New York accent
The sound system of New York City English is popularly known as a New York accent. The New York metropolitan accent is one of the most recognizable accents of the United States, largely due to its popular stereotypes and portrayal in radio, film, and television. The New York accent is confined to New York City proper, western Long Island, and northeastern New Jersey, directly across the Hudson River from Manhattan, though some of its features have diffused to many other areas; for example, one native working-class accent of New Orleans, Louisiana, locally known as Yat, is strikingly similar to the New York accent. The New York accent is not spoken in the rest of New York State, whose regional accents fall under the Hudson Valley and Inland Northern dialects. The New York accent is predominantly characterized by the following sounds and speech patterns:
|Pure vowels (Monophthongs)|
|English diaphoneme||New York realization||Example words|
|/æ/||[æ] listen||act, pal, trap|
|[ɛə~eə~ɪə] listen||ham, pass, yeah|
|/ɑː/||[ɑː~a] listen||blah, father|
|/ɒ/||bother, lot, wasp|
|[ɔə~oə~ʊə]||dog, loss, cloth|
|/ɔː/||all, bought, taught, saw|
|/ɛ/||[ɛ]||dress, met, bread|
|/ə/||[ə~ɜ]||about, syrup, arena|
|/ɪ/||[ɪ~ɪ̈]||hit, skim, tip|
|[ɪ~ɪ̈~ə]||island, gamut, wasted|
|/iː/||[iː~ɪi]||beam, chic, fleet|
|/ʌ/||[ʌ]||bus, flood, what|
|/ʊ/||[ʊ]||book, put, should|
|/uː/||[u] or [ʊu]~[ɤʊ]~[ɤu]||food, glue, new|
|/aɪ/||[ɑɪ~ɒɪ~äɪ] listen||ride, shine, try|
|[äɪ] listen||bright, dice, pike|
|/aʊ/||[a̟ʊ~æʊ]||now, ouch, scout|
|/eɪ/||[eɪ~ɛɪ] listen||lake, paid, rein|
|/ɔɪ/||[ɔɪ~oɪ]||boy, choice, moist|
|/oʊ/||[oʊ~ʌʊ]||goat, oh, show|
(rhotic: [ɒɹ~ɑɹ]; older: [äə])
|barn, car, park|
|/ɪər/||[ɪə~iə] listen (rhotic: [ɪɹ~iɹ])||fear, peer, tier|
|/ɛər/||[ɛə~eə] (rhotic: [ɛɹ~eɹ])||bare, bear, there|
|/ɜːr/||[ɚ~ɝ] listen (older: [ɜɪ~əɪ])||burn, first, herd|
|/ər/||[ə~ɜ] (rhotic: [ɚ])||doctor, martyr, pervade|
|/ɔːr/||[ɔə~oɐ] (rhotic: [ɔɹ~oɹ])||hoarse, horse, poor
score, tour, war
|/jʊər/||[juə~juɐ] (rhotic: [juɹ])||cure, Europe, pure|
- Cot–caught distinction: The /ɔ/ vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, and coffee and the often homophonous // in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American, varying on a scale from [ɔ] to [ʊ], while typically accompanied by an inglide that produces variants like [oə] or [ʊə]. These sounds are kept strongly distinct from the /ɑː/ in words like father, palm, wash, and bra; therefore, cot is something like [kʰat] and caught is something like [kʰoət].
- Father–bother variability: Conservative speakers retain three separate low back vowels: LOT, PALM, and THOUGHT, thus with no father-bother merger. In addition, the PALM class contains a number of words that are LOT in most U.S. varieties. These include descendants of Middle English short o with final voiced consonants, /dʒ/, or /m/ (e.g., cob, cod, cog, lodge, bomb), and some Middle English short a words such as, wash. However, Labov et al report that which words fall into the LOT class and which words fall into the PALM class may vary from speaker to speaker.
- Short-a split system: New York City English uses a complicated short-a split system, in which all words with the "short a" can be split into two separate classes on the basis of the sound of this vowel; thus, for example, words like badge, class, lag, mad, and pan are pronounced with an entirely different vowel than words like bat, clap, lack, map, and patch. In the former set of words, historical /æ/ is raised and tensed to an ingliding gliding vowel of the type [ɛə~eə] or even [ɪə]. The latter set of words, meanwhile, retains a lax, low-front, typical [æ] sound. A strongly related (but slightly different) split has occurred in the Philadelphia and Baltimore dialects. Although the lax and the tense reflexes of /æ/ are separate phonemes in these dialects, their distribution is largely predictable. Click "show" below for specific details of this short-a system.
|New York City||General American||Baltimore &
|/m/, /n/||closed||tense [eə]||tense [eə]|
|open||lax [æ]||lax [æ]|
|/b/, /d/, /dʒ/, /g/,
/ʃ/, /ʒ/, and possibly
(although with variance) /z/ and /v/
|closed||tense [eə]||lax [æ]|
|/f/, /s/, /θ/||closed||tense [eə]|
|all other instances of /æ/||lax [æ]||lax [æ]|
- Conservative /oʊ/ and /u/: /oʊ/ as in goat does not undergo fronting; instead, it remains [oʊ] and may even have a lowered starting point. This groups New York with the "North" class of dialects rather than the "Midland", in which /oʊ/ is fronted. Relatedly, /u/ as in goose is not fronted and remains a back vowel [uː] or [ʊu]. This lack of fronting of /oʊ/ and /u/ also distinguishes New York from nearby Philadelphia. Some speakers have a separate phoneme /ɪu/ in words such as tune, news, duke (historically a separate class). The phonemic status of this vowel is marginal. For example, Labov (1966) reports that New Yorkers may contrast [duː] do with [dɪu] dew though they may also have [dɪu] do. Also, Labov et al. report yod-dropping also to have diffused as a characteristic for other speakers of New York English (in which the vowel in dew is pronounced very far back in the mouth).
- Backed /aɪ/ and fronted /aʊ/: The nucleus of the /aɪ/ diphthong is traditionally a back and sometimes rounded vowel [ä~ɑ] or [ɒ] (mean value [ɑ̟]) (ride as [ɹɑɪd]), while the nucleus of the /aʊ/ diphthong is a front vowel [æ~a] (mean value [a̟]) (out as [æʊt~aʊt]). The sociolinguistic evidence suggests that both of these developments are active changes. The fronted nucleus in /aʊ/ and the backed nucleus in /aɪ/ are more common among younger speakers, women, and the working and lower middle classes.
- Pre-/r/ distinctions: New York accents lack most of the mergers that occur with vowels before an /r/, which are otherwise common in other varieties of North American English. There is typically a Mary–marry–merry three-way distinction, in which the vowels in words like marry [ˈmæɹi], merry [ˈmɛɹi], and Mary [ˈmeɹi] ~ [ˈmɛəɹi] do not merge. The vowels in furry [ˈfəɹi] and hurry [ˈhʌɹi] are distinct. Also, words like orange, horrible, Florida and forest are pronounced with // or //, the same stressed vowel as part, not with the same vowel as port as in much of the rest of the United States.
|represented by the diaphoneme //||represented by the diaphoneme //|
|pronounced [ɒɹ] in mainstream England||pronounced [ɔːɹ] in mainstream England|
|pronounced [ɒɹ] in Boston||pronounced [ɔɹ] in Boston|
|pronounced [ɔɹ] in Canada|
|pronounced [ɒɹ] in New York City||pronounced [ɔɹ] in New York City|
|pronounced [ɑɹ] in the mainstream United States||pronounced [ɔɹ] in the mainstream United States|
|these five words only:
Tory, warring (etc.)
- Back vowel chain shift before /r/: //, as in Tory, bore, or shore merges with a tongue movement upward in the mouth to //, as in tour, boor, or sure. This is followed by the possibility of //, as in tarry or bar, also moving also upward (with rounding) towards /ɒr/~//. In non-rhotic New York speech, this means that born can be [bʊən] and barn can be [bɒən]. However, unlike the firmness of this shift in Philadelphia English, the entire process is still transitioning and variable in New York City English.
- Coil–curl merger: One of the stereotypes of New York speech is the use of a front-rising diphthong in words with // (or the NURSE vowel). This stereotype is popularly represented in stock phrases like "toity-toid" for thirty-third. The phonetic reality of this variant is actually unrounded [əɪ~ɜɪ]; thus, [ˈt̪əɪɾi ˈt̪əɪd]. This vowel was also used for the vowel //. Labov's data from the mid-1960s indicated this highly stigmatized form was recessive even then. Only two of his 51 speakers under age 20 used the form as compared with those over age 50 of whom 23 out of 30 used the r-less form. Younger New Yorkers (born since about 1950) are consequently likely to use a rhotic [əɹ~ɜɹ] (like in General American) for the diaphoneme // (as in bird), even if they use non-rhotic pronunciations of beard, bared, bard, board, boor, and butter. Labov considers that the phoneme "lingers on in a modified form". In other words, Labov is saying that the /ɜːr/ in New York is slightly raised compared to other dialects. Despite the near-extinction of this feature, Newman (2014) found [əɪ~ɜɪ] variably in one of his participants born in the late 1980s. Related to the non-rhotic variant, a form of intrusive r was also once reported for CHOICE words so that /ɔɪ/ may occur with an r-colored vowel (e.g., [ˈtʰɜɹlət] toilet), apparently as a result of hypercorrection.
While the following consonantal features are central to the common stereotype of a "New York accent", they are not entirely ubiquitous in New York. By contrast, the vocalic (vowel) variations in pronunciation as described above are far more typical of New York area speakers than the consonantal features listed below, which carry a much greater stigma than do the dialect's vocalic variations:
- Non-rhoticity (or r-lessness): The traditional metropolitan New York accent is non-rhotic; in other words, the sound [ɹ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant. Thus, there is no [ɹ] in words like park [pʰɒək] (with the vowel rounded due to the low-back chain shift), butter [ˈbʌɾə], or here [hɪə]. However, modern New York City English is variably rhotic for the most part, speakers with noticeable New York City accent also varies between pronounced and silenced [ɹ] in similar phonetic environment, even in the same word when repeated. Non-rhotic speakers usually exhibit a linking or intrusive R, similar to other non-rhotic dialect speakers.
- Laminal alveolar consonants: The alveolar consonants /t/, /d/, /n/, and /l/ may be articulated with the tongue blade rather than the tip. Wells (1982) indicates that this articulation may, in some cases, also involve affrication, producing [tˢ] and [dᶻ]. Also /t/ and /d/ are often pronounced with the tongue touching the teeth rather than the alveolar ridge (just above the teeth), as is typical in most varieties of English. With /t/, glottalization is reported to be more common in New York speech than in other American dialects, appearing, for example, before syllabic /l/ (e.g., bottle [ˈbäʔɫ̩]). The universal usage of "dark L", common throughout the U.S., is also possible in the New York accent. Newman (2014) reports /l/ even in initial position to be relatively dark for all accents of the city except the accents of Latinos. However, in the mid-twentieth century, both dark and "not quite so 'dark'" variants of /l/ are reported. The latter occurs initially or in initial consonant clusters, pronounced with the point or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, though this variant is not as "clear" as in British Received Pronunciation. Also, // was reported as commonly becoming postalveolar before //, making a word like William for some speakers [ˈwɪʎjəm] or even [ˈwɪjəm].
- Th-stopping: As in many other dialects, the interdental fricatives /θ/ and /ð/ are often realized as dental or alveolar stop consonants, famously like [t] and [d], or affricates [tθ] and [dð]. Labov (1966) found this alternation to vary by class with the non-fricative forms appearing more regularly in lower and working class speech. Unlike the reported changes with /r/, the variation with /θ/ and /ð/ appears to be stable. Historical dialect documents suggest th-stopping probably originated from the influence of immigrant speakers of German, Italian, Irish, and Yiddish to the city starting in the mid-19th century.
- Reduction of /hj/ to /j/: New Yorkers typically do not allow /h/ to be followed by /j/; this gives pronunciations like yuman /ˈjumən/ and yooge /judʒ/ for human and huge.
Despite common references to a "Bronx accent" or a "Brooklyn accent," no published study has found any feature that varies internally within the dialect due to any sort of geographic differences. Impressions that the dialect varies geographically may be a byproduct of class and/or ethnic variation. However, one study has found that more speakers from Queens born in the 1990s and later are showing a cot–caught merger than in other boroughs, though this is likely class-based rather than location-based.
The classic New York dialect is centered on middle- and working-class White Americans, and this ethnic cluster now accounts for less than half of the city's population, within which there is even some degree of ethnic variation. The variations of New York City English are a result of the waves of immigrants that settled in the city, from the earliest settlement by the Dutch and English, followed in the 1800s by the Irish and western Europeans (typically of French, German, and Scandinavian descent). Over time these collective influences combined to give New York its distinctive accent.
Up until the immigration acts of 1920 and 1924 that restricted southern and eastern European immigration, many Eastern European Jewish and Italian immigrants, as well as some later immigrants, arrived and further affected the region's speech. Sociolinguistic research, which is ongoing, suggests that some differentiation between these last groups' speech may exist. For example, William Labov found that Jewish-American New Yorkers were more likely than other groups to use the closest variants of /ɔː/ (meaning towards [ʊə]) and fully released final stops (for example, pronunciation of sent as [sɛnt] rather than the more General American [sɛnt̚] or [sɛnʔ]), while Italian-American New Yorkers were more likely than other groups to use the closest variants of /æ/ (meaning towards [ɪə]). Labov also discusses Irish origin features being the most stigmatized. Still, Labov argues that these differences are relatively minor, more of degree than kind. All European American groups share the relevant features.
One area that is likely to reveal robust patterns is New York City English among Orthodox Jews, overlapping with Yeshiva English, which can exist outside of the New York metropolitan area as well. Such features include certain Yiddish grammatical contact features, such as topicalizations of direct objects (e.g., constructions such as Esther, she saw! or A dozen knishes, you bought!) or the general replacement of /ŋ/ with /ŋg/, as stereotyped in the eye-dialect phrase "Lawn Guyland" for "Long Island" ([lɔəŋˈɡɑɪɫɪ̈nd] rather than General American's [ɫɒŋˈäɪɫɪ̈nd]), strongly used among Lubavitcher Jews, but a stereotype for the New York accent in general. There is also substantial use of Yiddish and particularly Hebrew words.
Black New Yorkers typically speak African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), though with some additions from New York City English, such as the NYC /ɔː/ vowel. Many Latino New Yorkers speak another distinct ethnolect, New York Latino English, characterized by a varying mix of New York City English and AAVE features, along with some Spanish contact features. Asian-American speakers of New York City English are not shown by studies to have any phonetic features that are overwhelmingly distinct. White New Yorkers alone have been documented as using a phonetic split within // as follows: [äɪ] before voiceless consonants but [ɑːɪ] elsewhere.
- Welch, Richard F. (2009). King of the Bowery: Big Tim Sullivan, Tammany Hall, and New York City from the Gilded Age to the Progressive Era. SUNY Press. p. 196.
- Labov, William. 1966/2006. "The Social Stratification of English in New York City Archived 2014-08-24 at the Wayback Machine.": 2nd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 18.
- Labov, Ash & Boberg (2006), p. 232
- Heggarty, Paul et al, eds. (2013). "Accents of English from Around the World". University of Edinburgh.
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- Newman, Michael New York City English Berlin/NY: Mouton DeGruyter
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