This is a good article. Click here for more information.

The Little Mermaid (1989 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Little Mermaid
The Little Mermaid (Official 1989 Film Poster).png
Original theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Directed by
Produced by
Written by
  • Ron Clements
  • John Musker
Based onThe Little Mermaid
by Hans Christian Andersen
Music byAlan Menken
Edited byMark Hester
Distributed byBuena Vista Pictures
Release date
  • November 17, 1989 (1989-11-17)
Running time
83 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$40 million[2]
Box office$233 million[3]

The Little Mermaid is a 1989 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and Walt Disney Pictures. The 28th Disney animated feature film, it is loosely based on the 1837 Danish fairy tale of the same name by Hans Christian Andersen. The film tells the story of a mermaid Princess named Ariel, who dreams of becoming human and falls in love with a human prince named Eric, which leads her to make a magic deal with an evil sea witch to become human and be with him. Written and directed by Ron Clements and John Musker, with music by Alan Menken and lyrics by Howard Ashman (who also served as co-producer alongside John Musker), and art direction by Michael Peraza Jr. and Donald A. Towns, the film features the voices of Jodi Benson, Christopher Daniel Barnes, Pat Carroll, Samuel E. Wright, Jason Marin, Kenneth Mars, Buddy Hackett, and René Auberjonois.

The Little Mermaid was released to theaters on November 17, 1989 to critical acclaim, earning praise for the animation, music, and plot. It was also a commercial success, garnering $84 million at the domestic box office during its initial release,[4] and $233 million in total lifetime gross worldwide.[3] After the success of the 1986 Disney animated film The Great Mouse Detective[5][6] and the 1988 Disney/Amblin live-action/animated film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, The Little Mermaid is given credit for breathing life back into the art of Disney animated feature films after a string of critical or commercial failures produced by Disney that dated back to the early 1970s. It also marked the start of the era known as the Disney Renaissance.[7] The film won two Academy Awards for Best Original Score and Best Original Song ("Under the Sea").

The film's success lead to a stage adaptation with a book by Doug Wright[8] and additional songs by Alan Menken and new lyricist Glenn Slater opened in Denver in July 2007 and began performances on Broadway January 10, 2008[9][10] starring Sierra Boggess.[11][12][13] Other derived works and material inspired by the movie, include a live-action film adaptation, directed by Rob Marshall, currently in production, and a 2019 live musical presentation of the film airing on ABC as part of The Wonderful World of Disney.


Ariel is a 16-year-old mermaid princess unsatisfied with underwater life in the underwater kingdom of Atlantica. She is fascinated by the human world, wanting desperately to become a human and live on the land. With her best friend Flounder, Ariel collects and keeps random human artifacts in her grotto and consults a seagull named Scuttle for inaccurate knowledge about human culture and the items she finds. Ariel's father, King Triton, and a crab who serves as his advisor/court composer named Sebastian, constantly warn her against humans and tell her that contact between merpeople and humans is forbidden.

One night, Ariel, Flounder, and an unwilling Sebastian travel to the ocean surface to watch a celebration for Prince Eric's birthday on a ship. Ariel falls in love with the prince instantly. Soon a violent storm arrives, wrecking the ship. Ariel rescues Eric from drowning and brings him to shore. She sings to him but returns to the sea just as he regains consciousness to avoid being discovered. Fascinated by the memory of her mesmerizing voice, Eric vows to find and marry the girl who saved his life, and Ariel vows to find a way to join him as a human being. Noticing a sudden change in Ariel's behavior, Triton questions Sebastian, who accidentally exposes that Ariel has come in contact with humans and fallen in love with Prince Eric. The angry king confronts Ariel, uncovers her grotto, and destroys her beloved collection. After Triton leaves, two eels named Flotsam and Jetsam convince the devastated young princess to visit Ursula, the evil sea witch.

Ursula makes a deal with Ariel to transform her form into a human for three days in exchange for Ariel's voice, which Ursula puts in a nautilus shell she keeps around her neck. Within these three days, Ariel must cause the prince to fall in love with her and give her the "kiss of true love." If Ariel gets Eric to kiss her, she will remain human permanently. If she fails, Ariel will become a miserable polyp and belong to Ursula. Ariel accepts and is then given human legs and taken to the surface by Flounder and Sebastian. Eric finds Ariel alone on the beach and takes her to his castle, but is still unaware that she is the one who saved him before due to her muteness. Ariel spends time with Eric, and at the end of the second day, they almost kiss but are thwarted by Flotsam and Jetsam. That night, to ensure Ariel's failure, Ursula disguises herself as a beautiful young woman named Vanessa and appears on the shore in front of Eric's castle, singing with Ariel's voice. Eric recognizes the song immediately, and the incognito Ursula casts an enchantment on Eric, which causes him to forget Ariel.

The next morning, Ariel discovers that Eric will be married to Vanessa later in the day and is heartbroken. Scuttle then discovers Vanessa's true identity and informs Ariel, who immediately pursues the wedding barge upon receiving the news. Sebastian informs Triton what's happened, and Scuttle is sent to sabotage the wedding. In the chaos, the nautilus shell around Ursula's neck is destroyed, and Ariel's voice is returned, breaking the enchantment Ursula has placed over Eric. Realizing that Ariel is the girl who saved him from the shipwreck, Eric rushes to embrace her, but the sun sets, and she transforms back into a mermaid. Ursula takes her true form as a terrifying sea witch and drags Ariel into the ocean with her. Triton confronts Ursula and demands that she release his daughter, but the deal is inviolable, even against the king. When Ursula offers to free Ariel in exchange for his trident, Triton agrees to take her place and is transformed into a polyp, losing his authority over Atlantica. Ariel is then released, and Ursula declares herself the new ruler. But before she can use the trident, Eric stops her with a harpoon. She tries to kill Eric, but when Ariel intervenes, Ursula inadvertently kills Flotsam and Jetsam; this enrages Ursula, and she uses the trident to grow to a monstrous size.

Ariel and Eric reunite on the surface just before Ursula emerges from the water, towering over them. She then creates a vicious storm and pulls huge, sunken ships from the ocean's bottom to the surface. Just as she is about to kill Ariel, Eric steers one of the wrecked ships towards Ursula and impales her with its splintered bowsprit, killing her once and for all. With Ursula finally dead, Triton and the other polyps in Ursula's garden revert to their original state. Realizing that Ariel truly loves Eric, Triton willingly changes her from a mermaid into a human permanently and accepts their marriage. Ariel and Eric marry on a ship and depart.

Voice cast[edit]

  • Benson also voices Vanessa, Ursula's human alter ego


Development of Story[edit]

Georges de La Tour's 1640 painting Magdalene with the Smoking Flame is shown in the film.

The Little Mermaid was originally planned as part of one of Walt Disney's earliest feature films, a proposed package film featuring vignettes of Hans Christian Andersen tales.[16] Development started soon after Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in the late 1930s, but was delayed due to various circumstances.[17]

In 1985, Ron Clements became interested in a film adaptation of The Little Mermaid while he was serving as a director on The Great Mouse Detective (1986) alongside John Musker.[18] Clements discovered the Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale while browsing through a bookstore.[19] Believing the story provided an "ideal basis" for an animated feature film and keen on creating a film that took place underwater,[18] Clements wrote and presented a two-page treatment of The Little Mermaid Walt Disney Studios to chief Jeffrey Katzenberg at a "gong show" idea suggestion meeting. Katzenberg passed the project over, because at that time the studio was in development on a sequel to their live-action mermaid comedy Splash (1984) and felt The Little Mermaid would be too similar a project.[19] The next day, however, Katzenberg approved of the idea for possible development, along with Oliver & Company. While in production in the 1980s, the staff found, by chance, original story and visual development work done by Kay Nielsen for Disney's proposed 1930s Andersen feature.[16] Many of the changes made by the staff in the 1930s to Hans Christian Andersen's original story was coincidentally the same as the changes made by Disney writers in the 1980s.[19]

That year Clements and Musker expanded the two-page idea into a 20-page rough script, eliminating the role of the mermaid's grandmother and expanding the roles of the Merman King and the sea witch. However, the film's plans were momentarily shelved as Disney focused its attention on Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Oliver & Company as more immediate releases.[19] In 1987, songwriter Howard Ashman became involved with the writing and development of The Little Mermaid after he was asked to contribute a song to Oliver & Company. He proposed changing the minor character Clarence, the English-butler crab, to a Jamaican crab and shifting the music style throughout the film to reflect this. At the same time, Katzenberg, Clements, Musker, and Ashman revised the story format to make The Little Mermaid a musical with a Broadway-style story structure, with the song sequences serving as the tentpoles of the film.[16] Ashman and composer Alan Menken, both noted for their work as the writers of the successful Off-Broadway stage musical Little Shop of Horrors, teamed up to compose the entire song score. In 1988, with Oliver & Company out of the way, The Little Mermaid was slated as the next major Disney release.[20]


More money and resources were dedicated to The Little Mermaid than any other Disney animated film in decades.[16] Aside from its main animation facility in Glendale, California, Disney opened a satellite feature animation facility during the production of The Little Mermaid in Lake Buena Vista, Florida (near Orlando, Florida), within Disney-MGM Studios Theme Park at Walt Disney World.[21] Opening in 1989, the Disney-MGM facility's first projects were to produce an entire Roger Rabbit cartoon short, Roller Coaster Rabbit, and to contribute ink and paint support to The Little Mermaid.[21] Another first for recent years was the filming of live actors and actresses for motion reference material for the animators, a practice used frequently for many of the Disney animated features produced under Walt Disney's supervision. Sherri Lynn Stoner, a former member of Los Angeles' Groundlings improvisation comedy group, and Joshua Finkel, a Broadway actor, performed key scenes as Ariel and Eric respectively.[19][22] Jodi Benson had already been cast as Ariel's voice actor by this time, and her recorded dialogue was used as playback to guide these live-action references.[22] Before Benson was cast, Melissa Fahn was considered for the part.[23]

The Little Mermaid's supervising animators included Glen Keane and Mark Henn on Ariel, Duncan Marjoribanks on Sebastian, Andreas Deja on King Triton, and Ruben Aquino on Ursula.[16] Originally, Keane had been asked to work on Ursula, as he had established a reputation for drawing large, powerful figures, such as the bear in The Fox and the Hound (1981) and Professor Ratigan in The Great Mouse Detective (1986). Keane, however, was assigned as one of the two lead artists on the petite Ariel and oversaw the "Part of Your World" musical number. He jokingly stated that his wife looks exactly like Ariel "without the fins."[24] The character's body type and personality were based upon that of Alyssa Milano, then starring on TV's Who's the Boss? and the effect of her hair underwater was based on both footage of Sally Ride when she was in space,[16] and scenes of Stoner in a pool for guidance in animating Ariel's swimming.[25]

The design of the villainous Ursula was based upon drag performer Divine.[16] An additional early inspiration before Divine was Joan Collins in her role as Alexis Carrington in the television show Dynasty, due to a suggestion from Howard Ashman, who was a fan of the series.[26] Pat Carroll was not Clements and Musker's first choice to voice Ursula; the original script had been written with Bea Arthur of the Disney-owned TV series The Golden Girls in mind. After Arthur turned the part down, actresses such as Nancy Marchand, Nancy Wilson, Roseanne, Charlotte Rae, and Elaine Stritch were considered for the part.[27] Stritch was eventually cast as Ursula, but clashed with Howard Ashman's style of music production and was replaced by Carroll.[27] Various actors auditioned for additional roles in the film, including Jim Carrey for the role of Prince Eric, and comedians Bill Maher and Michael Richards for the role of Scuttle.[26]

The underwater setting required the most special effects animation for a Disney animated feature since Fantasia in 1940. Effects animation supervisor Mark Dindal estimated that over a million bubbles were drawn for this film, in addition to the use of other processes such as airbrushing, backlighting, superimposition, and some computer animation. The artistic manpower needed for The Little Mermaid required Disney to farm out most of the underwater bubble effects animation in the film to Pacific Rim Productions, a China-based firm with production facilities in Beijing.[16] An attempt to use Disney's famed multiplane camera for the first time in years for quality "depth" shots failed because the machine was reputedly in dilapidated condition. The multiplane shots were instead photographed at an outside animation camera facility.[16]

The Little Mermaid was the last Disney feature film to use the traditional hand-painted cel method of animation, as well as the last Disney traditionally cel animated feature film directed by Clements and Musker. Disney's next film, The Rescuers Down Under, used a digital method of coloring and combining scanned drawings developed for Disney by Pixar called CAPS/ink & paint (Computer Animation Production System), which would eliminate the need for cels, the multiplane camera, and many of the optical effects used for the last time in The Little Mermaid. A CAPS/ink & paint prototype was used experimentally on a few scenes in The Little Mermaid, and one shot produced using CAPS/ink & paint—the penultimate shot in the film, of Ariel and Eric's wedding ship sailing away under a rainbow—appears in the finished film. Computer-generated imagery was used to create some of the wrecked ships in the final battle, a staircase behind a shot of Ariel in Eric's castle, and the carriage Eric and Ariel are riding in when she bounces it over a ravine. These objects were animated using 3D wireframe models, which were plotted as line art to cels and painted traditionally.[16] The film being both the first film of the Disney Renaissance and the last to use the xerography technology used since the early 1960s with One Hundred and One Dalmatians made it somewhat of a transitional film between the two Disney eras.[28][29]


The Little Mermaid was considered by some as "the film that brought Broadway into cartoons".[30] Alan Menken wrote the Oscar-winning score, and collaborated with Howard Ashman on the songs. One of the film's most prominent songs, "Part of Your World", was nearly cut from the film when it seemingly tested poorly with an audience of school children, who became rowdy during the scene. This caused Jeffrey Katzenberg to feel that the song needed to be cut, an idea that was resisted by Musker, Clements, and Keane. Both Musker and Clements cited the similar situation of the song "Over the Rainbow" nearly being cut from 1939's The Wizard of Oz when it was appealing to Katzenberg. Keane pushed for the song to remain until the film was in a more finalized state. During a second test screening, the scene, now colorized and further developed, tested well with a separate child audience, and the musical number was kept.[26]


The film was originally released on November 17, 1989, followed by a re-release on November 14, 1997. After the success of the 3D re-release of The Lion King, Disney announced a 3D re-release of The Little Mermaid scheduled for September 13, 2013,[31] but this was cancelled on January 14, 2013, due to the under-performances of other Disney 3D re-releases until further notice.[32] The 3D version was released on Blu-ray instead,[33][34] but it did play a limited engagement at the El Capitan Theatre from September to October 2013.[35] On September 20, 2013, The Little Mermaid began playing in select theaters where audiences could bring iPads and use an app called Second Screen Live.[36] AMC Theatres screened the movie from September 6–12, 2019.[37] The film was also screened out of competition at the 1990 Cannes Film Festival.[38]

Home media[edit]

In a then-atypical and controversial move for a new Disney animated film, The Little Mermaid was released as part of the Walt Disney Classics line of VHS, Laserdisc, Betamax, and Video 8 home video releases in May 1990, six months after the release of the film.[20][39] Before The Little Mermaid, only a select number of Disney's catalog animated films had been released to home video, as the company was afraid of upsetting its profitable practice of theatrically reissuing each film every few years.[20] The Little Mermaid became that year's top-selling title on home video, with over 10 million units sold (including 7 million in its first month).[40] The home video release, along with box office and merchandise sales, contributed to The Little Mermaid generating a total revenue of $1 billion.[41] This success led to future Disney films being released on home video soon after the end of their theatrical runs, rather than delayed for several years.[20]

Following The Little Mermaid's 1997 re-release in theaters, a new VHS version was released in March 1998 as part of the Masterpiece Collection and included a bonus music video of Jodi Benson singing "Part of Your World" during the end credits, replacing "Under the Sea" as the end credits song.[42] The VHS sold 13 million units and ranked as the third best-selling video of the year.[43][44]

The Little Mermaid was released in a "bare-bones" limited issue DVD in 1999, with a standard video transfer.[45] The film was re-released on DVD on October 3, 2006, as part of the Walt Disney Platinum Editions line of classic Walt Disney animated features, including the song "Kiss the Girl" performed by Ashley Tisdale.[46] Deleted scenes and several in-depth documentaries were included, as well as an Academy Award-nominated short film intended for the shelved Fantasia 2006, The Little Matchgirl.[47] The DVD sold 1.6 million units on its first day of release,[48] and over 4 million units during its first week, making it the biggest animated DVD debut for October. By the year's end, the DVD had sold about 7 million units and was one of the year's top 10 selling DVDs.[49] The Platinum Edition DVD was released as part of a "Little Mermaid Trilogy" boxed set on December 16, 2008.[50] The Platinum Edition of the film, along with its sequels, went on moratorium in January 2009. The film was re-released on a 3-disc Blu-ray/DVD/Digital Copy combo, a 2-disc Blu-ray/DVD combo and 3D Blu-ray on October 1, 2013, as part of the Walt Disney Diamond Editions line.[33][51] The Little Mermaid was re-released on HD and 4K digital download on February 12, 2019, with a physical media re-release on Blu-ray and Ultra HD Blu-ray on February 26, 2019, as part of the Walt Disney Signature Collection in honor of the film's 30th anniversary.

Live presentations[edit]

In June 2016, Disney held special presentations of the film at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles, titled The Little Mermaid in Concert. The performances combined a screening of The Little Mermaid with live accompaniment by guest musicians and celebrities, including Sara Bareilles (who performed as Ariel), Tituss Burgess (who performed as Sebastian as a reprisal of his role in the stage adaptation), Darren Criss (who performed as Prince Eric), Rebel Wilson (who performed as Ursula), Joshua Colley (who performed as Flounder), John Stamos (who performed as Chef Louis) and Norm Lewis (who performed as King Triton as a reprisal of his role in the stage adaptation). The four additional songs written for the stage adaptation were also incorporated into the presentation, accompanied by scenes of the film's original concept art. During the third and final performance, Jodi Benson replaced Bareilles to reprise her original role as Ariel, while Brad Kane (the singing voice of the title character of Aladdin) and Susan Egan (who played Belle in the stage adaptation of Beauty and the Beast) also made special appearances, singing songs from their respective films, and a duet of "A Whole New World".[52][53]

From May 17–18, 2019, the Hollywood Bowl hosted another live presentation, titled The Little Mermaid: An Immersive Live-to Film Concert Experience. These performances once again combined a screening of the film with live renditions of the film's songs, this time starring Lea Michele as Ariel, Harvey Fierstein as Ursula, Cheech Marin as Chef Louis, Ken Page as Sebastian, Peter Gallagher as King Triton, Leo Gallo as Prince Eric, and an uncredited actor as Scuttle. This presentation utilized the same four songs written for the stage adaptation.[54]


Box office[edit]

Early in the production of The Little Mermaid, Jeffrey Katzenberg cautioned Clements, Musker, and their staff, telling them that since The Little Mermaid was a "girl's film", it would make less money at the box office than Oliver & Company, which had been Disney's biggest animated box office success in a decade.[19][20] However, by the time the film was closer to completion, Katzenberg was convinced The Little Mermaid would be a hit and the first animated feature to earn more than $100 million in its initial run and become a "blockbuster" film.[19][20]

During its original 1989 theatrical release, The Little Mermaid earned $84.4 million at the North American box office,[55] falling short of Katzenberg's expectations but earning 64% more than Oliver & Company[20] and becoming the animated film with the highest gross from its initial run.[56] The film was theatrically reissued on November 14, 1997, on the same day as Anastasia, a Don Bluth animated feature for Fox Animation Studios. The reissue brought $27.2 million in additional gross.[55] The film also drew $123 million in box office earnings outside the United States and Canada between both releases, resulting in a total international box office figure of $233 million.[3]

Critical reception[edit]

Review aggregation site Rotten Tomatoes reported that the film has a 93% approval score based on 70 reviews and an average rating of 8.2/10. The site's consensus reads "The Little Mermaid ushered in a new golden era for Disney animation with warm and charming hand-drawn characters and catchy musical sequences".[57] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 88 out of 100 based on 24 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".

Roger Ebert, film critic for the Chicago Sun-Times, was enthusiastic about the film and wrote that, "The Little Mermaid is a jolly and inventive animated fantasy—a movie that's so creative and so much fun it deserves comparison with the best Disney work of the past." Ebert also commented positively on the character of Ariel, stating, "... Ariel is a fully realized female character who thinks and acts independently, even rebelliously, instead of hanging around passively while the fates decide her destiny."[58] The staff of TV Guide wrote a positive review, praising the film's return to the traditional Disney musical as well as the film's animation. Yet they also wrote that the film is detracted from by the juvenile humor and the human characters' eyes. While still giving a positive review, they stated that the film "can't compare to the real Disney classics (which appealed equally to both kids and adults)."[59] The staff of Variety praised the film for its cast of characters, Ursula in particular, as well as its animation, stating that the animation "proves lush and fluid, augmented by the use of shadow and light as elements like fire, sun and water illuminate the characters." They also praised the musical collaboration between Howard Ashman and Alan Menken "whose songs frequently begin slowly but build in cleverness and intensity."[60]

Todd Gilchrist of IGN wrote a positive review of the film, stating that the film is "an almost perfect achievement." Gilchrist also praised how the film revived interest in animation as it was released at a time when interest in animation was at a lull.[61] Hal Hinson of The Washington Post wrote a mixed review of the film, referring to it as a "likably unspectacular adaptation of the Hans Christian Andersen classic." Hinson went on to write that the film is average even at its highest points. He wrote that while there is nothing wrong with the film, it would be difficult for children to identify with Ariel and that the characters seemed bland. Hinson concluded his review saying that the film is "accomplished but uninspiring, The Little Mermaid has enough to please any kid. All that's missing is the magic."[62] Empire gave a positive review of the film, stating that "[The Little Mermaid is] a charmer of a movie, boasting all the ingredients that make a Disney experience something to treasure yet free of all the politically correct, formulaic elements that have bogged down the more recent productions."[63]

In April 2008 – almost 20 years after the film's initial release in 1989 – Yahoo! users voted "The Little Mermaid" as No. 14 on the top 30 animated films of all time. Later, when Yahoo! updated the list in June of the same year, the film remained on the list but dropped six slots to end at #20. (Only three other traditionally animated Disney animated films - Aladdin, Beauty and the Beast, and The Lion King, respectively - scored above it in the poll even after the update.)[64] In 2011, Richard Corliss of TIME Magazine named it one of "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films".[65]

The Little Mermaid, Disney's first animated fairy tale since Sleeping Beauty (1959),[19] is an important film in animation history for many reasons. Chief among these are its re-establishment of animation as a profitable venture for The Walt Disney Company, as the company's theme parks, television productions, and live-action features had overshadowed the animated output since the 1950s.[20] The Little Mermaid was the second film, following Oliver & Company, produced after Disney began expanding its animated output following its successful live action/animated film Who Framed Roger Rabbit, and became Disney's first animated major box office and critical hit since The Rescuers in 1977.[20] Walt Disney Feature Animation was further expanded as a result of The Little Mermaid and increasingly successful follow-ups — Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), and The Lion King (1994). The staff increased from 300 members in 1988 to 2,200 in 1999 spread across three studios in Burbank, California, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, and Montreuil, Seine-Saint-Denis, France.[21]

In addition, The Little Mermaid signaled the re-establishment of the musical film format as a standard for Disney animated films. The majority of Disney's most popular animated films from the 1930s on had been musicals, though by the 1970s and 1980s the role of music had been de-emphasized in the films.[19] 1988's Oliver & Company had served as a test of sorts to the success of the musical format before Disney committed to the Broadway-style structure of The Little Mermaid.[19]


In January 1990, The Little Mermaid earned three Academy Award nominations, making it the first Disney animated film to earn an Academy Award nomination since The Rescuers in 1977. The film won two of the awards, for Best Original Score and Best Original Song ("Under the Sea"). The film also earned four Golden Globe nominations, including Best Picture—Comedy or Musical, and won the awards for Best Original Song ("Under the Sea") and Best Original Score.[66]

In addition to the box office and critical success of the film itself, the film's soundtrack album earned two awards at the 33rd Grammy Awards in 1991: the Grammy Award for Best Album for Children and the Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television ("Under the Sea").[67] Bolstered by the film's success and the soundtrack's Oscars, Golden Globes and Grammy Awards, was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America in September 1990 for shipments of two million copies of the soundtrack album, an unheard of feat for an animated film at the time.[68] To date, the soundtrack has been certified six times platinum.[68]

The Little Mermaid won two Academy Awards for Best Original Score as well as Best Original Song for Alan Menken and Howard Ashman's "Under the Sea", sung by Samuel E. Wright in a memorable scene.[69] Another song from the film, "Kiss the Girl", was nominated but lost to "Under the Sea".[69] The film also won two Golden Globes for Best Original Score as well Best Original Song for "Under the Sea". It was also nominated in two other categories, Best Picture—Comedy or Musical and another Best Original Song. Menken and Ashman also won a Grammy Award in 1991 for Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or Television for "Under the Sea."[70]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:


Controversy arose regarding the artwork for the film's original VHS release when consumers noticed an oddly shaped structure on the castle, closely resembling a human penis.[76][77] Disney and the cover designer insist it was an accident, resulting from a late night rush job to finish the cover artwork. The object does not appear on the cover of the second release of the movie.[76]

Another allegation is that the clergyman presiding over the wedding between Eric and Ursula (the latter disguised as Vanessa) is seen to have an erection.[78][79] The object in question is actually the short, stubby-legged man's knee.[80]

The combined incidents led an Arkansas woman to file suit against The Walt Disney Company in 1995, though she dropped the suit two months later.[79][80][81][82][83]




Ariel meet-and-greet character at Disneyland Paris

Theme parks[edit]

  • Ariel is also a meet-and-greet character appearing at Disney theme parks around the world, including in specific meet-and-greet locations such as Ariel's Grotto.

Video games[edit]

  • The Little Mermaid universe has been repeatedly featured in the Kingdom Hearts series. Kingdom Hearts, the first game in the series, features Atlantica, a playable world based on the film which features Ariel as a party member as well as multiple boss fights against Ursula. In Kingdom Hearts II, Atlantica reappears as a minigame world featuring rhythm-based gameplay. Ursula is also featured as a tutorial boss in Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance and Ariel appears as a Summon in Kingdom Hearts III.

Other appearances[edit]


Live-action film adaptation[edit]

In May 2016, Deadline Hollywood reported that Disney was in early development for a live-action adaptation of the film.[85]

In August 2016, it was announced that Alan Menken would return as the film's composer and write new songs alongside Lin-Manuel Miranda, who will also co-produce the film with Marc Platt.[86]

Studio veterans Lindsay Lohan and Chris Evans expressed interest in starring in the adaptation.[87][88][89]

In December 2017, Rob Marshall was being courted by the Walt Disney Company to direct the film, while Jane Goldman would serve as screenwriter.[90] In December 2018, Marshall said that he, along with John DeLuca and Marc Platt were hired to begin developing the project for a film adaptation.[91] The same month, Marshall was officially hired as director for the film.[92][93] David Magee will co-write the script with Goldman.

In May 2019, Menken stated that The Little Mermaid would be his next project, following the release of the live-action adaptation of Aladdin.[94] In June 2019, it was announced that Melissa McCarthy, Jacob Tremblay, and Awkwafina were in talks to portray Ursula, Flounder, and a gender-swapped Scuttle, respectively.[95][96]

By July 2019, Halle Bailey was cast in the starring role as Ariel.[97] It was also announced the same month that Harry Styles and Javier Bardem were in talks to play Prince Eric and King Triton, respectively.[98][99] However, by August 2019, it was announced that Styles turned down the role of Eric.[100][101]

Later, in September 2019, it was reported that Cameron Cuffe and Jonah Hauer-King were two of the finalists to play Prince Eric.[102] In November 2019, Hauer-King was officially cast in the role.[103]

In October 2019, it was also announced that Daveed Diggs was in talks to voice Sebastian.[104]

In January 2020, Daveed Diggs said that the updates in the live-action film adaptation include giving more power back to Ariel.[105]

In February 2020, Melissa McCarthy confirmed her casting as Ursula during an interview on The Ellen DeGeneres Show: “I play Ursula, the sea witch. It is so fun, we’re just in rehearsals. It’s been an absolute blast. Stepping into the world of Rob Marshall, it’s like a fever dream, I just went to London for a week, I was like, ‘I don’t get to go to dance camp for a week.’ All day he's like, ‘Do you want to slide down this 40-foot clam shell?’ I'm like, ‘Yes! Of course I do. What are you, crazy?’ It's been wildly creative.”[106]

In March 2020, it was confirmed that other characters like Grimsby, Max, Chef Louis, and the rest of Ariel's family, including her mother and sisters, will also appear in the film.[107]

In July 2020, it was announced that Kacey Musgraves was in talks for playing Vanessa (Ursula's human form), but she eventually turned down the role.[108] At the end of that month, Jacob Tremblay began recording his lines as Flounder.[109]

Principal photography was originally scheduled to begin in April 2020 at Pinewood Studios, London, United Kingdom and in Cornwall, South West England, but production on the film was temporarily halted in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[110][111][112][113] Filming was expected to begin in mid-2020,[107][114][115] but will instead start in late November/early December 2020 in order to accommodate McCarthy's schedule for the Hulu limited series, Nine Perfect Strangers.[116]

The Little Mermaid Live![edit]

On May 16, 2017, ABC announced that it planned to air The Wonderful World of Disney: The Little Mermaid Live, on October 3, 2017, which would have featured a broadcast of the film with a similar format to the aforementioned Hollywood Bowl concerts. The special aimed to appeal to the recent trend of live made-for-TV productions of Broadway musicals on network television, such as those of NBC.[117] However, on August 3, 2017, it was announced that the special had been dropped due to budget issues.[118]

On August 5, 2019, it was announced that the project had been revived to mark the 30th anniversary of the film's original release, and would be aired on November 5, 2019. Auli'i Cravalho, Queen Latifah and Shaggy starred as Ariel, Ursula and Sebastian, respectively.[119] Other cast members included John Stamos as Chef Louis and Graham Phillips as Prince Eric.[120] The special featured performances of songs from the film and its Broadway adaptations in a themed "dive-in theater" setting at the Disney lot, accompanied by the film itself.[119][121] It was produced by Done and Dusted, with director-executive producer Hamish Hamilton and executive producer Richard Kraft (who had also worked on the aforementioned concerts).[122] Amber Riley portrayed Emcee, the lead singer of the song "Daughters of Triton".[123] Jodi Benson introduced the special.[124]

In addition to marking the film's anniversary, the special was also used as a pre-launch promotional push for the new Disney+ streaming service, which was launched on November 12, 2019.[125][126]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "THE LITTLE MERMAID (U)". British Board of Film Classification. December 28, 1989. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
  2. ^ Stewart, James B. (2005). DisneyWar, p. 104. ISBN 0-684-80993-1. Simon & Schuster. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c D'Alessandro, Anthony (October 27, 2003). "Cartoon Coffers - Top-Grossing Disney Animated Features at the Worldwide B.O." Variety. p. 6. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  4. ^ "The Little Mermaid (1989) – Box Office Summary". Box Office Mojo.
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ Pallant, Chris (2011). Demystifying Disney: A History of Disney Feature Animation. New York: Continuum Publishing. p. 89. ISBN 9781441150462. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  8. ^ Kachka, Boris (February 26, 2006). "Q&A With Grey Gardens Playwright Doug Wright—New York Magazine". Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  9. ^ Michael Buckley (January 6, 2006). "Playbill Features: STAGE TO SCREENS: Chatting with Grey Gardens and Little Mermaid Librettist Doug Wright". Playbill. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  10. ^ Andrew Gans (January 8, 2009). "The Little Mermaid to Celebrate First Broadway Anniversary January 10". Playbill. Retrieved October 22, 2010.
  11. ^ Gans, Andrew (November 3, 2017). "From Little Mermaid to Phantom of the Opera, Sierra Boggess' 6 Most Memorable Nights Onstage". New York City:
  12. ^ "Sierra Boggess Cast as Ariel in Disney's The Little Mermaid". New York City:
  13. ^ "The Little Mermaid on Internet Broadway Database". New York City: The Broadway League.
  14. ^ Grant, John (1998). Encyclopedia of Walt Disney's Animated Characters (Third ed.). Hyperion. pp. 344–345. ISBN 0-7868-6336-6.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "The-Little-Mermaid – Cast, Crew, Director and Awards". The New York Times. July 14, 2014. Archived from the original on July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2018.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (2006) Audio Commentary by John Musker, Ron Clements, and Alan Menken Bonus material from The Little Mermaid: Platinum Edition [DVD]. Walt Disney Home Entertainment.
  17. ^ "Disney's animated zombies: How classic stories are lost in reinvention".
  18. ^ a b "Making Of... The Little Mermaid Behind The Scenes". The 80s Movies Rewind. 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2013.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j (2006) Treasures Untold: The Making of Disney's 'The Little Mermaid [Documentary featurette]. Bonus material from The Little Mermaid: Platinum Edition DVD. Walt Disney Home Entertainment.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Hahn, Don (2009). Waking Sleeping Beauty (Documentary film). Burbank, California: Stone Circle Pictures/Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures.
  21. ^ a b c Moore, Roger (June 20, 2004), "After the Magic; Scores of Former Disney Animators and Their Colleagues Have Dispersed to Launch Their Own Studios, Seek New Careers and Discover New Identities – Determined to Land on Their Feet", Orlando Sentinel, pp. F1, retrieved May 8, 2010
  22. ^ a b (2013) The Real Little Mermaid: Live Action Reference Model [Documentary featurette]. Bonus material from The Little Mermaid: Diamond Edition Blu-Ray. Walt Disney Home Entertainment.
  23. ^ Navarez, Martin. "[RECAP] Anime Expo 2018: Day 2". Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  24. ^ (2004) Interview with Glen Keane. Bonus material from Pocahontas: 10th Anniversary Edition [DVD]. Walt Disney Home Entertainment.
  25. ^ Under The Scene. The Little Mermaid Blu-Ray: Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment. 2013.
  26. ^ a b c Clayton-Wright, Harry (September 2, 2013). Harry Clayton-Wright interviews the directors of The Little Mermaid (Web video content) (Digital video). YouTube. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  27. ^ a b Neuwirth, Allan (2003). Makin' Toons: Inside the Most Popular Animated TV Shows and Movies. Allworth Communications, Inc. pp. 46–47. ISBN 1-58115-269-8.
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^ Aladdin Platinum Edition, Disc 2: Alan Menken: Musical
  31. ^ Smith, Grady (October 4, 2011). "'Beauty and the Beast,' 'The Little Mermaid,' 'Finding Nemo,' 'Monsters, Inc.' get 3-D re-releases". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  32. ^ Fritz, Ben (January 14, 2013). "Disney cancels 'Little Mermaid 3-D,' dates 'Pirates 5' for 2015". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  33. ^ a b Scott Hettrick (February 9, 2013). "Mermaid fall Blu 3D; no Disneynature". Retrieved February 11, 2013.
  34. ^ Jessica Rawden. "More Details On October's Little Mermaid Blu-ray Set". Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  35. ^ Oliver Oliveros (August 27, 2013). "Hollywood's El Capitan Will Be the Only Theatre in the World to Screen THE LITTLE MERMAID 3D, 9/13-10/13". Retrieved November 3, 2013.
  36. ^ Arellano, Jennifer (September 10, 2013). "'The Little Mermaid' returns to theaters with a new-millennium twist: iPads allowed". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
  37. ^ Coffey, Kelly (September 5, 2019). "Disney Princesses return to the big screen". Inside the Magic. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  38. ^ "The Little Mermaid". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
  39. ^ The Little Mermaid (A Walt Disney Classic) [VHS]: Ron Clements, John Musker, René Auberjonois, Christopher Daniel Barnes, Jodi Benson, Pat Carroll, Paddi Edwards, Buddy Hackett, Jason Marin, Kenneth Mars, Edie McClurg, Will Ryan, Ben Wright, Samuel E. Wright: Movies & TV. ASIN 6302212529.
  40. ^ Nichols, Peter M. (September 12, 1993). "THE NEW SEASON: HOME ENTERTAINMENT; 'Beauty' Was Big, but Make Way for 'Aladdin'—New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  41. ^ Hofmeister, Sallie (July 12, 1994). "In the Realm of Marketing, 'The Lion King' Rules". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
  42. ^ The Little Mermaid (Fully Restored Special Edition) [VHS]: Jodi Benson, Samuel E. Wright, René Auberjonois, Christopher Daniel Barnes, Pat Carroll, Paddi Edwards, Buddy Hackett, Jason Marin, Kenneth Mars, Edie McClurg, Will Ryan, Ben Wright, John Musker, Ron Clements, Chris Hubbell, Gerrit Graham, Hans Christian Andersen, Howard Ashman: Movies & TV. ISBN 0788812408.
  43. ^ "Press Release Page". Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  44. ^ "VidNews Archives". OnVideo. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  45. ^ "The Little Mermaid (Limited Issue): Jodi Benson, Samuel E. Wright, René Auberjonois, Christopher Daniel Barnes, Pat Carroll, Paddi Edwards, Buddy Hackett, Jason Marin, Kenneth Mars, Edie McClurg, Will Ryan, Ben Wright, John Musker, Ron Clements, Chris Hubbell, Gerrit Graham, Hans Christian Andersen, Howard Ashman: Movies & TV". Retrieved November 2, 2011.
  46. ^ "The Little Mermaid (Two-Disc Platinum Edition): René Auberjonois, Christopher Daniel Barnes, Jodi Benson, Pat Carroll, Paddi Edwards, Buddy Hackett, Jason Marin, Kenneth Mars, Edie McClurg, Will Ryan, Ben Wright, Samuel E. Wright, Hamilton Camp, Kimmy Robertson, Mickie McGowan, Jim Cummings, Tim Curry, Jennifer Darling, Gerrit Graham, Malachi Pearson: Movies & TV". Retrieved November 2, 2011.
  47. ^ "The Little Mermaid: Platinum Edition—DVD Press Release". UltimateDisney. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  48. ^ "Record Starts for X-Men and Mermaid—". ComingSoon. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  49. ^ "Weekly Breakdown Sales For The Little Mermaid DVD". Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  50. ^ "The Little Mermaid Trilogy: The Little Mermaid: Ariel's Beginning, The Little Mermaid, The Little Mermaid II: Return To The Sea Special Edition, .: Movies & TV". Retrieved November 2, 2011.
  51. ^ Check Out The Little Mermaid's First Blu-ray Trailer Retrieved February 13, 2013
  52. ^ "Sara Bareilles and Tituss Burgess Headline Little Mermaid at the Hollywood Bowl Tonight". Playbill. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  53. ^ "Disney's 'Little Mermaid in Concert' Caps Hollywood Bowl Run With Original Ariel, Jodi Benson". Billboard. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  54. ^ "The Little Mermaid: An Immersive Live-to-Film Concert Experience". Retrieved May 22, 2019.
  55. ^ a b "The Little Mermaid". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
  56. ^ Stewart, Al (March 14, 1990). "'Mermaid' to Sink or Swim in Sell-through". Variety. p. 29.
  57. ^ "The Little Mermaid". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved April 7, 2019.
  58. ^ Ebert, Roger (November 17, 1989). "The Little Mermaid review". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  59. ^ "The Little Mermaid movie review". TV Guide. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  60. ^ "The Little Mermaid movie review". Variety. January 1, 1989. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  61. ^ "Double Dip Digest: The Little Mermaid". IGN. October 3, 2006. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
  62. ^ "The Little Mermaid review". The Washington Post. November 17, 1997. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
  63. ^ "The Little Mermaid". Empire. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2011.
  64. ^ "Making the Grade: Yahoo Users' Top Rated Animated Films photos on Yahoo! Summer Movie Guide (June 25, 2008)". Yahoo! Movies. Archived from the original on June 6, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  65. ^ Richard Corliss (June 23, 2011). "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films – The Little Mermaid". TIME. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  66. ^ "The 47th Annual Golden Globe Awards (1952)". Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived from the original on May 27, 2011. Retrieved May 9, 2010.
  67. ^ "33rd Annual GRAMMY Awards (1990)". Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  68. ^ a b ""Gold and Platinum" search for "Little Mermaid"". Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  69. ^ a b "1989 Academy Awards Nominations and Winners by Category". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  70. ^ "4 Golden Globe Awards To 'Born on 4th of July'". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 22, 1990. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  71. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Passions Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  72. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  73. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  74. ^ "AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals Nominees" (PDF). Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  75. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10 Nominees" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  76. ^ a b "Little Mermaid Phallus". Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  77. ^ Viets, Elaine (November 24, 1992). "Mermaid's Tower is Kettle of Fish". Everyday Magazine (St. Louis Post-Dispatch).
  78. ^ Smith, Russell W. (September 8, 1995). "Sex Seen (by Some) in Films by Disney". Austin American-Statesman. pp. d1.
  79. ^ a b Beck, Susan (January 5, 1996). "Help the Needy; Help Yourself". The Recorder. p. 2.
  80. ^ a b "Little Mermaid Minister". Retrieved July 15, 2009.
  81. ^ Emery Jr., C. Eugene (March 1996). "When the Media Miss Real Messages in Subliminal Stories". Skeptical Inquirer. p. 16.
  82. ^ "Disney Catches Hell". Entertainment Weekly.
  83. ^ Omaha World-Herald "Filth' Found in Disney Movies Is a Stretch of the Imagination."
  84. ^ Breznican, Anthony (July 14, 2017). "Wreck-It Ralph sequel will unite the Disney princesses – and Star Wars!". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  85. ^ Jaafer, Ali (May 25, 2016). "Disney Mulling Live-Action Version Of 'The Little Mermaid'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  86. ^ Snetiker, Marc (August 16, 2016). "Lin-Manuel Miranda, Alan Menken team up for live-action Little Mermaid". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  87. ^ Respers France, Lisa (February 20, 2017). "Lindsay Lohan really wants a 'Little Mermaid' gig". CNN. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  88. ^ Nolfi, Joey (February 19, 2017). "Lindsay Lohan wants Bill Condon to direct her in The Little Mermaid musical". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  89. ^ Davis, Brandon (June 6, 2016). "Chris Evans Teases Interest In Prince Eric, West Side Story Remake". Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  90. ^ Fleming, Mike, Jr. (December 6, 2017). "Rob Marshall Top Choice To Helm Disney's Live Action 'The Little Mermaid'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
  91. ^ Jaafer, Ali (December 5, 2018). "FOR DIRECTOR ROB MARSHALL, MARY POPPINS RETURNS IS A VERY PERSONAL PROJECT". SyFy Wire. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  92. ^ Weintraub, Steve (December 21, 2018). "Rob Marshall on Why He Signed an Overall Deal at Walt Disney Studios". Collider. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  93. ^ "'Little Mermaid' Live-Action Director Rob Marshall Shares Production Update (Exclusive)". Entertainment Tonight. January 3, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  94. ^ April May, Rebecca (May 20, 2019). "Disney legend Alan Menken talks about updating Aladdin and the movie he thinks won't get remade". Digital Spy. Retrieved June 12, 2019.
  95. ^ Kroll, Justin (June 28, 2019). "Melissa McCarthy in Talks to Play Ursula in Live-Action 'Little Mermaid' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
  96. ^ Kit, Borys (July 1, 2019). "Jacob Tremblay, Awkwafina in Talks for Disney's Live-Action 'Little Mermaid'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 1, 2019.
  97. ^ Kroll, Justin (July 3, 2019). "Disney's Live-Action 'Little Mermaid' Casts Halle Bailey as Ariel". Variety. Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  98. ^ Kit, Borys (July 16, 2019). "Harry Styles in Talks to Play Prince Eric in Disney's Live-Action 'Little Mermaid'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
  99. ^ N'Duka, Amanda (July 17, 2019). "Javier Bardem In Talks For Disney's 'The Little Mermaid' Remake". Deadline. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  100. ^ Kroll, Justin (August 13, 2019). "Harry Styles Passes on Prince Eric Role in Live-Action 'Little Mermaid'". Variety. Retrieved August 13, 2019.
  101. ^ Schaffstall, Katherine (September 6, 2019). "Harry Styles Explains Passing on 'Little Mermaid' Prince Eric Role". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
  102. ^ Patrick Hipes, Anthony D'Alessandro (September 24, 2019). "'The Little Mermaid': 'Krypton's Cameron Cuffe, Jonah Hauer-King Testing for Prince Eric Role". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  103. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (November 12, 2019). "'Little Mermaid': Jonah Hauer-King Wins Role Of Prince Eric". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved November 13, 2019.
  104. ^ Kroll, Justin (October 8, 2019). "Daveed Diggs in Talks to Play Sebastian in Disney's 'Little Mermaid' (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  105. ^ Schaab, Emily (January 22, 2020). "Daveed Diggs Reveals Ariel Has More Power In New Film Adaptation". Science Fiction. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  106. ^ Muscaro, TJ (February 18, 2020). "Melissa McCarthy Talks Becoming Ursula for Disney's Live-Action "Little Mermaid"". Inside the Magic. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  107. ^ a b Shuler, Skyler (March 23, 2020). "Alan Menken Confirms All The Music For The Live-Action Adaptation of 'The Little Mermaid' Have Been Recorded". TheDisInsider. Retrieved March 23, 2020.
  108. ^ Shuler, Skyler (July 29, 2020). "Exclusive: Disney Circling Kacey Musgraves For Role in The Live-Action 'The Little Mermaid'". TheDisInsiser. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  109. ^ Yep, Kristin (July 30, 2020). "Voice Work Begins for Live-Action 'The Little Mermaid'". Inside the Magic. Retrieved July 31, 2020.
  110. ^ Geisinger, Gabriella (July 2, 2019). "The Little Mermaid cast: These stars in talks for the Disney remake - who will be in it?". Retrieved July 3, 2019.
  111. ^ D'Alessandro, Anthony (March 13, 2020). "Disney Pausing Production On Features 'Little Mermaid', 'Home Alone', 'Nightmare Alley' & More Until Coronavirus Calms Down". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  112. ^ Kay, Jeremy (March 13, 2020). "London shoot on 'The Little Mermaid', other Disney live-action productions on hold". Screen International. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  113. ^ Kit, Borys; Couch, Aaron. "Disney Suspends Film Production Amid Coronavirus Concerns". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  114. ^ Jirak, Jamie (May 31, 2020). "Fantastic Beasts Sequel and The Little Mermaid Can Restart Production Thanks to New UK Bill". Retrieved May 31, 2020.
  115. ^ Skyler Shuler [@SkylerShuler] (July 25, 2020). "THE LITTLE MERMAID cast will arrive in London on Monday, my guess is once they land, they will quarantine for two weeks for safety and begin production August 10th" (Tweet). Retrieved August 2, 2020 – via Twitter.
  116. ^ Shuler, Skyler (October 10, 2020). "'Cursed' Star Emily Coates Joins Disney's Live-Action 'The Little Mermaid'". Retrieved October 11, 2020. Filming is expected to start production in November/Early December at Pinewood Studios in London. The film was just days away from filming back in March until the COVID-19 outbreak caused the studio to close production, sending the cast and crew back home. Filming was expected to resume this Summer but was pushed to accommodate McCarthy’s filming on the Hulu limited series, Nine Perfect Strangers.
  117. ^ Stanhope, Kate (May 16, 2017). "ABC Slates 'Little Mermaid' and Rolling Stone Live Musicals". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  118. ^ Levin, Gary (August 3, 2017). "ABC drops plans for 'Little Mermaid' musical". USA Today. Retrieved August 4, 2017.
  119. ^ a b Bentley, Jean (August 5, 2019). "Little Mermaid' Live Starring Auli'i Cravalho Set at ABC". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  120. ^ Petski, Denise (September 25, 2019). "John Stamos & Graham Phillips Join 'The Little Mermaid Live!' On ABC". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
  121. ^ White, Peter (August 5, 2019). "'Little Mermaid' Live Musical: Auli'i Cravalho, Shaggy & Hamish Hamilton Go Under The Sea To Describe ABC's "Interesting Hybrid" – TCA". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  122. ^ Otterson, Joe (August 5, 2019). "'Little Mermaid' Set as ABC Live Musical, Auli'i Cravalho to Star". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  123. ^ Pedersen, Erik (October 10, 2019). "'The Little Mermaid Live!': Amber Riley To Emcee ABC Musical". Deadline. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
  124. ^ Coffey, Kelly (November 2, 2019). "Jodi Benson, original voice of Ariel, to appear in ABC's "The Little Mermaid Live!"". Inside the Magic. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  125. ^ Low, Elaine (August 6, 2019). "ABC Chief: 'Little Mermaid' Live Musical Will Be Disney Plus Launchpad". Variety. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  126. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (August 5, 2019). "'The Little Mermaid' Live Event A Go On ABC With Auli'i Cravalho As Ariel, Queen Latifah & Shaggy Co-Starring". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 6, 2019.

External links[edit]