One Hundred and One Dalmatians

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One Hundred and One Dalmatians
One Hundred and One Dalmatians movie poster.jpg
Original theatrical release poster
Directed by
Produced byWalt Disney
Story byBill Peet
Based onThe Hundred and One Dalmatians
by Dodie Smith
Starring
Music byGeorge Bruns
Edited by
  • Roy M. Brewer, Jr.
  • Donald Halliday
Production
company
Distributed byBuena Vista Distribution
Release date
  • January 25, 1961 (1961-01-25)
Running time
79 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$3.6 million[1]
Box office$303 million[2]

One Hundred and One Dalmatians[a] is a 1961 American animated adventure comedy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and based on the 1956 novel The Hundred and One Dalmatians by Dodie Smith. Directed by Clyde Geronimi, Hamilton Luske, and Wolfgang Reitherman, it was Disney's 17th animated feature film. The film tells the story of a litter of Dalmatian puppies who are kidnapped by the villainous Cruella de Vil ("deVille"),[3] who wants to use their fur to make into coats. Their parents, Pongo and Perdita, set out to save their children from Cruella, in the process rescuing 84 additional puppies that were bought in pet shops, bringing the total of Dalmatians to 101.

The film was originally released in theaters on January 25, 1961,[4] and was a box office success, pulling the studio out of the financial slump caused by Sleeping Beauty, a costlier production released two years prior,[5] and became the eighth highest-grossing film of 1961. Aside from its box office revenue, its commercial success was due to the employment of inexpensive animation techniques—such as using xerography during the process of inking and painting traditional animation cels—that kept production costs down. Disney would later release a live-action adaptation named 101 Dalmatians in 1996 and its sequel, 102 Dalmatians in 2000. A direct to video animated sequel to the 1961 film named 101 Dalmatians II: Patch's London Adventure was released in 2003. A live-action spin-off/prequel called Cruella directed by Craig Gillespie is scheduled to be released on May 28, 2021.

Plot[edit]

In London, England, aspiring songwriter Roger Radcliffe lives in a squalid bachelor flat with his Dalmatian dog Pongo. Pongo decides to watch women and their dogs walking in the street until he finds suitable matches for them both. Spotting Anita and her dalmatian Perdita (Perdy), Pongo drags Roger to the park to arrange a meeting. Roger and Anita fall in love and marry, as do Pongo and Perdy.

The family acquires a housekeeper named Nanny and moves to Regent's Park. Perdy becomes pregnant with a litter of puppies. Anita's spoiled, fur-obsessed former schoolmate, Cruella de Vil, stops by and annoys the family. In response, Roger writes a jazzy song to make fun of her. When the puppies are born, one puppy appears to be stillborn, but Roger manages to save his life. Cruella barges in again, and demands to buy the puppies. Roger finally stands up to her; furious, Cruella vows revenge.

Some months later, Nanny puts the puppies to bed after an evening of watching TV while Pongo and Perdy go for a walk with Roger and Anita. Horace and Jasper Baddun, two burglars hired by Cruella, pose as men from the Electric Company and steal the puppies. In response, the Radcliffes enlist Scotland Yard and put advertisements in all the papers. Roger suspects Cruella, but Scotland Yard can find nothing against her.

Perdy and Pongo use the Twilight Bark gossip chain to send news to all the dogs in England, starting with Danny the Great Dane. In Withermarsh, Suffolk, Old Towser the bloodhound passes the word on to the Colonel, an Old English Sheepdog, and his cat friend Sgt. Tibbs. They investigate the nearby "Old De Vil Place", where puppies had been heard barking two days earlier. Tibbs sneaks inside and is nearly killed by Jasper, but sends word back to London via the Colonel that the puppies are found. Pongo and Perdy force their way out a back window and begin a long cross-country journey, crossing a flooded and icy river and running through the snow towards Suffolk.

Meanwhile, Cruella tells the Badduns the police are on their trail. She orders them to kill and skin all the dogs by daybreak. After she leaves, Tibbs helps the puppies escape through a hole in the wall, but the Badduns hear them and give chase. The Colonel meets up with Pongo and Perdy and tells them of the trouble. The two Dalmatians attack Jasper and Horace, destroying part of the house and giving the puppies time to flee. Pongo and Perdy reunite with their litter of 15 at Colonel and Tibbs' home farm, only to discover there are 84 more puppies with them. Upon learning from Tibbs that Cruella intended to make Dalmatian fur coats, Pongo and Perdy decide to take all 99 pups home with them.

The Dalmatians start their trek, pursued by the Badduns. All water has turned to ice, so the dogs use the creeks to avoid leaving tracks. They shelter from a blizzard in a dairy farm with a friendly collie and some cows, then make their way to Dinsford, where a Black Labrador is waiting for them in a blacksmith's shop. Cruella and the Badduns catch up, so Pongo has his whole family roll in a sooty fireplace to disguise themselves as other Labradors. The Labrador helps them board a moving van bound for London, but melting snow falls on Lucky and exposes his spots. Cruella pursues and tries to ram the moving van. The Baduns, in their own van, attempt the same thing and accidentally smash into Cruella's car, which sends both their vehicles into a snowy ditch. The Moving Van returns to London as Cruella throws a tantrum; Jasper, having had enough of her, tells her to shut up.

Back in London, a sad Nanny and the Radcliffes try to enjoy Christmas, and the wealth they have acquired from the song about Cruella, which has become a big radio hit. The soot-covered Dalmatians suddenly flood the house. Upon removing the soot and counting the massive family of dogs, Roger decides to use the money from his song to buy a big house in the country, forming a "Dalmatian Plantation".

Voice cast[edit]

  • Rod Taylor as Pongo, Roger's pet, Perdita's mate, and the father of 15 of the 99 puppies.
  • Cate Bauer as Perdita, Anita's pet, Pongo's mate, and the mother of 15 of the 99 puppies.
  • Betty Lou Gerson as Cruella De Vil, a spoiled heiress who "worships fur" and hates being denied or disobeyed. She drives a burgundy car similar to a Mercedes-Benz 500K Cabriolet.
    • Gerson also voiced Miss Birdwell, a panelist on the show "What's My Crime?".
    • Mary Wickes served as Cruella's live-action model.
  • Ben Wright as Roger Radcliffe, Pongo's owner and Anita's husband. He works as a songwriter and later creates a hit song about Cruella de Vil, whom he dislikes and does not trust.
    • Bill Lee provided Roger's singing voice.
  • Lisa Davis as Anita Radcliffe, Perdita's owner and Roger's wife. She is, like Perdy, a gentle person. She feels inclined to give Cruella benefit of the doubt, as they went to school together.
  • Martha Wentworth as Nanny, the Radcliffes' elderly cook and housekeeper. She is very maternal and fussy, detests Cruella, and is very attached to the puppies.
    • Wentworth also voiced Queenie, one of three cows who allow the puppies to stay in their barn and drink their milk.
    • Wentworth voiced Lucy the White Goose as well. Lucy is a friend of Old Towser.
  • Frederick Worlock Horace Baddun, one of the Baddun brothers. He is short and fat and often shown eating. He is more intelligent than his brother (he figures out all the dogs' plots) but completely cowed by Jasper's overwhelming personality into thinking he is stupid. He loves "What's My Crime?".
    • Worlock also voiced Inspector Graves, a panelist on the show "What's My Crime?".
  • J. Pat O'Malley as Jasper Baddun, one of the Baddun brothers. He is far taller and thinner than Horace, and is a fast talker and aggressive bully who completely disregards the possibility of sapience in dogs. He also loves "What's My Crime?", and drives a brown van with loose/broken fenders.
    • O'Malley also voiced the Colonel, an Old English Sheepdog who is part of the Twilight Bark. He, Tibbs, and Captain allow the Dalmatian family to stay in their barn one night, and attack the Badduns to buy Pongo and Perdy time to escape.
  • Thurl Ravenscroft as Captain, a horse who aids Pongo, Perdy, and Colonel.
  • David Frankham as Sergeant Tibbs, a tabby cat who is the first to discover the puppies' whereabouts, and masterminds their escape from the Old de Vil Place.
  • Mimi Gibson as Lucky, one of Pongo and Perdita's litter who has a horseshoe of spots on his back. He loves watching TV, and struggles the most on the journey home.
  • Barbara Beaird as Rolly, a puppy who is always hungry, and is shown as pudgier than the rest of the puppies. He even risks stealing food from Horace, and is usually in some sort of trouble.
  • Mickey Maga as Patch, a puppy who loves Thunderbolt and has a spot on his eye. Patch is often seen barking and growling at threats. He is the main character of 101 Dalmatians II: Patch's London Adventure.
  • Sandra Abbott as Penny, the only puppy not named for her appearance or habits.
  • Tudor Owen as Old Towser, a bloodhound who helps spread the news about the stolen puppies.
  • George Pelling as Danny, a Great Dane who aids Pongo and Perdita and is one of the first dogs to answer Pongo's Twilight Bark message.
  • Junius Matthews as Scottie, Danny's terrier friend.
  • Queenie Leonard as Princess, one of the three cows who help the puppies.
  • Marjorie Bennett as Duchess, one of the three cows who help the puppies.
  • Barbara Luddy as Rover, one of the 84 Dalmatian puppies that Cruella bought.
  • Rickie Sorensen as Spotty, one of the 84 Dalmatian puppies that Cruella bought.
  • Tom Conway as the Collie, who offers the Dalmatians shelter for the night at a dairy farm.
    • Conway also voiced the Quizmaster, the host of "What's My Crime?".
  • Ramsay Hill as the Labrador Retriever in Dinsford, who helps load the puppies into the moving van.
  • Paul Wexler as the Mechanic who fixes the van.
  • Basil Ruysdael as the driver of the moving van.
  • Paul Frees as Dirty Dawson, the villain in the "Thunderbolt" TV show. Frees has no spoken dialogue in the film, only laughter.
  • Lucille Bliss as TV Commercial Singer, who sings the "Kanine Krunchies" jingle.

Production[edit]

Story development[edit]

Dodie Smith wrote the book The Hundred and One Dalmatians in 1956. When Walt Disney read it in 1957, it immediately grabbed his attention, and he promptly obtained the rights. Smith had always secretly hoped that Disney would make it into a film.[6] Disney assigned Bill Peet to write the story, which he did, marking the first time that the story for a Disney animated film was written by a single person.[7] Writing in his autobiography, Peet was tasked by Disney to write a detailed screenplay first before storyboarding. Because Peet never learned to use a typewriter, he wrote the initial draft by hand on large yellow tablets.[8] He condensed elements of the original book while enlarging others, some of which included eliminating Cruella's husband and cat, as well merging the two mother Dalmatians, birth mother Missis and adopted mother Perdita, into one character.[9] He also retained a scene in which Pongo and Perdita exchange wedding vows in unison with their owners, by which the censor board warned that it might offend certain religious audiences if the animals repeated the exact words of a solemn religious ceremony. The scene was reworked to be less religious with Roger and Anita dressed in formal clothes.[10]

Two months later, Peet completed the manuscript and had it typed up. Walt said the script was "great stuff" and commissioned Peet to begin storyboarding. Additionally, Peet was charged with the recording of the voice-over process.[8] Although Disney had not been as involved in the production of the animated films as frequently as in previous years, nevertheless, he was always present at story meetings.[11] When Peet sent Dodie Smith some drawings of the characters, she wrote back saying that he had actually improved her story and that the designs looked better than the illustrations in the book.[6]

Animation[edit]

Art direction[edit]

After Sleeping Beauty (1959) disappointed at the box-office, there was some talk of closing down the animation department at the Disney studio.[11] During the production of it, Disney told animator Eric Larson: "I don't think we can continue, it's too expensive".[9] Despite this, he still had deep feelings towards animation because he had built the company upon it.[11]

Ub Iwerks, in charge of special processes at the studio, had been experimenting with Xerox photography to aid in animation. By 1959, he had modified a Xerox camera to transfer drawings by animators directly to animation cels, eliminating the inking process, thus saving time and money while preserving the spontaneity of the penciled elements.[12][7] However, because of its limitations, the camera was unable to deviate from a black scratchy outline and lacked the fine lavish quality of hand inking.[12] Disney would first use the Xerox process for a thorn forest in Sleeping Beauty,[9] and the first production to make full use of the process was Goliath II.[12] For One Hundred and One Dalmatians, one of the benefits of the process was that it was a great help towards animating the spotted dogs. According to Chuck Jones, Disney was able to complete the film for about half of what it would have cost if they had had to animate all the dogs and spots.[13]

Ken Anderson proposed the use of the Xerox on Dalmatians to Walt, who was disenchanted with animation by then, and replied "Ah, yeah, yeah, you can fool around all you want to".[14] For the stylized art direction, Anderson took inspiration from British cartoonist Ronald Searle,[15] who once advised him to use a Mont Blanc pen and India ink for his artwork. In addition to the character animation, Anderson also sought to use Xerography on "the background painting because I was going to apply the same technique to the whole picture".[14] Along with color stylist Walt Peregoy, the two had the line drawings be printed on a separate animation cel before being laid over the background, which gave the appearance similar to the Xeroxed animation.[11][16] Disney disliked the artistic look of the film and felt he was losing the "fantasy" element of his animated films.[11] In a meeting with Anderson and the animation staff concerning future films, Walt said, "We're never gonna have one of those goddamned things" referring to Dalmatians and its technique, and stated, "Ken's never going to be an art director again".[14]

Ken Anderson took this to heart, but Walt eventually forgave him on his final trip to the studio in late 1966. As Anderson recalled in an interview:

He looked very sick, I said "Gee it's great to see you Walt", and he said "You know that thing you did on Dalmatians". He didn't say anything else, but he just gave me this look and I knew that all was forgiven and in his opinion maybe what I did on Dalmatians wasn't so bad. That was the last time I ever saw him. Then, a few weeks later, I learned he was gone.[11]

Live-action reference[edit]

As with the previous Disney films, actors provided live-action reference in order to determine what would work before the animation process begun. Actress Helene Stanley performed the live-action reference for the character of Anita. She did the same work for the characters of Cinderella and Princess Aurora in Sleeping Beauty.[17] Meanwhile, Mary Wickes provided the live-action reference for Cruella de Vil.[18]

Character animation[edit]

Marc Davis was the sole animator on Cruella De Vil. During production, Davis claimed her character was partly inspired by Bette Davis (no relation), Rosalind Russell, and Tallulah Bankhead. He took further influence from her voice actress, Betty Lou Gerson, with whom he added her cheekbones to the character. He later complimented "[t]hat [her] voice was the greatest thing I've ever had a chance to work with. A voice like Betty Lou's gives you something to do. You get a performance going there, and if you don't take advantage of it, you're off your rocker".[19] While her hair coloring originated from the illustrations in the novel, Davis found its disheveled style by looking "through old magazines for hairdos from 1940 till now". Her coat was exaggerated to match her oversized personality, and the lining was red because "there's a devil image involved".[20]

Casting[edit]

Before starring in high-profile roles such as The Birds and The Time Machine, Australian actor Rod Taylor had extensive radio experience, and was cast as Pongo. The filmmakers deliberately cast dogs with deeper voices than their human owners so they had more power.[21] Walt Disney originally had Lisa Davis read for the role of Cruella De Vil, but she did not think that she was right for the part, and wanted to try reading the role of Anita. Disney agreed with her after the two of them read the script for a second time.[22]

Betty Lou Gerson, who was previously the narrator for Cinderella, auditioned for the role of Cruella De Vil in front of Marc Davis and sequence director Wolfgang Reitherman, and landed it.[23] While searching for the right accent of the character, Gerson landed on a "phony theatrical voice, someone who's set sail from New York but hasn't quite reached England".[24] During the recording process, she was thought to be imitating Tallulah Bankhead. However, Gerson disputed, "Well, I didn't intentionally imitate her...I was raised in Birmingham, Ala., and Tallulah was from Jasper, Ala. We both had phony English accents on top of our Southern accents and a great deal of flair. So our voices came out that way".[25] In addition to voicing Mrs. Birdwell, Gerson finished recording in fourteen days.[23]

Music[edit]

In order to have music involved in the narrative, Peet used an old theater trick by which the protagonist is a down-and-out songwriter. However, unlike the previous animated Disney films at the time, the songs were not composed by a team, but by Mel Leven who composed both lyrics and music.[10] Previously, Leven had composed songs for the UPA animation studio in which animators, who transferred to work at Disney, had recommended him to Walt.[26] His first assignment was to compose "Cruella de Vil", of which Leven composed three versions. The final version used in the film was composed as a "bluesy number" prior to a meeting with Walt in forty-five minutes.[10]

The other two songs included in the film are "Kanine Krunchies Jingle" (sung by Lucille Bliss, who voiced Anastasia Tremaine in Disney's 1950 film Cinderella), and "Dalmatian Plantation" in which only two lines are sung by Roger at its closure. Leven had also written additional songs that were not included in the film. The first song, "Don't Buy a Parrot from a Sailor", a cockney chant, was meant to be sung by Jasper and Horace at the De Vil Mansion. A second song, "Cheerio, Good-Bye, Toodle-oo, Hip Hip!" was to be sung by the dalmatian puppies as they make their way into London.[10] A third song titled "March of the One Hundred and One" was meant for the dogs to sing after escaping Cruella by van. Different, longer versions of "Kanine Krunchies Jingle" and "Dalmatian Plantation" appear on the Disneyland Records read-along album based on the film.[27]

Release[edit]

One Hundred and One Dalmatians was first released in theaters on January 25, 1961. The film was re-released theatrically in 1969, 1979, 1985, and 1991.[28] The 1991 reissue was the 20th highest-grossing film of the year for domestic earnings.[29]

Home media[edit]

One Hundred and One Dalmatians was first released on VHS on April 10, 1992, as part of the Walt Disney Classics video series.[30] By June 1992, it had sold 11.1 million copies.[31] At the time, it was the sixth best-selling video of all time.[32] It was re-released on March 9, 1999, as part of the Walt Disney Masterpiece Collection video series. Due to technical issues, it was later released on LaserDisc and was delayed numerous times before its release on DVD. The film was re-released on VHS, and for the first time on DVD, in December 1999, as a Walt Disney Limited Issue for a limited 60-day time period before going into moratorium.[33] A two-disc Platinum Edition DVD was released on March 4, 2008. It was released on Blu-ray Disc in the United Kingdom on September 3, 2012.[34] A Diamond Edition Blu-ray of the film was released in North America on February 10, 2015. A Limited Edition from Disney Movie Club was released on Blu-ray and DVD combo on November 6, 2018. Then it was re-released on HD digital download and Blu-ray on September 24, 2019 as part of the Walt Disney Signature Collection.[35]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

During its initial theatrical run, the film grossed $14 million in the United States and Canada,[36] which generated $6.2 million in distributor rentals.[37] It was also the most popular film of the year in France, with admissions of 14.7 million ranking tenth on their all-time list.[38][39]

The film was re-released in 1969, where it earned $15 million. In its 1979 theatrical re-release, it grossed $19 million, and in 1985, the film grossed $32 million.[36] During its fourth re-release in 1991, it grossed $60.8 million.[40]

Prior to 1995, the film had grossed $86 million overseas.[41] In 1995, it grossed $71 million overseas[42] bringing its international total to $157 million. The film's total domestic lifetime gross is $145 million,[32] and its total worldwide gross is $303 million.[2] Adjusted for inflation, and incorporating subsequent releases, the film has a lifetime gross of $900.3 million.[43]

Critical reaction[edit]

In its initial release, the film received critical acclaim from critics, many of whom hailed it as the studio's best release since Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937) and the closest to a real "Disney" film in many years.[44] Howard Thompson of The New York Times wrote, "While the story moves steadily toward a stark, melodramatic "chase" climax, it remains enclosed in a typical Disney frame of warm family love, human and canine". However, he later opined that the "[s]ongs are scarce, too. A few more would have braced the final starkness".[45] Variety claimed that "While not as indelibly enchanting or inspired as some of the studio's most unforgettable animated endeavors, this is nonetheless a painstaking creative effort".[46] Time praised the film as "the wittiest, most charming, least pretentious cartoon feature Walt Disney has ever made".[47] Harrison's Reports felt all children and adults will be "highly entertained by Walt Disney's latest, a semi-sophisticated, laugh-provoking, all cartoon, feature-lengther in Technicolor."[48] Dodie Smith also enjoyed the film where she particularly praised the animation and backgrounds of the film.[6]

Contemporary reviews have remained positive. Reviewing the film during its 1991 re-release, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times, while giving the film three stars out of four, asserted that "it's an uneven film, with moments of inspiration in a fairly conventional tale of kidnapping and rescue. This is not one of the great Disney classics - it's not in the same league with Snow White or Pinocchio - but it's passable fun, and will entertain its target family audiences."[49] Chicago Tribune film critic Gene Siskel, in his 1991 review, also gave the film three stars out of four.[50] Ralph Novak of People wrote "What it lacks in romantic extravagance and plush spectacle, this 1961 Disney film makes up for in quiet charm and subtlety. In fact, if any movie with dogs, cats and horses who talk can be said to belong in the realm of realistic drama, this is it".[51] However, the film did receive a few negative reviews. In 2011, Craig Berman of MSNBC ranked it and its 1996 remake as two of the worst children's films of all time, saying that, "The plot itself is a bit nutty. Making a coat out of dogs? Who does that? But worse than Cruella de Vil's fashion sense is the fact that your children will definitely start asking for a Dalmatian of their own for their next birthday".[52]

The review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes reported the film received an approval rating of 98% based on 49 reviews with an average score of 8.1/10. The website's critical consensus reads, "With plenty of pooches and a memorable villain (Cruella De Vil), this is one of Disney's most enduring, entertaining animated films".[53]

Cruella de Vil ranked 39th on AFI's list of "100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains".[54]

Legacy[edit]

Live-action remake[edit]

In the years since the original release of the film, Disney has taken the property in various directions. The earliest of these endeavors was the 1996 live-action remake, 101 Dalmatians, which starred Glenn Close as Cruella De Vil. Unlike the original film, none of the animals had speaking voices in this version. Its success in theaters led to 102 Dalmatians, released on November 22, 2000.

TV series[edit]

After the first live-action version of the film, an animated series titled 101 Dalmatians: The Series was launched. The designs of the characters were stylized further to allow for economic animation and to appeal to contemporary trends.

101 Dalmatian Street is the second TV series with a plot in the 21st century, with a new art style, and a concept loosely based in the source material. It centres on Dylan, a descendant of Pongo and Perdita, caring for his 97 younger siblings with the help of his stepsister Dolly.

Sequel[edit]

101 Dalmatians II: Patch's London Adventure, the official sequel to the original animated film, was released direct-to-video on January 21, 2003.[55]

Live-action spin-off[edit]

Disney has announced that another live-action film is in development, but it will focus on the origin of Cruella de Vil.[56] Emma Stone is set to play Cruella and Alex Timbers was in negotiations to direct the film.[57][58] In December 2018, Timbers had left directing duties for Cruella due to scheduling conflicts and was replaced by the I, Tonya director Craig Gillespie.[59] In May 2019, Emma Thompson reportedly joined the project as The Baroness.[60] In July 2019, Paul Walter Hauser joined the film in an undisclosed role.[61] In August 2019, his role was revealed to be Horace, with Joel Fry cast as Jasper.[62] The film was originally scheduled to be released on December 23, 2020.[63][59] However, in August 2019, it was announced that the film would be delayed to May 28, 2021.[64] The film's first trailer and poster were released on February 17, 2021.[65]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Usually abbreviated and promoted as 101 Dalmatians.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thomas, Bob (April 22, 1994). Walt Disney: An American Original (2nd ed.). Disney Editions. p. 295. ISBN 978-0786860272.
  2. ^ a b D'Alessandro, Anthony (October 27, 2003). "Cartoon Coffers - Top-Grossing Disney Animated Features at the Worldwide B.O.". Variety. p. 6.
  3. ^ Disney-produced 1961 advertising used the "deVille" spelling."101 Dalmatians" (Orpheum Theater advertisement). Madison (WI) Capital Times, 7 April 1961.
  4. ^ Gebert, Michael (1996). The Encyclopedia of Movie Awards. St. Martin's Paperbacks. ISBN 0-668-05308-9.[page needed]
  5. ^ King, Susan (January 31, 2015). "'101 Dalmatians' was just the hit a flagging Disney needed". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 5, 2015.
  6. ^ a b c Sincerely Yours, Walt Disney (DVD) (Bonus feature). Burbank, California: Walt Disney Home Entertainment. 2008 – via YouTube.
  7. ^ a b Thomas, Bob (1997). "Chapter 7: The Postwar Films". Disney's Art of Animation: From Mickey Mouse to Hercules. p. 106.
  8. ^ a b Peet, Bill (1989). Bill Peet: An Autobiography. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 163–66. ISBN 978-0395689820.
  9. ^ a b c Barrier, Michael (April 8, 1999). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. pp. 566–7. ISBN 978-0-19-802079-0.
  10. ^ a b c d Koenig, David (1997). Mouse Under Glass: Secrets of Disney Animation & Theme Parks. Bonaventure Press. pp. 116–8. ISBN 978-0964060517.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Redefining the Line: The Making of One Hundred and One Dalmatians (DVD) (Bonus feature). Burbank, California: Walt Disney Home Entertainment. 2008 – via YouTube.
  12. ^ a b c Finch, Christopher (1973). "Chapter 10: Limited Animation". The Art of Walt Disney: From Mickey Mouse to the Magic Kingdom (1st ed.). Harry N. Abrams. p. 303. ISBN 978-0810990074.
  13. ^ "An Interview with Chuck Jones". Michaelbarrier.com. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  14. ^ a b c Canemaker, John (1996). Before the Animation Begins: The Art and Lives of Disney Inspirational Sketch Artists. Hyperion Books. pp. 177–8. ISBN 978-0786861521.
  15. ^ Norman, Floyd (2013). Animated Life: A Lifetime of tips, tricks, techniques and stories from a Disney Legend. Routledge. ISBN 978-0240818054. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  16. ^ Amidi, Amid (January 17, 2015). "Walt Peregoy, '101 Dalmatians' Color Stylist, RIP". Cartoon Brew. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
  17. ^ "Cinderella Character History". Disney Archives. Archived from the original on August 3, 2003.
  18. ^ Thomas, Frank; Johnston, Ollie (1981). The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation. Abbeville Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0786860708.
  19. ^ Maupin, Elizabethn (July 24, 1991). "Return Of The Dalmatians". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  20. ^ Canemaker, John (2001). Walt Disney's Nine Old Men and the Art of Animation. Disney Editions. p. 284. ISBN 978-0786864966.
  21. ^ Vagg, Stephen (2010). Rod Taylor: An Aussie in Hollywood. Bear Manor Media. p. 77. ISBN 978-1593935115.
  22. ^ Braun, Amy (March 4, 2008). "UltimateDisney.com's Interview with Lisa Davis, the voice and model for 101 Dalmatians' Anita Radcliff". DVDizzy. Retrieved April 5, 2014.
  23. ^ a b Rhetts, Joanne (December 26, 1985). "'101 Dalmatians': A Classic On All Counts Evil-hearted Cruella The First Name In Nasty". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  24. ^ Birnhaum, Jane (August 23, 1991). "Cruella De Vil's voice". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  25. ^ King, Susan (July 20, 1991). "Betty Lou Gerson's Phony Accent Was a Natural for Cruella De Vil". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  26. ^ William Leven (March 3, 2008). "Dalmatians 101: "Spot"-light on songwriter Mel Leven" (Interview). Interviewed by Jérémie Noyer. Animated Views. Retrieved May 21, 2018.
  27. ^ Ehrbar, Greg (February 10, 2015). "101 Dalmatians on Records". Cartoon Research. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  28. ^ Stevenson, Richard (August 5, 1991). "30-Year-Old Film Is a Surprise Hit In Its 4th Re-Release". The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  29. ^ "1991 Domestic Grosses #1–50". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
  30. ^ Hunt, Dennis (January 17, 1992). "Digital Cassette Becomes the Talk of the Town". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  31. ^ Harris, Kathryn (June 12, 1992). "A Nose for Profit: 'Pinocchio' Release to Test Truth of Video Sales Theory". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
  32. ^ a b "Disney Going To The Dogs: '101 Dalmatians' To Tube". New York Daily News. March 13, 1996. Retrieved September 16, 2017.
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