Dudley Pound:140
|20 March 1936||31 May 1939||Queen Elizabeth|
|During World War II, the Mediterranean Station was split between commands some of the time. Post titles in the notes column.|
|Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham ||1 June 1939
6 June 1939
|March 1942||Warspite August 1939
HMS St Angelo (base, Malta) April 1940
Warspite February 1941
|Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet. Vice-Admiral Cunningham was given acting rank of Admiral on 1 June 1930, and promoted to Admiral on 3 January 1941.|
|Admiral Sir Henry Harwood ||22 April 1942||February 1943||Warspite
HMS Nile (base, Alexandria) Aug 1942
|Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet. Vice-Admiral Harwood was given acting rank of Admiral.|
|Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham ||1 November 1942||20 February 1943||HMS Hannibal (base, Algiers)||Naval Commander Expeditionary Force (NCXF) North Africa and Mediterranean|
|In the February 1943 the Mediterranean Fleet Command was divided into a command of ships and a command of ports & naval bases: |
Mediterranean Fleet: Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet, 15th Cruiser Squadron, Cdre. (D)
Levant: Commander-in-Chief, Levant, Alexandria, Malta, Port Said, Haifa, Bizerta, Tripoli, Mersa Matruh, Benghazi, Aden, Bone, Bougie, Philippeville
Levant Command was renamed Levant and Eastern Mediterranean Command in late December 1943.
In January 1944 the two separate commands were re-unified into a single command with the Flag Officer, Levant and East Mediterranean, (FOLEM) reporting to CINC Mediterranean Fleet.
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham ||20 February 1943||15 October 1943||HMS Hannibal (base, Algiers/Taranto)||Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet.|
|Admiral Sir John Cunningham ||15 October 1943||February 1946||HMS Hannibal (base, Algiers/Taranto)||Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Station & Allied Naval Commander Mediterranean|
|Admiral Sir Algernon Willis||1946||1948||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)|
|Admiral Sir Arthur Power||1948||1950||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)||Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean|
|Admiral Sir John Edelsten||1950||1952||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)||Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean|
|Admiral Earl Mountbatten of Burma||1952||1954||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)||Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean|
|Admiral Sir Guy Grantham||10 Dec 1954||10 Apr 57||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)|
|Vice Admiral Sir Ralph Edwards||10 Apr 57||11 Nov 58||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)|
|Admiral Sir Charles Lambe||11 Nov 58||2 Feb 59||HMS Phoenicia (base, Malta)|
|Admiral Sir Alexander Bingley||2 Feb 59||30 Jun 61||HMS Phoenicia (base, Malta)|
|Admiral Sir Deric Holland-Martin||30 Jun 61||1 Feb 64||HMS Phoenicia (base, Malta)|
|Admiral Sir John Hamilton:297||1 Feb 1964||5 June 1967||HMS St Angelo (base, Malta)|
Chief of Staff
The Chief of Staff was the principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief.
|Chief of Staff, Mediterranean Fleet||1893 to 1967||[a]|
|Additional Chief of Staff, Mediterranean Fleet||1943 to 1944||[b]|
The Mediterranean Fleets shore headquarters initially rotated between Gibraltar and Malta from 1791 to 1812. From 1813 to July 1939 it was permanently at Malta. In August 1939 the C-in-C Mediterranean Fleet moved his HQ afloat on board HMS Warspite until April 1940. He was then back onshore at Malta until February 1941. He transferred it again to HMS Warspite until July 1942. In August 1942 headquarters were moved Alexandria from June 1940 to February 1943. HQ was changed again but this time in rotation between Algiers and Taranto until June 1944. It then moved back to Malta until it was abolished in 1967.
Senior Flag Officers with fleet responsibilities
|In command unit or formation||Date/s||Notes/Ref|
|Second-in-Command, Mediterranean Fleet||1861-1939|||
|Vice-Admiral Commanding, Light Forces and Second-in-Command Mediterranean Fleet||1940-1942|||
|Vice-Admiral (D) Commanding, Mediterranean Fleet Destroyers||1922 to 1965|| [c]|
|Flag Officer, Air and Second-in-Command, Mediterranean Fleet||1947-1958|||
|Flag Officer, Mediterranean Aircraft Carriers||1940 to 1943|||
|Rear-Admiral (D) Commanding, Mediterranean Fleet Destroyers||1922 to 1965||[d]|
|Rear-Admiral, Mediterranean Fleet||1903 to 1905|||
|Commodore (D) Commanding, Mediterranean Fleet Destroyers||1922 to 1965|| [e]|
Major operational and shore sub-commands
Note: At various times included the following.
Major support sub-commands
Note: At various times included the following.
|In command of unit or formation||Date/s||Notes and Ref|
|Principal Naval Transport Officer, Mudros||31 August, 1915 – 20 January, 1916||Commodore-in-Command|
|Principal Naval Transport Officer, Salonika||20 January, 1916 – June, 1916||Commodore-in-Command|
Minor shore sub-commands
- The Chief of Staff was the principal staff officer (PSO), who is the coordinator of the supporting staff or a primary aide-de-camp to the Commander-in-Chief.
- The Additional Chief of Staff was the staff officer responsible for providing administrative support to the principle staff officer (PSO).
- Command of the Mediterranean Fleets destroyer flotillas rotated between flag officers different ranks such as Vice-Admiral (D)
- Command of the Mediterranean Fleets destroyer flotillas rotated between flag officers different ranks such as Rear-Admiral (D)
- Command of the Mediterranean Fleets destroyer flotillas rotated between flag officers different ranks such as Commodore (D)
- The Admiral of Patrols administered the component force called the Auxiliary Patrol during World War One that also had responsibility for the Mediterranean Sea that was divided into patrol zones dividing responsibility between the British, French and Italian navies.
- Commodore, Algeria reported to the C-in-C, Med Fleet from December 1942 to February 1943 the officer then reports to C-in-C, Levant until December 1943
- The Flag Officer, Gibraltar and North Atlantic was elevated to the rank of Admiral from November 1939 until 1943 and did not report to the C-in-C, Med Fleet during this period
- The Senior Officer, Red Sea Force was established in 1939 who reported to the Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station. On 21st October 1941 the title is changed to the Flag Officer Commanding, Red Sea and his command but now reporting to the Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet until 17 May 1942. On 18 May 1942 the title is changed again to Flag Officer, Commanding Red Sea and Canal Area and his reporting line changed again to the Commander-in-Chief, Eastern Fleet.
- Rear-Admiral, Alexandria reported to the C-in-C, Med Fleet from November 1939 to February 1943 the officer then reports to C-in-C, Levant until December 1943
- The British Adriatic Squadron was later renamed British Adriatic Force
- Rear-Admiral, Second-in-Command, Eastern Mediterranean Squadron reporting to VAdm, Commanding Eastern Mediterranean Squadron.
- In February 1943 all existing shore based commands were transferred under the Commander-in-Chief, Levant until January 1944 they then came back under the control of the C-in-C Med Fleet.
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