Morgan Park, Chicago
|Community Area 75 - Morgan Park|
Entrance to the George C. Walker Library. The building and many of the books the library contained when it opened were a gift of George C. Walker, then president of the Blue Island Land and Building Company (his predecessor being F.H. Winston, a prominent Chicago attorney). The original portion of the building was designed by Charles Sumner Frost and cost $12,000. It opened on April 22nd, 1890, was expanded by an addition that quadrupled its space in 1929, and received a major renovation in 1995.
Location within the city of Chicago
|• Total||3.19 sq mi (8.26 km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
parts of 60643 and 60655
|Source: U.S. Census, Record Information Services|
Morgan Park, located on the far south side of the city of Chicago, Illinois, United States, is one of the city's 77 official community areas. Morgan Park is located south of the Beverly neighborhood and north of the Chicago city border, and includes Mount Greenwood Cemetery. The community, settled in the mid-19th century, was initially known as North Blue Island, being located close to the existing town of Blue Island to the south. As of 2013[update], Morgan Park was majority-black, with approximately 22,924 residents in 2015.
The community was initially settled in the mid-19th century and known as North Blue Island because of its geographic relationship to the already established settlement of Blue Island to the south and because of its position on the Blue Island Ridge. Thomas Morgan became the area's largest landholder when he purchased all of the property between what is today 91st St. on the north, 119th St. on the south, Western Avenue on the west, and roughly Vincennes Ave. to the east. Morgan was born in Surrey, England, and came to the United States in 1843, briefly settling in Albany, New York. He was the son of a London banker and was left a large fortune by his father which he used to establish himself on the ridge in 1844. Here he cleared trees and operated a cattle and sheep ranch for the next quarter of a century. Morgan's son Henry was for a time the village president of Hyde Park before that community was annexed to the City of Chicago in 1889. In 1869, the Blue Island Land and Building Company purchased three thousand acres of this property from the Morgan family and laid out streets, planted thousands of trees, and built houses for those who were attracted to the bucolic atmosphere of the new community. The goal of the organization was to create a suburban community "..free from smoke and other nuisances that [were] becoming more and more intolerable in the city".
Both the president and the treasurer of the Blue Island Land and Building Company were executives of the Rock Island Railroad at the time the former company was incorporated, and they immediately used their influence to have a spur line built to serve the new community. This arrangement lasted until 1889, when the "Suburban Line" as it exists today was built between Gresham and the Vermont Street station in Blue Island, at which time the dummy line, as it was called, was removed, much to the consternation of those who lived immediately nearby. At this point Morgan Park received three handsome passenger depots (at 107th St., 111th St., and 115th St.), with the 111th Street station being an elaborate Queen Ann structure designed by John T. Long that is sited immediately east of Bohn Park. Morgan Park (and especially the area of it depicted in western part of the map included with this article) is primarily an upper middle-class community, with a housing stock to reflect this demographic, although there are several estate-sized houses on the ridge at Longwood Drive. Many of the buildings in the neighborhood were designed by notable architects, including Dwight Perkins, Dankmar Adler, Murray Hetherington, John Hetherington, Palliser, Palliser & Co., Normand S. Patton and Harry H. Waterman. The community is home to the Beverly Arts Center.
Because of its ecclesiastical associations (George Walker's father was affiliated with the old University of Chicago and Walker himself would play an influential role in the creation of the present University of Chicago, both of which were founded by organizations with Baptist connections) Morgan Park prohibited the sale of alcohol east of Western Avenue when it was incorporated as a village in 1882 - a ban which stands to this day. The suburb became a city neighborhood when it was annexed in 1914.
Morgan Park is located south of the Beverly neighborhood and shares a border at 107th St. with Beverly on the north, Halsted St. (north of 115th St.) and Ashland Ave. (south of 115th St.) on the east, 119th St. on the south, and (roughly) California Ave. on the west, and includes Mount Greenwood Cemetery. Beverly and Morgan Park share the same ZIP Code.
Horse Thief Hollow
In the early 1840s, a small section of what was to become southern Morgan Park had an unsavory reputation with the settlers in the region. What follows are the recollections of Isaac T. Greenacre, an early 19th-century resident who settled at the north end of the ridge. The area he describes below is today what is roughly the stretch of Vincennes Avenue from 115th Street to 121st Street:
"On the edge of the hill on which Morgan Park is situated, and a little south, is a deep and exceedingly steep ravine. This in early times was covered with long grass and thick underbrush, and was not only a very discreet hiding place, but a very formidable fortress for horse thieves. These notable gentry were rather nocturnal in their habits, as they traveled during the night and by day were wont to refresh themselves in Horse Thief Hollow. I imagine it must have been a solitary place as the long grass, thick underbrush, and the forest overhead must have entirely excluded the sunlight from it. The farmers are confident of the character of this den, having found in it bags of oats and other commodities which proved the use of the ravine for horse stealing. The bottom of the ravine was trampled into a mire by horses' hoofs, and once in a while they would find a horse shoe. The farmers have watched these gentry and proved to themselves the purpose of their frequent visitations. The horse thieves generally traveled by the aid of a buggy, in which they kept all the utensils necessary for their business."
Rotary International, the first world-wide community service organization, was formed in Morgan Park at 10856 S. Longwood Drive. It was the home of Rotary's founder Paul P. Harris. Today the house is owned and maintained by Rotary International as a memorial to Paul P. Harris and his wife, Jean.
Government and infrastructure
The Morgan Park community area has supported the Democratic Party in the past two presidential elections. In the 2016 presidential election, Morgan Park cast 10,084 votes for Hillary Clinton and cast 1,708 votes for Donald Trump (82.78% to 14.02%). In the 2012 presidential election, Morgan Park cast 11,848 votes for Barack Obama and cast 2,062 votes for Mitt Romney (84.39% to 14.69%).
Chicago Public Schools operates public schools in Morgan Park. Morgan Park High School, Clissold School, and Esmond Elementary School (one of the Chicago Public School's oldest school buildings, having been being built in the 1890s, and added to in the early years of the 20th century and again in the 1970s) represent the public educational institutions that today call Morgan Park home.
Zoned K-8 schools include Clissold, Edmond, Shoop, Mount Vernon, Higgins, and Haley. Morgan Park High serves most of Morgan Park, while small sections of the community area are zoned to Julian High School and Fenger High School.
St. Walter Elementary School, a private school, is in Morgan Park.
History of education
There was a serious attempt made by the Blue Island Land and Building Company to have Morgan Park become a great center of learning, an effort which was successful to a degree in that it brought to the community Morgan Park Academy (founded in 1873 as Mt Vernon Military & Classical Academy), the Chicago Female College (established 1875), Baptist Union Theological Seminary (which relocated to Morgan Park from Chicago in 1877 and where the noted educator William Rainey Harper was granted a professorship at the age of twenty-three), and the American Institute of Hebrew.
There was also an effort made in 1888 to bring the new University of Chicago to the community, although that project developed in another direction when its primary benefactor, John D. Rockefeller, indicated a preference for the significantly larger site at 57th Street and Ellis Avenue in Hyde Park that was donated by Marshall Field. It was thought by virtue of its size and its location in what was then the city proper that that property would allow for a much grander vision, and the "proposals (in Morgan Park) were at once laid aside in view of the greater plan". When the university opened in 1892, it absorbed the Chicago Female College and the Baptist Union Theological Seminary (the latter then becoming the university's divinity school), and for the next fifteen years Morgan Park Academy became a preparatory school for the university (at which time it was known as Morgan Park Academy of the University of Chicago) until the death of U of C president William Rainey Harper in 1906 ended the university's sponsorship and it passed into other hands. The school continues to operate today serving a highly diverse student body. It was recently ranked among the top private schools in Chicago.
- Lee Bernet, offensive tackle who played professionally for the Denver Broncos in the American Football League from 1965 to 1966.
- Peter Cetera, former bassist, vocalist and founding member of the band Chicago -- is from Morgan Park. He lived on Vincennes Avenue when growing up.
- Fred Evans, defensive tackle who played for the Minnesota Vikings.
- Aja Evans, Olympic bobsled Bronze medalist in 2014 and World Championships Bobsled Bronze medalist in 2017.
- Paul P. Harris, founder of Rotary International. He lived at 10856 S. Longwood Dr. The home is now owned and managed by the Paul and Jean Harris Home Foundation; affiliated with Rotary International.
- Mae Jemison, engineer, physician and astronaut. She became the first African-American woman to travel in space as part of a NASA crew on the Space Shuttle Endeavour.
- Jeremih, recording artist and producer
- Emil Jones, 37th President of the Illinois Senate. Jones was born in Morgan Park.
- Otis McDonald, plaintiff in McDonald v. City of Chicago, which struck down Chicago's longstanding ban on handguns based on the Dues Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
- Jeremy Rifkin, economist, writer and public speaker; founder of Foundation on Economic Trends.
- "Advertisement for the Blue Island Land and Building Company". Chicago Daily Tribune: 1. September 27, 1872.
- "Citizens to Hail Library Jubilee at Morgan Park - Branch's History Partly that of Whole Area". Chicago Daily Tribune: SW2. April 21, 1940.
- "Community Data Snapshot - Morgan Park" (PDF). cmap.illinois.gov. MetroPulse. Retrieved December 1, 2017.
- Sinkevitch, Alice and Laurie McGovern Petersen, editors (2004). AIA Guide to Chicago. Fort Washington: Harvest Books. p. 473. ISBN 0156029081.
- Keating, Ann Durkin (2008). Chicago Neighborhoods and Suburbs: A Historical Guide. Chicago, London: University of Chicago Press. p. 216. ISBN 0226428834.
- "Washington Heights". Chicago Daily Tribune: 1. April 29, 1869.
- Maloney, Cathy Jean (2008). Chicago Gardens - The Early History. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 175. ISBN 0-226-50234-1.
- The Blue Island Land & Building Company (1886). Suburban Homes - Morgan Park. Chicago: American Publication Society of Hebrew. p. 3.
- "Death Claims James Morgan - Millionaire Pioneer of Hyde Park Expires at his home in East End Avenue - TO BE BURIED TOMORROW - Half a Century of his Life Devoted to Business Activity in Chicago". Chicago Daily Tribune: 13. November 27, 1898.
- "EXCITED SUBURBANITES - WASHINGTON HEIGHTS OBJECTS TO FOOTING IT TO THE STATION - Rock Island Proposes to Moving the Dummy Tracks a Half a Mile West - Residents Say it is a Real Estate Scheme and Get an Injunction". Chicago Daily Tribune: 2. December 4, 1888.
- "Metra Rock Island District - 111th St. Morgan Park". Commuter Rail Division of the Regional Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- Sinkevitch, Alice (2004). AIA Guide to Chicago - Second edition. Orlando: HarcourtBooks. p. 474. ISBN 0-15-602908-1.
- "Morgan Park". The Newberry Library. Retrieved September 2, 2013.[permanent dead link]
- Schapper, Ferdinand (1917). Southern Cook County and History of Blue Island before the Civil War. Manuscript. p. 104.
- Volp, John Henry (1938). The First Hundred Years - 1835-1935, an Historical Review of Blue Island, Illinois. Blue Island: Blue Island Publishing. pp. 38–39.
- Paral, Rob. "Chicago Community Areas Historical Data". Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- McClelland, Edward (May 6, 2013). "White Flight, By The Numbers". www.nbcchicago.com. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
- "Post Office™ Location - MORGAN PARK Archived 2011-08-29 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on April 4, 2011.
- Ali, Tanveer (November 9, 2016). "How Every Chicago Neighborhood Voted In The 2016 Presidential Election". DNAInfo. Archived from the original on September 24, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- Ali, Tanveer (November 9, 2012). "How Every Chicago Neighborhood Voted In The 2012 Presidential Election". DNAInfo. Archived from the original on February 3, 2019. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
- Palliser, Palliser Company, Architects (1878). Palliser's American Cottage Homes. Bridgeport: Palliser, Palliser & Co. pp. Design 35.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Palliser's Cottage Home No. 35". City of Chicago Department of Planning and Development, Landmarks Division. 2003. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "Morgan Park." City of Chicago. Retrieved on January 11, 2017. Compare this map to CPS attendance boundary maps.
- "Far South" (Elementary School Zone Map). Chicago Public Schools. February 8, 2013. Retrieved on January 11, 2017.
- "Far South" (High School Zone Map). Chicago Public Schools. February 8, 2013. Retrieved on January 11, 2017.
- "The University of Chicago Centennial Catalogues - The Presidents of the University of Chicago - a Centennial View - William Rainey Harper". Retrieved September 5, 2013.
- The Blue Island Land & Building Company (1886). Suburban Homes - Morgan Park. Chicago: American Publication Society of Hebrew. pp. 8–11.
- "SITE FOR CHICAGO'S UNIVERSITY - A Tract of Land Donated by Marshall Field - Money That Was Collected". Chicago Daily Tribune: 6. January 19, 1890.
- Goodspeed, Thomas Wakefield (1916). A History of the University of Chicago - The First Quarter-Century. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. p. 46.
- Harper, William Rainey (1903). The President's Report - Administration - The Dicennial Publications - First Series Volume 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 215.
- Judson, Harry Pratt (1908). The President's Report - July 1906-July 1907 - With Publications of Members of the University. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 11.
- Johnson, Geoffrey and Kaitlin Peterson (November 11, 2011). "The Top Private Schools in Chicago and the Suburbs". Chicago.
- Mullen, William (August 12, 1990). "Mission of Mercy - A home away from harm for boys and girls who want a second chance". Chicago Tribune: 14.
- Lee Bernet Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine, database Football. Accessed August 30, 2007.
- Jisi, Chris (December 2007). "The Inspiration". Bass Player. pp. 36–47. Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved February 26, 2017.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Fred Evans Archived 2007-06-15 at the Wayback Machine, Texas State University-San Marcos. Accessed August 30, 2007.
- Edwards, Lee (January 22, 2014). "Aja Evans Details Her Journey to the 2014 Winter Olympics". TheChicagoCitizen.com. The Chicago Citizen Newspaper. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
- Flynn, Carol (August 13, 2019). "Project preserves home, Rotary history". The Beverly Review. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
- Austin, Michael; Wehunt, Jennifer (June 15, 2017). "Lara Flynn Boyle, Mae Jemison, Hugh Hefner, Herbie Hancock". Chicago. Chicago, Illinois: Tronc. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- Vaughn, Shamontiel L. (May 22, 2009). "Triple threat: Chicago native Jeremih, the singer, rapper, musician". Chicago Defender. Real Times. Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
- Halperin, Jennifer (1993). "Emil Jones passes muster as new Senate Democratic leader". Illinois Issues. Sangamon State University. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- Glanton, Dahleen (April 6, 2014). "Otis McDonald, 1933-2014: Fought Chicago's gun ban". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
- Sweet, Lynn. "Denmark's museums are as varied as its herrings", Chicago Sun-Times, August 23, 1987. "While strolling, I heard activist Jeremy Rifkin (A former Chicagoan who attended Morgan Park High School) warn of the dangers of genetic engineering."
- Anderson, Jon (July 14, 2005). "Hilltop mansion holds history of a fellowship; Century-old Rotary International took shape in gatherings at a picturesque and inviting home on the Far South Side, now preserved as a legacy to its founder". Chicago Tribune: Section 2c p.3.
- Paul Harris Home
|Beverly, Chicago||Washington Heights, Chicago||
|Mount Greenwood, Chicago||Morgan Park, Chicago|
|West Pullman, Chicago|
|Merrionette Park, Illinois||Blue Island, Illinois||Calumet Park, Illinois|