Leather subculture

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The Leather Pride flag, a symbol for the leather subculture, which was designed by Tony DeBlase in 1989.
S&M participants at Pride London
Leathermen at Cologne Pride, Germany 2014

The leather subculture denotes practices and styles of dress organized around sexual activities that involve leather garments, such as leather jackets, vests, boots, chaps, harnesses, or other items. Wearing leather garments is one way that participants in this culture self-consciously distinguish themselves from mainstream sexual cultures. Many participants associate leather culture with BDSM (Bondage/Discipline, Dominance/Submission, Sado/Masochism, also called "SM" or "S&M") practices and its many subcultures. For some, black leather clothing is an erotic fashion that expresses heightened masculinity or the appropriation of sexual power; love of motorcycles, motorcycle clubs and independence; and/or engagement in sexual kink or leather fetishism.[1]

History[edit]

Male leather culture has existed since the late 1940s,[1] when it likely grew out of post-WWII biker culture. Pioneering motorcycle clubs included the Satyrs Motorcycle Club, established in Los Angeles in 1954; Oedipus Motorcycle Club, also established in Los Angeles in 1958, and the New York Motorbike Club. Early San Francisco clubs included the Warlocks and the California Motor Club,[2] while early clubs in Sydney included the South Pacific Motor Club (SPMC).

These clubs reflected a disaffection with the mainstream culture of post-World War II America, a disaffection whose notoriety — and therefore appeal — expanded after the sensationalized news coverage of the Hollister "riot" of 1947. The 1953 film The Wild One, starring Marlon Brando wearing jeans, a T-shirt, a leather jacket, and Muir cap, played on pop-cultural fascination with the Hollister "riot" and promoted an image of masculine independence that resonated with some men who were dissatisfied with mainstream culture. Some butch gays began to imitate Brando by wearing black leather jackets, a black leather cap, black leather boots and jeans and, if they could afford it, by also riding motorcycles.[3] Motorcycle culture also reflected some men's disaffection with the cultures more organized around high culture, popular culture (especially musical theater), and/or camp style. As well, the leather community that emerged from the motorcycle clubs also became the practical and symbolic location for men's open exploration of kink and S&M.[2]

The first gay leather bar in the United States, the Gold Coast, opened in Chicago in 1958, having been founded by Dom Orejudos and Chuck Renslow.[4] South of Market in San Francisco became the hub of the leather subculture in the gay community in 1961 when the Tool Box opened its doors as the first leather bar in the neighborhood.[5] It opened in 1961 at 339 4th St and closed in 1971.[6] It was a gay bar frequented by gay motorcycle clubs.[7][8] It was made famous by the June 1964 Paul Welch Life article entitled "Homosexuality In America," the first time a national publication reported on gay issues. Life 's photographer was referred to the Tool Box by Hal Call, who had long worked to dispel the myth that all homosexual men were effeminate. The article opened with a two-page spread of the mural of life size leathermen in the bar, which had been painted by Chuck Arnett in 1962.[9][7] The article described San Francisco as "The Gay Capital of America" and inspired many gay leathermen to move there.[6] When the Stud, along with Febe's, opened up on Folsom Street in San Francisco in 1966, other gay leather bars and establishments catering to the leather subculture followed creating a foundation for the growing gay leather community.[5][10] The Stud was also originally a Hell's Angels hangout; by 1969 it had become a dance bar for hippies on the margins of the leather scene and had a psychedelic black light mural by Chuck Arnett.

Leather clubs started in Sydney from 1970.

Some bands have used leather culture as part of their image beginning in the 1970s; see § Representations below.

Aspects of leather culture beyond the sartorial can be seen in the 1970 murder mystery novel Cruising, by Jay Green. The novel was the basis for the 1980 movie Cruising, which depicted aspects of the men's leather subculture for a wider audience.

Drumner is an American magazine targeted at gay men, originally published from 1975 to 1999; during the late 20th century, it was the most successful of the American leather magazines, and sold overseas.[11] The publication had a major impact of spreading gay leather as a lifestyle and masculinity as a gay ideal. The magazine was originally focused on quality writings about leather[12] but gradually changed into more of a photo magazine.[13]

In the 1970s Berlin had a huge leather scene with several leather clubs in the area around Nollendorfplatz. The pornographic films of one of Tom of Finland's models Peter Berlin from Berlin, such as his 1973 film Nights in Black Leather, also reflected and promoted the leather subcultural aesthetic. In 1975 Europe's biggest fetish event started, Easter in Berlin Leather Festival. Also in Europe younger men combined the aesthetic and exploration of sexual power with the gay skinhead movement and social-fraternal organizations like BLUF, from the late 1970s.

Cynthia Slater's activism for women to be accepted within the gay leather scene in San Francisco during the late 1970s brought her to mainstream attention.[14][15] Slater persuaded the management of San Francisco's S/M leather club the Catacombs, the most famous fisting club in the world, to open up to lesbians; it was originally a gay men's club.[16][15] It operated from 1975 to 1981, and reopened at another location from 1982 to 1984. Slater was also an early proponent of S/M safety, and one of the major AIDS activists and educators during the late 1970s.[14] Slater hosted Society of Janus safety demonstrations during the late 1970s, cultivating a space for women within the 'plurality of gay men' already present within the leather/kink/fetish Venn-diagramatic culture.[17]

Pat Califia, who identified as a lesbian at the time, was an activist in the San Francisco leather subculture, and is credited for defining the emergence of lesbian leather subculture. On June 13, 1978, Pat Califia, Gayle Rubin, and sixteen others co-founded Samois, a lesbian-feminist BDSM organization in San Francisco that existed from 1978 to 1983 and was the first lesbian BDSM group in the United States. (More under "Lesbian" below).[18] In recent decades the leather community has been considered a subset of BDSM culture rather than the BDSM community being considered a subset of leather culture. Even so, the most visibly organized SM community related to leather has been a subculture of leather, as evidenced by the American competition known as International Mr. Leather (established 1979), and SM in the UK (established 1981). International Ms. Leather was first held in 1987.[19][20]

In 1979 the newly formed San Francisco lesbian motorcycle club, Dykes on Bikes, led what was then called the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade for the first time[21] and has done so ever since (since 1994, the event has been called the San Francisco Pride Parade).

Leather and Lace, a woman's leather/BDSM support and social group, was founded in Los Angeles in 1980. The women of Leather and Lace learned the "old guard" traditions from the men of Avatar.[22] Leather and Lace had a code of conduct and a uniform that could only be worn once a member earned the right.

In a review of 48 cases of clinical fetishism in 1983, fetishes included clothing (58.3%), rubber and rubber items (22.9%), footwear (14.6%), body parts (14.6%), leather (10.4%), and soft materials or fabrics (6.3%).[23]

By the mid-1980s, lesbian motorcycle enthusiasts in other cities besides San Francisco began to form motorcycle clubs.

In 1984, the Folsom Street Fair in San Francisco was held for the first time; it is and was the world's largest leather event and showcase for BDSM products and culture.[24]

Jack Fritscher’s short-story collection Corporal in Charge of Taking Care of Captain O'Malley (Gay Sunshine Press, 1984) was the first collection of leather fiction, and the first collection of fiction from Drummer. The title entry Corporal in Charge was the only play published by editor Winston Leyland in the Lambda Literary Award winner Gay Roots: Twenty Years of Gay Sunshine - An Anthology of Gay History, Sex, Politics & Culture (1991).

Competing in the 1986 International Mr. Leather contest inspired Steve Maidhof to organize a conference for members of the growing leather, SM, and fetish community, which would focus on education and political activism. To host this conference, named Living in Leather, Maidhof recruited several friends and leading members of Seattle's leather community including: Cookie Andrews-Hunt, Wayne Gloege, Billy Jefferson, Jan Lyon, George Nelson, and Vik Stump. Together, they formed the National Leather Association (NLA), which officially incorporated in the summer of 1986. In October, they hosted the first Living in Leather (LIL) conference.[25] Adding "International" to its name in 1991, the National Leather Association-International staged "Living in Leather" gatherings until 2002. After a period of decline around the turn of the millennium, NLA-I has become more active again and runs a series of awards for fiction and non-fiction writing.

The leather pride flag was designed by Tony DeBlase (who lived 1942–2000). He first presented the design at the International Mister Leather event in Chicago, Illinois, U.S. on 28 May 1989.[26] Initial reaction to the flag was mixed. According to DeBlase's article A Leather Pride Flag,

"Some, particularly on the east coast, reacted positively to the concept, but were quite concerned, some even offended, that I had not involved the community in helping to create the design."[27]

In June 1989 the flag was used by the leather contingent in a Portland, Oregon pride parade, which was its first appearance at a pride parade.[28]

In the 1980s and early 1990s, lesbian leatherwomen were often involved in helping to care for gay leathermen who had been stricken with AIDS.

The Leather Archives and Museum in Chicago was founded in 1991 by Chuck Renslow and Tony DeBlase as a “community archives, library, and museum of Leather, kink, fetish, and BDSM history and culture.”[29][30]

In 1997 the (American) National Coalition for Sexual Freedom was founded; the NCSF's mission as described on its web page is:

The NCSF is committed to creating a political, legal and social environment in the US that advances equal rights for consenting adults who engage in alternative sexual and relationship expressions. The NCSF aims to advance the rights of, and advocate for consenting adults in the BDSM-Leather-Fetish, Swing, and Polyamory Communities. We pursue our vision through direct services, education, advocacy, and outreach, in conjunction with our partners, to directly benefit these communities.[31]

In 2002, an article in the Washington Post publicly highlighted Jack McGeorge’s leadership in the Washington, DC leather and BDSM community.[32] McGeorge had made no attempt to conceal his involvement in the BDSM and leather lifestyles; his full name appeared prominently on websites, and he said as much to the Post and other media. He did, however, offer his resignation to Hans Blix, hoping to preserve the credibility of his organization (the U.N. Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission, called UNMOVIC)[33][34][35] before the weapons inspections in Iraq. Blix refused to accept McGeorge's resignation. Later, Hua Jiang, spokeswoman for U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan, said that being into BDSM was no more likely to be a cross-cultural problem in the Middle East than any number of other issues.[citation needed]

In 2005 Viola Johnson started The Carter/Johnson Library & Collection, a “collection of thousands of books, magazines, posters, art, club and event pins, newspapers, event programs and ephemera showing leather, fetish, S/M erotic history."[36][37]

In 2009 the Leather Hall of Fame began inducting members.[38]

Leather & Grace, a (now defunct) organization of Unitarian Universalist kinksters, was founded in 2011, and combined a red flaming chalice with the stripes of the leather pride flag for their logo.[39][40]

The LGBTQ and Leather Cultural District was created in South of Market, San Francisco in 2018.[41] It includes the San Francisco South of Market Leather History Alley, with four works of art, which opened in 2017.[42][43]

Traditions[edit]

Throughout the history of the leather subculture, a variety of traditions have been observed, often diligently.[44] While most or all are based on military protocols and ritual, these traditions varied widely between regions, causing much debate today over which traditions are the original or true traditions, or whether the "romanticized versions of leather history" ever existed at all.[45]

As time has progressed and BDSM has become more mainstream (see below), the traditions of leather have adapted. The first major evolution has become known as "New Leather" or "New Guard". However, even this is the subject of some disagreement, as many noted authors and historians assert that there are little or no substantive differences.[46][47]

Today, the leather subculture is one of many facets to semi-organized alternative sexuality. Many individuals describe long periods of introspection leading to their choice to identify as "leather".[48] Others do not necessarily associate their leather lifestyle with BDSM, and simply enjoy the sensory experience of leather.[49]

Representations[edit]

The more specific aesthetics of men's leather culture drew on sources including military and police uniforms. This influence is particularly evident in the graphical illustrations of leathermen found in the work of Tom of Finland. The pornographic films of one of his models Peter Berlin from Berlin, such as his 1973 film Nights in Black Leather, also reflected and promoted the leather subcultural aesthetic.

Aspects of leather culture beyond the sartorial can be seen in the 1970 murder mystery novel Cruising by Jay Green. The novel was the basis for the 1980 movie Cruising, which depicted aspects of the men's leather subculture for a wider audience.

A band associated with leather culture is Village People, which began in 1977. According to Jack Fritscher, Jacques Morali drew his inspiration for the four characters of Village People from the gay BDSM leather bar and sex club the Mineshaft's dress code.[50] Glenn Hughes, the original leather biker of the group, frequently attended there.[51] He sported an extravagant horseshoe moustache and wore his trademark leather outfit on and off stage. As he was the band's "biker" and a real-life fanatic, he kept his motorcycle parked inside his home. Eric Anzalone was the Leatherman/Biker of Village People from 1995 to 2017, replacing original member Glenn.[52] However, Glenn continued with management of the band. During his later years, he was known for storming the streets of New York City with his custom Harley-Davidson motorcycle. Glenn, who was also referred to by the masses as "Leatherman", was named on People Magazine's 1979 list of most beautiful people.

Distinct aspects of heavy metal fashion can be credited to various bands, but the band that takes the most credit for revolutionizing the look is Judas Priest, primarily with its singer, Rob Halford, who openly identifies as gay and wears black leather.[53] Halford wore a leather costume on stage as early as 1978 to coincide with the promotion for the Killing Machine (Hell Bent for Leather in the United States) album. In a 1998 interview, Halford described the leather subculture as the inspiration for this look. Shortly after appropriating the leather look, Halford started appearing onstage on a roaring motor bike. Soon, the rest of the band followed.

In the late 1970s many fans of Judas Priest, AC/DC and Meat Loaf began imitating the clothing of leathermen due to the association of such fashions with toughness.[54] Typical heavy metal fashions in the UK, US and Australia included leather battle jackets, combat boots, studded belts, and black leather jackets[55] like the Schott Perfecto.

Freddie Mercury of Queen began incorporating leather into his stage costumes during the band’s 1978 News of the World Tour. By their 1979 Jazz Tour, Mercury was wearing a full leather outfit, which he explained was inspired by clubs he frequented. Leather jackets, trousers, and accessories would feature prominently in his wardrobe for the rest of his touring career.

Joan Jett has a leather pride sticker prominently displayed on her guitar.

Subcultures[edit]

Today, while some may still use the term strictly in the old-fashioned sense (i.e., the romanticized Old Guard), more than ever the leather subculture in the 21st century represents the activities of several major sub-communities.[1] These include BDSM practitioners, and people who have a preference for aggressive or masculine sexual styles; people who love motorcycles; people involved in kink or leather fetishism; and people who participate in large-scale cultural and marketing events such as Folsom Street Fair or leather-themed circuit parties.

Lesbian[edit]

Although gay men are the most visible demographic of the leather community, there are numerous women who identify as leatherwomen – and women have the International Ms. Leather (IMsL) event as their corollary to International Mr. Leather (IML). An example is Joan Jett, who has a leather pride sticker prominently displayed on her guitar.

Relatively few lesbian women were visible during the early emergence of the leather subculture. Pat Califia, who identified as a lesbian at the time, was an activist in the San Francisco leather subculture, and is credited for defining the emergence of lesbian leather subculture. On June 13, 1978, Pat Califia, who identified as a lesbian at the time, Gayle Rubin, and sixteen others co-founded Samois, a lesbian-feminist BDSM organization in San Francisco that existed from 1978 to 1983 and was the first lesbian BDSM group in the United States. (More under "Lesbian" below)[18] In recent decades the leather community has been considered a subset of BDSM culture rather than a descendant of that culture. Even so, the most visibly organized SM community related to leather has been a subculture of leather, as evidenced by the American competition known as International Mr. Leather (established 1979), and SM in the UK (established 1981). International Ms. Leather was first held in 1987.[19][20]

In 1979 the newly formed San Francisco lesbian motorcycle club, Dykes on Bikes, led what was then called the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade for the first time[21] and has done so ever since (since 1994, the event has been called the San Francisco Pride Parade).

Leather and Lace, a woman's leather/BDSM support and social group, was founded in Los Angeles in 1980. The women of Leather and Lace learned the "old guard" traditions from the men of Avatar.[22] Leather and Lace had a code of conduct and a uniform that could only be worn once a member earned the right. In New York, there was LSM. Only members of the club were allowed to know that LSM stood for Lesbian Sex Mafia.

By the mid-1980s, lesbian motorcycle enthusiasts in other cities besides San Francisco began to form motorcycle clubs.

In the 1980s and early 1990s, lesbian leatherwomen were often involved in helping to care for gay leathermen who had been stricken with AIDS.

By age groups[edit]

In the United States men's leather culture has been associated with men above the age of 40 but recent years have seen growing numbers of younger leather men; and in much of the rest of the world, including Europe and Australia, there is a merging of the established older leather community with young leathermen and leatherwomen and kink/fetish/gear communities. In Europe younger men have combined the aesthetic and exploration of sexual power with the gay skinhead movement and social-fraternal organizations like BLUF, from the late 1970s.

Places and events[edit]

Events[edit]

The Folsom Street Fair, begun in 1984, is an annual BDSM and leather subculture street fair held in September, that caps San Francisco's "Leather Pride Week". The Folsom Street Fair, sometimes simply referred to as "Folsom", takes place on Folsom Street between 8th and 13th Streets, in San Francisco's South of Market district. The event is California's third-largest single-day, outdoor spectator event[citation needed] and the world's largest leather event and showcase for BDSM products and culture.[24] Folsom Street Events now organizes many events each year[56] including Folsom Europe.

Other large events include Easter in Berlin (the largest leather event in Europe), International Mr. Leather and Mister Leather Europe, and Amsterdam Leather Pride (see Wikipedia article in Dutch).

Archives[edit]

Many LGBT museums, archives and libraries collect material relating to leather communities, with many holding substantial collections, including the Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives, and the Leather Archives and Museum, the latter being based in Chicago. In 1991 Chuck Renslow and Tony DeBlase founded the Leather Archives and Museum “as a community archives, library, and museum of Leather, kink, fetish, and BDSM history and culture.”[57][29][30] In 2005 Viola Johnson started The Carter-Johnson Leather Library, "a non-profit [501(c)(3) pending] organization that consists of a traveling collection of thousands of books, magazines, posters, art, club and event pins, newspapers, event programs and ephemera showing leather, fetish, S/M erotic history."[36][37]

Cultural districts[edit]

The LGBTQ and Leather Cultural District was created in the South of Market (SoMa) neighborhood of San Francisco in 2018.[58] It includes the San Francisco South of Market Leather History Alley, with four works of art, which opened in 2017:[42][43] the four works of art are: A black granite stone etched with a narrative by Gayle Rubin, an image of the "Leather David" statue by Mike Caffee, a reproduction of Chuck Arnett’s 1962 mural that was in the Tool Box (a gay leather bar),[43][59][7] engraved standing stones that honor community leather institutions (one being the Folsom Street Fair), leather pride flag pavement markings through which the stones emerge, and bronze bootprints along the curb which honor 28 people who were an important part of the leather communities of San Francisco.[43][42]

Bars and urban districts[edit]

Cockring, now closed, was a popular leather and sex club in Amsterdam's Warmoesstraat

Many major cities around the world had or have legendary leather bars and clubs, and in some cases a concentration of these associated a particular district with the leather scene:

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Elegy for the Valley of Kings," by Gayle Rubin, in In Changing Times: Gay Men and Lesbians Encounter HIV/AIDS, ed. Levine et al., University of Chicago Press
  2. ^ a b Rubin, Gayle. "The Miracle Mile: South of Market and Leather, 1962–1997" in Reclaiming San Francisco: History, Politics, Culture (City Light Books, 1998)
  3. ^ "Bay Area Reporter". Ebar.com. p. Page 31 Scott Brogan leather column. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  4. ^ Tracy Baim (1 March 2009). Out and Proud in Chicago: An Overview of the City's Gay Community. Agate Publishing. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-1-57284-643-2.
  5. ^ a b Brook, J., Carlsson, C., and Peters, N. J. (1998). Reclaiming San Francisco: history, politics, culture. San Francisco: City Lights
  6. ^ a b "Leather History Timeline-Leather Archives". Leatherarchives.org. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  7. ^ a b c Rubin, Gayle (1998). "Folsom Street: The Miracle Mile". FoundSF. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  8. ^ "Dress Codes: Chuck Arnett & Sheree Rose". ONE National Gay & Lesbian Archives at the USC Libraries. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  9. ^ "yax-192 Life in 1964, part 1". Yawningbread.org. 27 July 1964. Archived from the original on 20 January 2005. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  10. ^ Achilles, Nancy. (1967). "The Development of the Homosexual Bar as an Institution". In Gagnon, John H. and William Simon. New York: Harper & Row.
  11. ^ Bernadicou, August. "Jack Fritscher". August Nation. The LGBTQ History Project. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  12. ^ Drummer magazine founder John Embry dies. Obituary in the Bay Area Reporter
  13. ^ Gay leather magazines, cuirmale.nl
  14. ^ a b "2014 Leather Hall of Fame Inductee Cynthia Slater (1945–1989)", Leather Hall of Fame Inductees List [1]
  15. ^ a b Call, Lewis. 2013. BDSM in American science fiction and fantasy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p.5
  16. ^ Gayle Rubin, "The Catacombs: A Triumph of the Butthole", in Leatherfolk: Radical Sex, People, Politics, and Practice, Alyson Press, 1992, ISBN 1555831877, pp. 119–141; reprinted in Deviations: A Gayle Rubin Reader, Duke University Press, 2011, ISBN 0822349868, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link), retrieved September 30, 2014.
  17. ^ "THE JANUS SOCIETY: KISS AND DON’T TELL Cynthia Slater and the Catholic Priest", Jack Fritscher. Drummer 27, February 1979.
  18. ^ a b Jeffreys, Sheila (1993). The Lesbian Heresy. North Melbourne, Vic., Australia: Spinifex. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-875559-17-6.
  19. ^ a b Levine, Martin P.; Nardi, Peter M.; Gagnon, John H. (18 August 1997). In Changing Times: Men and Lesbians Encounter HIV/AIDS. p. 126. ISBN 9780226278568.
  20. ^ a b Rubin, Gayle S. (1994). The valley of the kings: leathermen in San Francisco, 1960-1990, Volume 2. University of Michigan. p. 419.
  21. ^ a b "Leather History Timeline-Leather Archives". Leatherarchives.org. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  22. ^ a b "Avatar" is probably a reference to Avatar Club Los Angeles. From the home page:
    Welcome!
    This is the website of Avatar Club Los Angeles, Inc., a non-profit organization providing information and education about safe, sane, and consensual bondage, discipline, kinky and sadomasochistic (BDSM) sex between adults.
  23. ^ Chalkley, A. J.; Powell, G. E. (1983). "The clinical description of forty-eight cases of sexual fetishism". British Journal of Psychiatry. 142 (3): 292–95. doi:10.1192/bjp.142.3.292. PMID 6860882.
  24. ^ a b "Cheap date – what to do?". Cnn.com.
  25. ^ "Finding Aid to the National Leather Association Collection of Records". Leather Archives and Museum. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  26. ^ "Leather History Timeline". Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2008. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  27. ^ "A Leather Pride Flag". leatherarchives.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2008.
  28. ^ "Timeline". Archived from the original on 3 August 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  29. ^ a b "About the LA&M - Leather Archives & Museum". Leatherarchives.org. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
  30. ^ a b Ridinger, Robert (2005). "Founding of the Leather Archives & Museum". LGBT History, 1988–1992 [serial online]. LGBT Life with Full Text, EBSCOhost: 33–36.
  31. ^ Cinkus, Deb. "NCSFreedom - NCSF Mission Statement".
  32. ^ http://www.cyberspaceorbit.com/wapostx.htm
  33. ^ "Obituaries: Harvey J. McGeorge II". The Washington Post. 22 August 2009.
  34. ^ Lolita Wolf (18 August 2009). "Jack McGeorge – obituary".
  35. ^ Harvey J. McGeorge Curriculum Vitae
  36. ^ a b "Carter/Johnson Leather Library". Leatherlibrary.org. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  37. ^ a b "Carter/Johnson Leather Library". www.leatherlibrary.org.
  38. ^ "> Inductees". Leatherhalloffame.com. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  39. ^ "Leather & Grace: L&G's Story". Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  40. ^ "Leather & Grace | Unitarian Universalists for BDSM Awareness". Leatherandgrace.wordpress.com. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  41. ^ Sabatini, Joshua (2018). "SF expands cultural districts to include SoMa's gay and leather community – by j_sabatini – May 1, 2018 – The San Francisco Examiner". Sfexaminer.com. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  42. ^ a b c Posted by Cindy on July 17, 2017 (17 July 2017). "Ringold Alley's Leather Memoir – Public Art and Architecture from Around the World". Artandarchitecture-sf.com. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  43. ^ a b c d Paull, Laura. "Honoring gay leather culture with art installation in SoMa alleyway – J". Jweekly.com. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  44. ^ Guy Baldwin (1993). "THE OLD GUARD (The History of Leather Traditions)". Ties that Bind. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  45. ^ Jay Wiseman. "An Essay About "the Old Days"". Submissive Women Kvetch. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  46. ^ Jack Rinella. "The Myth of the Old Guard". LeatherViews. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  47. ^ Gayle Rubin. "Old Guard, New Guard". Cuir Underground. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  48. ^ Cross (2010). "Finding Leather". Cross Culture BDSM. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  49. ^ "What Does Wearing Leather Mean? Markup". Long Island Ravens MC. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
  50. ^ Jack Fritscher, Robert Mapplethorpe: Assault with a Deadly Camera, p. 509.
  51. ^ Jack Fritscher, Robert Mapplethorpe: Assault with a Deadly Camera, p. 466.
  52. ^ Holly George-Warren, Patricia Romanowski, Patricia Romanowski Bashe, Jon Pareles. The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock and Roll. (2001: Rolling Stone Press) p. 1037. ISBN 978-0-7432-0120-9
  53. ^ Weinstein, Deena (5 August 2009). Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture – Deena Weinstein – Google Boeken. ISBN 9780786751037. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  54. ^ Weinstein, Deena (5 August 2009). Heavy Metal: The Music And Its Culture. Da Capo Press. ISBN 9780786751037. Retrieved 5 December 2017 – via Google Books.
  55. ^ Phillips, William; Cogan, Brian (20 March 2009). Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal Music. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313348013. Retrieved 5 December 2017 – via Google Books.
  56. ^ https://www.folsomstreetevents.org/
  57. ^ Shapiro, Gregg. (2011). "Leatherman's man: an interview with Chuck Renslow's biographer Owen Keehmen". Outlook: Columbus. LGBT Life with Full Text, EBSCOhost. 16 (1): 48. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  58. ^ Sabatini, Joshua (2018). "SF expands cultural districts to include SoMa's gay and leather community – by j_sabatini – May 1, 2018 – The San Francisco Examiner". Sfexaminer.com. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  59. ^ Posted by Cindy on July 17, 2017 (17 July 2017). "Ringold Alley's Leather Memoir – Public Art and Architecture from Around the World". Artandarchitecture-sf.com. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  60. ^ https://www.parool.nl/amsterdam/darkroom-wordt-herinnering-aan-vorige-eeuw-door-grindr~a3827356/
  61. ^ Angelo Pitillo (4 January 2013). "The History of Gay Bars – New York Magazine". Nymag. Retrieved 29 December 2019.