|Original author(s)||Ryan Dahl|
|Developer(s)||Node.js Developers, Joyent, GitHub Contributors|
|Initial release||May 27, 2009|
|Stable release||0.12.7 / July 9, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Microsoft Windows (older versions require Cygwin), webOS, NonStop OS|
Node.js provides an event-driven architecture and a non-blocking I/O API that optimizes an application's throughput and scalability. These technologies are commonly used for real-time web applications.
Node.js is gaining adoption as a server-side platform and is used by IBM, Microsoft, Yahoo!, Walmart, Groupon, SAP, LinkedIn, Rakuten, PayPal, Voxer, and GoDaddy.
Node.js was invented in 2009 by Ryan Dahl, and other developers working at Joyent. Node.js was created and first published for Linux use in 2009. Its development and maintenance was spearheaded by Ryan Dahl and sponsored by Joyent, the firm where Dahl worked.
Dahl was inspired to create Node.js after seeing a file upload progress bar on Flickr. The browser did not know how much of the file had been uploaded and had to query the Web server. Dahl desired an easier way.
In 2011, a package manager was introduced for Node.js library, called npm. The package manager allows publishing and sharing of open-source Node.js libraries by the community, and simplifies installation, updating and uninstallation of libraries.
In January 2012, Dahl stepped aside, promoting coworker and npm creator Isaac Schlueter to manage the project.
In January 2014, Schlueter announced Timothy J. Fontaine would be Node.js's new project lead.
In December 2014, Fedor Indutny started io.js, a fork of Node.js. Due to internal conflict over Joyent's governance, io.js was created as an open governance alternative with a separate technical committee.
In February 2015, the intent to form a neutral Node.js Foundation was announced. By June 2015, the Node.js and io.js community voted to work together under the Node.js Foundation 
Node.js is primarily used to build network programs such as web servers, making it similar to PHP and Python. The biggest difference between PHP and Node.js is that PHP is a blocking language (commands execute only after the previous command has completed), while Node.js is a non-blocking language (commands execute in parallel, and use callbacks to signal completion).
- V8 is open-source under the BSD license
- V8 is extremely fast
- V8 is focused on the web, so is proficient with internet fundamentals like HTTP, DNS, TCP
Thousands of open-source libraries have been built for Node.js, and can be downloaded for free from the npm website. Node.js has a developer community centered around two mailing lists and the IRC channel #node.js on freenode. The community gathers at NodeConf, an annual developer conference focused on Node.js.
Node.js operates on a single thread, using non-blocking I/O calls, allowing it to support tens of thousands of concurrent connections without incurring the cost of thread context-switching. The design of sharing a single thread between all the requests means it can be used to build highly concurrent applications. The design goal of a Node.js application is that any function performing I/O must use a callback.
A downside of this approach is that Node.js doesn't allow scaling with the number of CPU cores of the machine it is running on without using an additional module such as cluster, StrongLoop Process Manager, or pm2.
npm is the pre-installed package manager for the Node.js server platform. It is used to install Node.js programs from the npm registry. By organizing the installation and management of third-party Node.js programs, it helps developers build faster. npm is not to be confused with the CommonJS require() statement. It is not used to load code: instead, it is used to install code and manage code dependencies from the command line. The packages found in the npm registry can range from simple helper libraries like Underscore.js to task runners like Grunt.
Node.js registers itself with the operating system so that it is notified when a connection is made. When a connection is made, the operating system will issue a callback. Within the Node.js runtime, each connection is a small heap allocation. Traditionally, relatively heavyweight OS processes or threads handled each connection. Node.js, however, uses an event loop, instead of processes or threads, to scale to millions of connections happening at the same time. In contrast to other event-driven servers, Node.js's event loop does not need to be called explicitly. Instead callbacks are defined, and the server automatically enters the event loop at the end of the callback definition. Node.js exits the event loop when there are no further callbacks to be performed.
- Desktop IDEs
- Atom (free open-source)
- Brackets (free open-source)
- Eclipse IDE(free open-source)
- Sublime Text (commercial)
- JetBrains IntelliJ IDEA (commercial)
- JetBrains WebStorm (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (commercial)
- Microsoft Visual Studio with TypeScript (commercial)
- NetBeans (free open-source)
- Nodeclipse Enide Studio (free open-source, Eclipse-based)
- NoFlo – flow-based programming environment integrated with GNOME APIs
- Visual Studio Code (cross platform, closed-source freeware)
- Online code editors
- Codeanywhere (cloud service)
- Koding (cloud service)
- Codenvy IDE (cloud service)
- Cloud9 IDE (cloud service)
- Codiad (self hosted service)
- repl.it (self hosted service)
- Runtimes and debuggers
- Microsoft Visual Studio (commercial) with Node.js Tools for Visual Studio (free)
- Microsoft WebMatrix (closed-source freeware)
- Visual Studio Code (cross platform, closed-source freeware)
- Application performance management
- ruxit (cloud service, commercial) – SaaS based APM solution
- AppNeta (cloud service, commercial) - APM for Node.js and distributed environments.
- Server frameworks: Express.js, Socket.IO, Koa.js, Hapi.js, Total.js, Nodal
- MVC frameworks: Meteor, Derby, Sails, Mean, MeanJS, Tower.js, Nombo, Geddy, Compound, Yahoo! Mojito
- Social networks
- Node.js World is a social networking website for Node.js developers
|Original author(s)||Fedor Indutny|
|Developer(s)||io.js Developers, GitHub Contributors|
|Initial release||January 14, 2015|
|Stable release||3.0.0 / August 4, 2015|
|Operating system||OS X, Linux, Microsoft Windows|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to io.js.|
io.js is a fork of Node.js, started in December 2014, by a contributor to the Node.js project. It was expected to be marked stable in March 2015. The reason for forking away from Node.js, was that the authors wanted a project outside corporate governance, and have therefore created an "open governance" system consisting of a technical committee which the authors are part of.
As of the week of May 15, 2015, the io.js organization has voted and officially agreed to merge back with the Node.js project under the rubric of a new foundation, the Node Foundation. The combined organization will be named 'nodejs'.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to JXcore.|
Similar environments available for other programming languages include:
- Tornado and Twisted for Python
- Perl Object Environment for Perl
- libevent for C
- Akka for Java and Scala
- EventMachine for Ruby
- vibe.d for D
- Luvit for Lua
- Ocsigen for OCaml
- Node-julia allows using Julia (programming language) with Node.js/io.js using no-overhead calling from either language
- Server-side scripting
- MEAN (software bundle)
- Twisted (software)
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Node.js.|