|Original author(s)||Ryan Dahl|
|Developer(s)||Node.js Developers, Joyent, GitHub Contributors|
|Initial release||May 27, 2009|
|Stable release||0.12.5 / June 22, 2015|
|Preview release||0.11.16 / January 29, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows (older versions require Cygwin), webOS, NonStop OS|
Node.js provides an event-driven architecture and a non-blocking I/O API that optimizes an application's throughput and scalability. These technologies are commonly used for real-time web applications.
Node.js is gaining adoption as a server-side platform and is used by IBM, Microsoft, Yahoo!, Walmart, Groupon, SAP, LinkedIn, Rakuten, PayPal, Voxer, and GoDaddy.
Node.js was invented in 2009 by Ryan Dahl, and other developers working at Joyent. Node.js was created and first published for Linux use in 2009. Its development and maintenance was spearheaded by Ryan Dahl and sponsored by Joyent, the firm where Dahl worked.
Dahl was inspired to create Node.js after seeing a file upload progress bar on Flickr. The browser did not know how much of the file had been uploaded and had to query the Web server. Dahl desired an easier way.
In 2011, a package manager was introduced for Node.js library, called npm. The package manager allows publishing and sharing of open-source Node.js libraries by the community, and simplifies installation, updating and uninstallation of libraries.
In January 2012, Dahl stepped aside, promoting coworker and npm creator Isaac Schlueter to manage the project.
In January 2014, Schlueter announced Timothy J. Fontaine would be Node.js's new project lead.
In December 2014, Fedor Indutny started io.js, a fork of Node.js. Due to internal conflict over Joyent's governance, io.js was created as an open governance alternative with a separate technical committee.
In February 2015, the intent to form a neutral Node.js Foundation was announced. By June 2015, the Node.js and io.js community voted to work together under the Node.js Foundation 
Node.js is primarily used to build network programs such as web servers, making it similar to PHP and Python. The biggest difference between PHP and Node.js is that PHP is a blocking language (commands execute only after the previous command has completed), while Node.js is a non-blocking language (commands execute in parallel, and use callbacks to signal completion).
- V8 is open-source under the BSD license
- V8 is extremely fast
- V8 is focused on the web, so is proficient with internet fundamentals like HTTP, DNS, TCP
Thousands of open-source libraries have been built for Node.js, and can be downloaded for free from the npm website. Node.js has a developer community centered around two mailing lists and the IRC channel #node.js on freenode. The community gathers at NodeConf, an annual developer conference focused on Node.js.
Node.js operates on a single thread, using non-blocking I/O calls, allowing it to support tens of thousands of concurrent connections without incurring the cost of thread context-switching. The design of sharing a single thread between all the requests means it can be used to build highly concurrent applications. The design goal of a Node.js application is that any function performing I/O must use a callback.
A downside of this approach is that Node.js doesn't allow scaling with the number of CPU cores of the machine it is running on without using an additional module such as cluster, StrongLoop Process Manager, or pm2.
npm is the pre-installed package manager for the Node.js server platform. It is used to install Node.js programs from the npm registry. By organizing the installation and management of third-party Node.js programs, it helps developers build faster. npm is not to be confused with the CommonJS require() statement. It is not used to load code: instead, it is used to install code and manage code dependencies from the command line. The packages found in the npm registry can range from simple helper libraries like Underscore.js to task runners like Grunt..
Node.js registers itself with the operating system so that it is notified when a connection is made. When a connection is made, the operating system will issue a callback. Within the Node.js runtime, each connection is a small heap allocation. Traditionally, relatively heavyweight OS processes or threads handled each connection. Node.js, however, uses an event loop, instead of processes or threads, to scale to millions of connections happening at the same time. In contrast to other event-driven servers, Node.js's event loop does not need to be called explicitly. Instead callbacks are defined, and the server automatically enters the event loop at the end of the callback definition. Node.js exits the event loop when there are no further callbacks to be performed.
- Desktop IDEs
- Atom (free open-source)
- Brackets (free open-source)
- Sublime Text (commercial)
- JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA (commercial)
- JetBrains WebStorm (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with TypeScript (commercial)
- Nodeclipse Enide Studio (free open-source, Eclipse-based)
- NoFlo – flow-based programming environment integrated with GNOME APIs
- Visual Studio Code (cross platform, free)
- Online code editors
- Koding (cloud service)
- Codenvy IDE (cloud service)
- Cloud9 IDE (cloud service)
- Codiad (Self hosted service)
- Runtimes and debuggers
- Microsoft Visual Studio (commercial) with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (free)
- Microsoft WebMatrix (free)
- Application performance management
- Server frameworks : Express.js, Socket.io, Koa.js, Hapi.js, Total.js
- MVC frameworks : Meteor, Derby, Sails, Mean, MeanJS, Tower.js, Nombo, Geddy, Compound, Yahoo! Mojito
- Social network
- Node.js World is a social networking website where Node.js developers can interact, chat, follow each other, desktop notification, share tutorials, etc.
|Original author(s)||Fedor Indutny|
|Developer(s)||io.js Developers, GitHub Contributors|
|Initial release||January 14, 2015|
|Stable release||2.0.1 / May 7, 2015|
|Preview release||2.0.2-nightly20150512c58264e58b / May 12, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Microsoft Windows|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to io.js.|
io.js is a fork of Node.js, started in December 2014, by a contributor to the Node.js project. It is expected to be marked stable in March 2015. The reason for forking away from Node.js, was that the authors wanted a project outside corporate governance, and have therefore created an "open governance" system consisting of a technical committee which the authors are part of.
As of the week of May 15, 2015, the io.js organization has voted and officially agreed to merge back with the Node.js project under the rubric of a new foundation, the Node Foundation. The combined organization will be named 'nodejs'.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to JXcore.|
Similar environments available for other programming languages include:
- Tornado and Twisted for Python
- Perl Object Environment for Perl
- libevent for C
- Akka for Java and Scala
- EventMachine for Ruby
- vibe.d for D
- Luvit for Lua
- Ocsigen for OCaml
- Node-julia allows using Julia (programming language) with Node.js/io.js using no-overhead calling from either language
- SpiderMonkey (software)
- Server-side scripting
- MEAN (software bundle)
- Twisted (software)
- https://github.com/joyent/node/tags?after=v0.0.4. Retrieved 2 August 2014. Missing or empty
- "Release v0.12.5: 2015.06.22, Version 0.12.5 (Stable) · joyent/node". Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- "v0.11.16: 2015.01.29, Version 0.11.16 (Unstable)". Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- Industry Usage, Node.js Website
- "Here's why you should be happy that Microsoft is embracing Node.js". The Guardian. November 9, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
- "WebMatrix - Front End Web Developers take note (ASP.NET, PHP, node.js and more)". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Yahoo! Announces Cocktails Shaken, Not Stirred". Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Why Walmart is using Node.js". VentureBeat. January 24, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
- Geitgey, Adam (30 October 2013). "I-Tier: Dismantling the Monoliths". Groupon. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- "SAP AppBuilder". SAP. March 10, 2014. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- "You'll never believe how LinkedIn built its new iPad app". VentureBeat. May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012.
- "Blazing fast node.js: 10 performance tips from LinkedIn Mobile". Retrieved 7 April 2015.
- "Clash of the Titans: Releasing the Kraken, NodeJS @paypal". fluentconf.com. May 28, 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "All such companies and their products in which Node.js is used". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Why GoDaddy’s Nodejitsu deal is great for Node.js, VentureBeat, February 10, 2015
- Harris, Amber (April 1, 2012). "The Birth of Node: Where Did it Come From? Creator Ryan Dahl Shares the History". Devops Angle. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Sams Teach Yourself Node.js in 24 Hours, Sams Publishing, 05-Sep-2012
- "Ryan Dahl at JSConf EU 2009".
- "Ryan Dahl at JSConf EU 2009 Video".
- "Porting Node to Windows". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- Dahl, Ryan. "New gatekeeper". Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- Schlueter, Isaac (January 15, 2014). "The Next Phase of Node.js". Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Krill, Paul (Dec 4, 2014). "Why io.js Decided to Fork Node.js". JavaWorld. Retrieved Dec 15, 2014.
- Node.js for PHP Developers, O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2013
- Node.js Essentials, Packt Publishing, 09-Sep-2014
- Modules, Nodejs Website
- Express.js Guide: The Comprehensive Book on Express.js, Azat Mardan, 28-May-2014
- "CoffeeScript on Node.js". O'Reilly Media, Inc. April 15, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
- Finley, Klint (April 7, 2011). "NodeConf Schedule Announced". ReadWriteHack. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- About Node.js, Node.js Website
- "Node.js Tools for Visual Studio". Codeplex. Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "Bergius: Flowhub and the GNOME Developer Experience". LWN.net. 2014-05-02. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
- Mike Kopp (2014-11-27). "There’s a new kid in town: node.js monitoring". blog.ruxit.com. Retrieved 2014-11-28.
- Node.js Framework Comparison: Express vs. Koa vs. Hapi, AirPair
- 13 fabulous frameworks for Node.js, InfoWorld
- "Release v1.0.0-release". Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "Release v2.0.1". Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Index of /download/nightly/v2.0.2-nightly20150512c58264e58b/". Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- Q&A: Why io.js decided to fork Node.js, Infoworld Tech Watch
- Mikeal, Rogers (January 28, 2015). "State of io.js". Retrieved 2 February 2015.
- "io.js and Node.js merge". Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- The JXcore variant of Node.js bristles with intriguing features and aims to move Node into the mobile world, Infoworld
- "Limitations". node-julia.
- Hughes-Croucher, Tom; Wilson, Mike (April 2012), Up and Running with Node.js (First ed.), O'Reilly Media, p. 204, ISBN 978-1-4493-9858-3
- Ornbo, George (September 2012), Sams Teach Yourself Node.js in 24 Hours (First ed.), SAMS Publishing, p. 440, ISBN 978-0-672-33595-2
- Teixeira, Pedro (October 2012), Professional Node.js (First ed.), John Wiley & Sons, p. 408, ISBN 978-1-1182-2754-1
- Randal L. Schwartz and Aaron Newcomb (9 January 2013). "Episode 237: Node.js". http://twit.tv/show/floss-weekly (Podcast). TWiT.tv. Event occurs at 1:08:13. Retrieved 9 January 2013.
- Ribeiro Pereira, Caio (July 2013), Aplicações web real-time com Node.js (First ed.), Casa do Código, p. 143, ISBN 978-85-66250-14-5
- Kurniawan, Agus (July 2012), Nodejs Programming By Example (First ed.), PE Press, p. 67
- Gackenheimer, Cory (October 2013), Node.js Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach (First ed.), Apress, p. 376, ISBN 978-14-30260-58-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Node.js.|