Noli me tangere (novel)
The original front cover of the book.
|Country||Philippines (first printing in Berlin)|
|Genre||Novel, Fiction, Satire, Philippine History|
|Media type||Print (hardcover)|
|Followed by||El filibusterismo|
Part of a series on the
|History of the Philippines|
Noli Me Tángere (Latin for Touch Me Not) is a novel written by José Rizal, one of the national heroes of the Philippines, during the colonization of the country by Spain to expose the inequities of the Spanish Catholic priests and the ruling government.
Originally written in Spanish, the book is more commonly published and read in the Philippines in either Tagalog or English. Together with its sequel, El Filibusterismo, the reading of Noli is obligatory for high school students throughout the country.
- 1 Title
- 2 Background
- 3 Plot
- 4 Publication history
- 5 Reaction and legacy
- 6 Major characters
- 7 Other characters
- 8 Translations
- 9 Adaptations
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The title is Latin for "Touch me not", and is taken from John 20:17 in the Bible, where a newly-risen Jesus admonishes a bewildered Mary Magdalene: “Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father.”
Early English translations of the novel used titles like An Eagle Flight (1900) and The Social Cancer (1912), disregarding the symbolism of the title, but the more recent translations were published using the original Latin title. It has also been noted by the Austro-Hungarian writer Ferdinand Blumentritt that "Noli Me Tángere" was a name used by ophthalmologists for cancer of the eyelids; that as an ophthalmologist himself Rizal was influenced by this fact is suggested in the novel's dedication, "To My Country".
José Rizal, a Filipino nationalist and medical doctor, conceived the idea of writing a novel that would expose the ills of Philippine society after reading Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. He preferred that the prospective novel express the way Filipino culture was backward, anti-progress, anti-intellectual, and not conducive to the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment. He was then a student of medicine in the Universidad Central de Madrid.
In a reunion of Filipinos at the house of his friend Pedro A. Paterno in Madrid on 2 January 1884, Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines written by a group of Filipinos. His proposal was unanimously approved by the Filipinos present at the tite, among whom were Pedro, Maximino Viola and Antonio Paterno, Graciano López Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorente and Valentin Ventura. However, this project did not materialize. The people who agreed to help Rizal with the novel did not write anything. Initially, the novel was planned to cover and describe all phases of Filipino life, but almost everybody wanted to write about women. Rizal even saw his companions spend more time gambling and flirting with Spanish women. Because of this, he pulled out of the plan of co-writing with others and decided to draft the novel alone.
Having completed his studies in Europe, young Juan Crisostomo Magsalin Ibarra (Spanish Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin) returns to the Philippines after a seven-year absence. In his honor, Don Santiago de los Santos, also known as "Captain Tiago", a family friend, throws a reunion party, attended by friars and other prominent figures. One of the guests, a Franciscan friar named Dámaso Vardolagas, the former curate of San Diego, belittled and slandered Ibarra.
The next day, Ibarra visits his betrothed María Clara, the beautiful daughter of Captain Tiago and affluent resident of Binondo. Their long-standing love was clearly manifested in this meeting, and María Clara cannot help but reread the letters her sweetheart had written her before he went to Europe. Before Ibarra left for San Diego in time for the town fiesta, Lieutenant Guevara, a Civil Guard, reveals to him the incidents preceding the death of his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, a rich hacendero of the town.
According to Guevara, Rafael discovered the abuses and corruption committed by the friars. Although a practicing Catholic, Rafael's non-participation in the Sacraments, such as Confession and Mass were caused by another discovery of Damaso's evil acts. He was then alleged by Damaso as a subversive and was unjustly accused of being a heretic. Fr. Dámaso's animosity towards Ibarra's father is aggravated by another incident when Don Rafael helped out to stop a fight between a tax collector and a child, with the former's accidental death being blamed on him. People who thought ill of him surfaced with additional complaints. Rafael was imprisoned, and just when the matter was almost settled, he died of an illness in jail. Guevara adds that Rafael's remains, formerly interred at the local cemetery, were ordered by Dámaso to be exhumed and transferred to the Chinese cemetery, which Damaso believes is a burial place for heathens; people who do not acknowledge God few years past. However the graveyard caretakers, who sympathize Rafael and the Ibarra family while also despising the friars, instead threw the remains in the lake to fool Dámaso.
Revenge was not in Ibarra's plans, instead he carried through his father's plan of putting up a school, since he believed education would pave the way to his country's progress (all throughout the novel, the author refers to both Spain and the Philippines as two different countries but part of the same nation or family, with Spain seen as the mother and the Philippines as the daughter). During the inauguration of the school, Ibarra would have been killed in a sabotage had Elías — a mysterious man who had warned Ibarra earlier of a plot to assassinate him — not warned him of the plot (which involved the derrick supporting the cornerstone to be laid on the foundation collapsing on him). Instead the hired assassin was killed.
After the inauguration, Ibarra hosted a luncheon wherein Dámaso attended despite not being invited. The friar again insulted Ibarra, who ignored the priest's insolence. But when Dámaso slandered the memory of his dead father, Ibarra was no longer able to restrain himself. He picks up a knife and lunged at Dámaso, holding the knife to his neck. After Ibarra tells everyone the truth about the friar's evil acts and what he had done to insult his late father, he berates Dámaso and prepares to stab him to death only for Maria Clara to stop him out of mercy. Ibarra aborts his plan to kill Dámaso, and is excommunicated for assaulting a cleric after news of the incident reaches the Church. Damaso takes this opportunity to persuade the already-hesitant Tiago to forbid his daughter from marrying Ibarra. The friar instead wanted María Clara to marry Alfonso Linares de Espadaña, a Peninsular who just arrived from Spain.
With the help of the sympathetic Governor-General, Ibarra's excommunication was lifted by Archbishop of Manila and he (the Archbishop) receives him into the Church once again. A revolt happened soon after, and both Spanish colonial officials and friars implicated Ibarra as its mastermind. Thus, he was arrested and detained, then later disdained by those who had become his friends.
Meanwhile, in Capitán Tiago's residence, a party was being held to announce the upcoming wedding of María Clara and Linares. Ibarra, with the help of Elías and the sympathetic Governor-General, took this opportunity to escape from prison. Before leaving, Ibarra spoke to María Clara and accused her of betraying him, thinking she gave the letter he wrote her to the jury. María Clara explained that she would never conspire against him, but that she was forced to surrender Ibarra's letter to Father Salví, in exchange for the letters written by her mother, Doña Pia, even before she, María Clara, was born. The letter states that Damaso is Maria Clara's real father.
María Clara, thinking Ibarra had been killed in the shooting incident, was greatly overcome with grief. Robbed of hope and severely disillusioned, she asked Dámaso to confine her to a nunnery. Dámaso reluctantly agreed when she threatened to take her own life, demanding, “the nunnery or death!” Unbeknownst to her, Ibarra was still alive and able to escape, as it was Elías who had taken the shots.
On Christmas Eve, a fatally injured Elías awakens in a forested land owned by Ibarra's family, where he had instructed Ibarra to meet him. Instead, Elías found the altar boy Basilio cradling his already-dead mother, Sisa. The woman descended to madness after learning that Basilio and her other son, Crispín, were chased out of the convento by the sacristan mayor on suspicions of stealing two gold pieces.
Elías, convinced he would die soon, instructs Basilio to build a funeral pyre and cremate his and Sisa's corpses. He tells Basilio that, if nobody reaches the place, he was to return later and dig some of Ibarra's treasures and gold buried in a concealed spot near their graves then use them to get education. In his dying breath, he instructed Basilio to continue dreaming about freedom for his motherland with the words:
|“||I shall die without seeing the dawn break upon my homeland. You, who shall see it, salute it! Do not forget those who have fallen during the night.||”|
Elías died thereafter.
In the epilogue, it was explained that Tiago became addicted to opium and was seen to frequent the public opium den in Binondo. María Clara became a nun and Salví, who had lusted after her from the beginning of the novel, regularly used her to sate his carnal desires. One stormy evening, a beautiful yet insane woman was seen on the roof of the nunnery, crying and cursing the heavens for the fate it had handed her. While the woman was never identified by name, the novel insinuates that it was María Clara.
Rizal finished the novel in December 1886. At first, according to one of Rizal's biographers, Rizal feared the novel might not be printed, and that it would remain unread. He was struggling with financial constraints at the time and thought it would be hard to pursue printing the novel.
Financial aid came from a friend named Máximo Viola; this helped him print the book at Berliner Buchdruckerei-Aktiengesellschaft in Berlin. Rizal was initially hesitant, but Viola insisted and ended up lending Rizal ₱300 for 2,000 copies. The printing was finished earlier than the estimated five months. Viola arrived in Berlin in December 1886, and by March 21, 1887, Rizal had sent a copy of the novel to his friend, Blumentritt.
The book was banned by Spanish authorities in the Philippines, although copies were smuggled into the country. The first Philippine edition (and the second published edition) was finally printed in 1899 in Manila by Chofre y Compania in Escolta.
Recent English editions
On August 21, 2007, a 480-page English-language version of Noli me tangere was released to major Australian book stores. An Australian edition of the novel was published by Penguin Classics (an imprint by Penguin Books) to represent the company's "commitment to publish the major literary classics of the world." American writer Harold Augenbraum, who first read Noli in 1992, translated the novel. A writer well-acquainted with translating other Hispanophone literary works, Augenbraum proposed to translate the novel after being asked for his next assignment in the publishing company. Intrigued by the novel and knowing more about it, Penguin nixed their plan of adapting existing English versions and instead translated it on their own. ...
Reaction and legacy
This novel and its sequel, El filibusterismo (nicknamed El fili), were banned in Spanish Philippines because of their portrayal of corruption and abuse by the colonial government and the Catholic Church. Copies of the book were nevertheless smuggled in and hidden, and when Rizal returned to the Philippines after completing medical studies, he quickly ran afoul of the local government. A few days after his arrival, Rizal was summoned to Malacañan Palace by Governor-General Emilio Terrero, who told him of the charge that Noli me tangere contained subversive elements. After a discussion, Terrero was appeased but still unable to offer resistance to pressure from the Church against the book. The persecution can be discerned from Rizal's letter to Leitmeritz:
|“||My book made a lot of noise; everywhere, I am asked about it. They wanted to anathematize me ['to excommunicate me'] because of it... I am considered a German spy, an agent of Bismarck, they say I am a Protestant, a freemason, a sorcerer, a damned soul and evil. It is whispered that I want to draw plans, that I have a foreign passport and that I wander through the streets by night...||”|
Rizal was exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, then later arrested for "inciting rebellion" based largely on his writings. Rizal was executed by firing squad at the Luneta outside Manila's walls on December 30, 1896 at the age of thirty-five, at the park that now bears his name.
Influence on Filipino nationalism
Rizal depicted nationality by emphasising the positive qualities of Filipinos: the devotion of a Filipina and her influence on a man's life, the deep sense of gratitude, and the solid common sense of the Filipinos under the Spanish regime.
The work was instrumental in creating a unified Filipino national identity and consciousness, as many natives previously identified with their respective regions. It lampooned, caricatured and exposed various elements in colonial society. Two characters in particular have become classics in Filipino culture: María Clara, who has become a personification of the ideal Filipino woman, loving and unwavering in her loyalty to her spouse; and the priest Father Dámaso, who reflects the covert fathering of illegitimate children by members of the Spanish clergy.
The book indirectly influenced the Philippine Revolution of independence from Spain, even though Rizal actually advocated direct representation to the Spanish government and an overall larger role for the Philippines within Spain's political affairs. In 1956, Congress passed Republic Act 1425, more popularly known as the Rizal Law, which requires all levels in Philippine schools to teach the novel as part of their curriculum. Noli me tangere is being taught to third year secondary school students, while its sequel El filibusterismo is being taught for fourth year secondary school students. The novels are incorporated to their study and survey of Philippine literature. Both of Rizal's novels were initially banned from strict Catholic educational institutions given its negative portrayal of the Church, but this taboo has been largely superseded as religious schools conformed to the Rizal Law.
Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin, commonly referred to the novel as Ibarra or Crisóstomo, is the novel's protagonist. The mestizo (mixed-race) son of Filipino businessman Don Rafael Ibarra, he studied in Europe for seven years. Ibarra is also María Clara's fiancé.
Several sources claim that Ibarra is also Rizal's reflection: both studied in Europe and both persons believe in the same ideas. Upon his return, Ibarra requested the local government of San Diego to construct a public school to promote education in the town.
María Clara de los Santos y Alba, commonly referred to as María Clara, is Ibarra's fiancée and the most beautiful and widely celebrated girl in San Diego. She was raised by Capitán Tiago de los Santos, San Diego's cabeza de barangay (town head), and his cousin, Isabel. In the later parts of the novel, she was revealed to be an illegitimate daughter of Father Dámaso, the comer curate of the town, and Doña Pía Alba, Capitán Tiago's wife, who had died giving birth to María Clara.
At the novel's end, a heartbroken yet resolved María Clara entered the Beaterio de Santa Clara (a nunnery) after learning the truth of her parentage and mistakenly believing her lover Crisóstomo to have been killed. In the epilogue, Rizal stated that it is unknown if María Clara is still living within the walls of the convent or she is already dead.
Don Santiago de los Santos, known by his nickname Tiago and political title Capitán Tiago is it is said that Kapitán Tiago is the richest man in the region of Binondo and he possessed real properties in Pampanga and Laguna de Bay. He is also said to be a good Catholic, a friend of the Spanish government and thus was considered a Spaniard by the colonial elite. Capitán Tiago never attended school, so he became the domestic helper of a Dominican friar who gave him an informal education. He later married Pía Alba from Santa Cruz.
Dámaso Verdolagas, or Padre Dámaso is a Franciscan friar and the former parish curate of San Diego. He is notorious for speaking with harsh words, highhandedness, and his cruelty during his ministry in the town. An enemy of Crisóstomo's father, Don Rafael Ibarra, Dámaso is revealed to be María Clara's biological father. Later, he and María Clara had bitter arguments whether she would marry Alfonso Linares de Espadaña (which he preferred) or to enter the nunnery (her desperate alternative). At the end of the novel, he is again reassigned to a distant town and later found dead in his bed.
Elías is Ibarra's mysterious friend and ally. Elías made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and María Clara and her friends. He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression.
The 50th chapter of the novel explores the past of Elías and history of his family. In the past, Ibarra's great-grandfather condemned Elías' grandfather of burning a warehouse which led to misfortune for Elías' family. His father was refused the hand of his mother as her family had discovered his past and lineage. In the long run, Elías and his twin sister were raised by their maternal grandfather. When they were teenagers, their distant relatives called them hijos de bastardo (illegitimate children). One day, his sister disappeared which led him to search for her. His search led him into different places, and finally, he became a fugitive and subversive.
Filosofo Tacio, known by his Tagalized name Pilosopo Tasyo, is another major character in the story. Seeking for reforms from the government, he expresses his ideals in paper written in a cryptographic alphabet similar from hieroglyphs and Coptic figures hoping "that the future generations may be able to decipher it" and realized the abuse and oppression done by the conquerors.
His full name is only known as Don Anastasio. The educated inhabitants of San Diego labeled him as Filosofo Tacio (Tacio the Sage) while others called him as Tacio el Loco (Tacio the Insane) due to his exceptional talent for reasoning.
Doña Victorina de los Reyes de Espadaña, commonly known as Doña Victorina, is an ambitious Filipina who classifies herself as a Spanish and mimics Spanish ladies by putting on heavy make-up. The novel narrates Doña Victorina's younger days: she had lots of admirers, but she spurned them all because none of them were Spaniards. Later on, she met and married Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, an official of the customs bureau ten years her junior. However, their marriage is childless.
Her husband assumes the title of medical "doctor" even though he never attended medical school; using fake documents and certificates, Tiburcio illegally practices medicine. Tiburcio's usage of the title Dr. consequently makes Victorina assume the title Dra. (doctora, female doctor). Apparently, she uses the whole name Doña Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadaña, with double de to emphasize her marriage surname. She seems to feel that this awkward titling makes her more "sophisticated."
Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio
Sisa, Crispín, and Basilio represent a Filipino family persecuted by the Spanish authorities:
- Narcisa or Sisa is the deranged mother of Basilio and Crispín. Described as beautiful and young, although she loves her children very much, she can not protect them from the beatings of her husband, Pedro.
- Crispín is Sisa's 7-year-old son. An altar boy, he was unjustly accused of stealing money from the church. After failing to force Crispín to return the money he allegedly stole, Father Salví and the head sacristan killed him. It is not directly stated that he was killed, but a dream of Basilio's suggests that Crispín died during his encounter with Padre Salví and his minion.
- Basilio is Sisa's 10-year-old son. An acolyte tasked with ring the church's bells for the Angelus, he faced the dread of losing his younger brother and the descent of his mother into insanity. At the end of the novel, a dying Elías requested Basilio to cremate him and Sisa in the woods in exchange for a chest of gold located nearby. He will later play a major role in El Filibusterismo.
Due to their tragic but endearing story, these characters are often parodied in modern Filipino popular culture.
- Salomé is Elías' sweetheart. She lived in a little house by the lake, and though Elías would like to marry her, he tells her that it would do her or their children no good to be related to a fugitive like himself. In the original publication of Noli, the chapter that explores the identity of Elías and Salomé was omitted, classifying her as a total non-existing character. This chapter, entitled Elías y Salomé was probably the 25th chapter of the novel. However, recent editions and translations of Noli provides the inclusion of this chapter, either on the appendix or renamed as Chapter X (Ex).
There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Noli Me Tángere. Items indicated inside the parenthesis are the standard Filipinization of the Spanish names in the novel.
- Padre Hernándo de la Sibyla – a Dominican friar. He is described as short and has fair skin. He is instructed by an old priest in his order to watch Crisóstomo Ibarra.
- Padre Bernardo Salví – the successor of Padre Dámaso as the Franciscan curate of San Diego, and who secretly lusts after María Clara. He is described to be very thin and sickly. It is also hinted that his surname, "Salvi" is the shorter form of "Salvi" ("salvation"), or "Salvi" is short for "salvaje" ("savage", "wild") hinting at the fact that he is willing to kill an innocent child, Crispín, who he accused of stealing money worth 2 onzas.
- El Alférez (Alperes) – the unnamed chief of the Guardia Civil and husband of Doña Consolación. He is the sworn enemy of the priests in the town's power struggle.
- Doña Consolación – wife of the Alférez, nicknamed as la musa de los guardias civiles (The muse of the Civil Guard) or la Alféreza. She was a former laundrywoman who passes herself as a peninsular, and is best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa.
- Don Tiburcio de Espadaña – A Spanish quack doctor who is weak and submissive to his pretentious wife, Doña Victorina.
- Teniente Guevara - a close friend of Don Rafael Ibarra. He reveals to Crisóstomo how Don Rafael Ibarra's death came about.
- Alfonso Linares – A distant nephew of Tiburcio de Espadaña, the would-be fiancé of María Clara. Although he presented himself as a practitioner of law, it was later revealed that he is, like Don Tiburcio, a fraud. He later died from medications Don Tiburcio had given him.
- Tía Isabel – Capitán Tiago's cousin, who helped raise María Clara and served as a surrogate mother figure.
- Governor-General (Gobernador-Heneral) – Unnamed in the novel, he is the most powerful colonial official in the Philippines. He harbours great disdain for the friars and corrupt officials, and sympathises with Ibarra.
- Don Filipo Lino – vice mayor of the town of San Diego, leader of the liberals.
- Padre Manuel Martín – he is the linguist curate of a nearby town who delivers the sermon during San Diego's fiesta.
- Don Rafael Ibarra – the deceased father of Crisóstomo Ibarra. Though he was the richest man in San Diego, he was also the most virtuous and generous.
- Doña Pía Alba – wife of Capitán Tiago and mother of María Clara, she had died giving birth to her daughter. In reality, she was raped by Padre Dámaso.
- Don Pedro Eibarramendia - Crisóstomo Ibarra's Basque great-grandfather who falsely accused Elias's grandfather and ruined his family. The surname was later shortened to Ibarra, hence Elias does not realize the relationship at first.
Many English and Tagalog translations have been made of Noli Me Tángere, as well as a few other languages. The copyrights of the original text have expired, and the copyrights of some translators have also expired, so certain translations are in the public domain and have been put online by Project Gutenberg.
- Friars and Filipinos (1900) by Frank Ernest Gannett. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.
- The Social Cancer (1912) by Charles Derbyshire. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.
- "Noli Me Tángere": A Complete English Translation of Noli Me Tángere from the Spanish of Dr. José Rizal (1956) by Senator Camilo Osías.
- The Lost Eden (1961) by Leon Ma. Guerrero.
- Noli Me Tángere (1997) by Maria Soledad Locsin.
- Noli Me Tángere (2006) by Harold Augenbraum. Published by Penguin Classics.
- Noli Me Tángere (also titled Huwag Akong Salangin Nino Man/Nobody Dare Touch Me) (1906) by Dr. Pascual H. Poblete. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.
- Noli Me Tángere (1997) by Virgilio Almario.
- Noli Me Tángere (1999) by Ofelia Jamilosa-Silapan, Tagalog translation of the English translation by León Ma. Guerrero.
- Au Pays des Moines (In the Land of Monks) (1899, French) by Henri Lucas and Ramon Sempau. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.
- N'y touchez pas! (Don't touch it!) (1980, French) Translation by Jovita Ventura Castro, Collection UNESCO, Connaissance de l'Orient, Gallimard, Paris.
- Noli me tángere (1987, German) by Annemarie del Cueto-Mörth. Published by Insel Verlag.
- Noli me tángere (2003, Italian) by Vasco Caini. Published by Debatte editore, Livorno, Italy, ISBN 88-86705-26-3.
- Noli me Tángere: Filippijnsche roman (Noli Me Tángere: Filipino Novel) (1912, Dutch) by Abraham Anthony Fokker, published by Soerabaijasch Handelsblad. Available freely via Project Gutenberg.
The Noli has been adapted for literature, theater, television, and film.
- 1915: Noli Me Tángere, a silent film adaptation by Edward M. Gross.
- 1930: Noli Me Tángere, another silent film adaptation, directed by José Nepomuceno under Malayan Movies.
- 1951: National Artist for Cinema Gerardo de León directed a motion picture titled Sisa, starring Anita Linda in the role of the titular character.
- 1961: Noli Me Tángere, a faithful film adaptation of the novel, was directed by Gerardo de León for Bayanihan-Arriva Productions, featuring Eddie del Mar in the role of Crisóstomo Ibarra. Released for the birth centenary of José Rizal, the motion picture was awarded the Best Picture in the 10th FAMAS Awards.
- 1992: Noli Me Tángere, a 13-episode TV series by Eddie S. Romero. This adaptation features Joel Torre in the role of Crisóstomo Ibarra, Chin Chin Gutierrez as María Clara, and Tetchie Agbayani as Sisa.
- 1995: Noli Me Tángere, a musical adaptation of the novel starring Audie Gemora as Crisóstomo Ibarra, Monique Wilson as María Clara, and Regine Velasquez as Sisa. Music by Ryan Cayabyab.
- Several excerpts from Noli Me Tángere were dramatized in the 1998 film José Rizal, with Joel Torre as Crisóstomo Ibarra and Monique Wilson as María Clara.
- 1998: Sisa, a remake of the 1951 film of the same name. Written and directed by Mario O'Hara.
- 2005: Noli Me Tángere 2, a modern literary adaptation of the novel written by Roger Olivares.
- 2008–2009: Noli at Fili: Dekada 2000, a stage adaptation of Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo by the Philippine Educational Theater Association, set in the present day, in the fictional town of Maypajo in the province of San Lorenzo. Written by Nicanor G. Tiongson and directed by Soxie Topacio.
In popular culture
- A series of streets in the Sampaloc area of Manila are named after the characters Ibarra, Sisa and Basilio.
- A street in Makati city is called Ibarra Street between Matanzas and Guernica streets
- A restaurant serving Filipino cuisine at Greenbelt in Makati is called Restaurante Pia y Damaso, after María Clara's biological parents.
- A restaurant chain called Crisostomo features dishes from Filipino history and culture such as "Atcharra ni Ibarra". Its sister restaurant is called Elías.
- "John 20 (King James Version)". Bible Gateway. Retrieved on 2012-10-02.
- "Father Dámaso Explains". Web.archive.org. 2009-10-27. Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- "Noli Me Tángere". Jose Rizal University. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- Ubalde, Mark J. (2007-08-22). "Rizal's Noli hits major Aussie book shelves". GMA News. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- Republic Act 1425: AN ACT TO INCLUDE IN THE CURRICULA OF ALL PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS, COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES COURSES ON THE LIFE, WORKS AND WRITINGS OF JOSE RIZAL, PARTICULARLY HIS NOVELS NOLI ME TANGERE AND EL FILIBUSTERISMO, AUTHORIZING THE PRINTING AND DISTRIBUTION THEREOF, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "II: Crisostomo Ibarra". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XIX: A Schoolmaster's Difficulties". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "VI: Capitan Tiago". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LXII: Padre Damaso Explains". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "Epilogue". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "I: A Social Gathering". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "LX: Maria Clara Weds". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXII: Fishing". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXIV: In the Wood". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "L: Elias". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- In Chapter 25, Filosofo Tacio insisted to Ibarra that he cannot understand hieroglyphs or Coptic. Instead, he writes using an invented form of alphabet that is based on Tagalog language. Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XXV: In the House of the Sage". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Derbyshire, Charles (1912). "XLVII: The Espadañas". The Social Cancer. New York: World Book Company. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- "Friars and Filipinos". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- "Noli me tangere : a complete English translation of Noli me tangere from the Spanish of Dr. Jose Rizal / by Camilo Osias". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- "The lost Eden (Noli me tangere) A completely new translation for the contemporary reader by Leon Ma. Guerrero. Foreword by James A. Michener". National Library of Australia. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
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|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Noli me Tangere|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Noli Me Tangere (novel).|
- Original text in Spanish (complete novel)
- Book notes/Summary in Tagalog (Noli Me Tangere)
- Book notes/Summary in English (The Social Cancer)
- Complete English version (The Social Cancer)
- Full Text English translation
- Complete text: HTML, images, OCR (Spanish)
- Charles Derbyshire English translation
- Pascual Poblete Tagalog translation
- Noli Me Tangere public domain audiobook at LibriVox
- Noli Me Tangere: Deciphered in Filipino
- Rizal's Little Odyssey
- Noli Me Tangere 13-episode television series from the Cultural Center of the Philippines
- ¡Caiñgat Cayo!
- Fan Language, an article by Ambeth R. Ocampo regarding romantic practices and sensual undertones which can be found in the unabridged version of Noli Me Tangere, from his Looking Back column on the pages of the Philippine Daily Inquirer on February 2, 2005, page 13, news.google.com
- Opere di José Rizal, versione italiana di Vasco Caini