Pinocchio (1940 film)
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Supervising Directors|
|Produced by||Walt Disney|
|Based on||The Adventures of Pinocchio|
by Carlo Collodi
|Distributed by||RKO Radio Pictures|
|Box office||$164 million|
Pinocchio is a 1940 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and based on the 1883 Italian children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi. It was the second animated feature film produced by Disney, made after the first animated success Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937).
The plot involves an old Italian woodcarver named Geppetto who carves a wooden puppet named Pinocchio. The puppet is brought to life by a blue fairy, who informs him that he can become a real boy if he proves himself to be "brave, truthful, and unselfish". Pinocchio's efforts to become a real boy involve encounters with a host of unsavory characters. The key character of Jiminy Cricket is based on a 100-year "wise, old" talking cricket from the original book, who warns Pinocchio of his impudence when they meet only to be killed in return shortly after, before returning as a ghost. The film was adapted by several storyboard artists from Collodi's book. The production was supervised by Ben Sharpsteen and Hamilton Luske, and the film's sequences were directed by Norman Ferguson, T. Hee, Wilfred Jackson, Jack Kinney, and Bill Roberts. Pinocchio was a groundbreaking achievement in the area of effects animation, giving realistic movement to vehicles, machinery and natural elements such as rain, lightning, smoke, shadows and water. The film was released to theaters by RKO Radio Pictures on February 7, 1940.
Although it became the first animated feature to win a competitive Academy Award — winning two for Best Music, Original Score and for Best Music, Original Song for "When You Wish Upon a Star" — it was initially a box office bomb, mainly due to World War II cutting off the European and Asian markets overseas. It eventually made a profit in its 1945 reissue, and is considered one of the greatest animated films ever made, with a 100% rating on the website Rotten Tomatoes. The film and characters are still prevalent in popular culture, featuring at various Disney parks and in other forms of entertainment. In 1994, Pinocchio was added to the United States National Film Registry for being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
Jiminy Cricket, after singing "When You Wish Upon A Star", explains to the audience that he is going to tell a story of a wish coming true. His story begins in the Italian workshop of a woodworker named Geppetto. Jiminy watches as Geppetto finishes work on a wooden marionette whom he names Pinocchio. Before falling asleep, Geppetto wishes on a star that Pinocchio will be a real boy. During the night, a Blue Fairy visits the workshop and brings Pinocchio to life, although he remains a puppet. She informs him that if he proves himself brave, truthful, and unselfish, he will become a real boy and assigns Jiminy to be his conscience.
Geppetto is shocked but ecstatic to discover his puppet is alive. The next day, on his way to school, Pinocchio is led astray by a con-artist fox named Honest John, who convinces him to join Stromboli's puppet show and become a star as a "living puppet without strings", despite Jiminy's objections. Pinocchio becomes Stromboli's star attraction as a marionette who can sing and dance without strings. However, when Pinocchio wants to go home for the night, Stromboli locks him in a birdcage. In fact, Stromboli intends to exploit Pinocchio by enslaving and forcing him to perform around the world to make much money just for the puppeteer himself and then to use the little wooden boy as firewood once he gets too old to perform. Jiminy sneaks into Stromboli's wagon, but is unable to free his friend. The Blue Fairy appears and asks Pinocchio why he was not at school. Jiminy urges Pinocchio to tell the truth, but instead, he starts telling lies, which causes his nose to grow longer and longer. Pinocchio vows to be good from now on, and the Blue Fairy returns his nose to its original form and sets him free while warning him that this will be the last time she can help him.
Across town, in the Red Lobster Inn, Honest John and his sidekick Gideon the Cat meet a coachman who promises Honest John to pay him money if he can find stupid little boys for him to take to Pleasure Island. Though Honest John is at first terrified at the simple mention of the place and getting caught, the coachman assures him that none of the boys ever come back "as boys". The two then encounter Pinocchio on his way home after escaping from Stromboli. Honest John then pretends to be a "doctor" and convinces him that he is "allergic" and he needs to take a vacation on Pleasure Island after his terrible experience. On the way to Pleasure Island, he befriends Lampwick, a delinquent boy. Without rules or authority to enforce their activity, Pinocchio and the other boys soon engage in smoking cigars and cigarettes, gambling, vandalism, and getting drunk, much to Jiminy's dismay. Later, while trying to get home, Jiminy discovers that the island hides a horrible curse: the boys brought to Pleasure Island make jackasses of themselves by turning into donkeys and are sold to slave labor in salt mines and circuses. Jiminy runs back to warn Pinocchio, only to witness Lampwick transform into a donkey. With Jiminy's help, Pinocchio narrowly escapes the island with only donkey ears and a tail.
Upon returning home, Pinocchio and Jiminy find the workshop vacant. They soon get a letter from the Blue Fairy as a dove, stating that Geppetto had ventured out to sea to save Pinocchio from Pleasure Island but was swallowed by Monstro, a terrible giant whale, and is now living in the belly of the beast. Determined to rescue his father, Pinocchio jumps into the sea, accompanied by Jiminy. Pinocchio is soon swallowed by Monstro as well, where he finds Geppetto. Pinocchio devises a scheme to make Monstro sneeze, giving them a chance to escape. The scheme works, but the enraged whale chases them and smashes their raft. Pinocchio pulls Geppetto to safety in a cave before Monstro crashes into it. Geppetto, Figaro, Cleo, and Jiminy are washed up safely on a beach, but Pinocchio is apparently killed.
Back home, Geppetto, Jiminy, and the pets are inconsolable and mourn the loss of Pinocchio. However, the Blue Fairy decides that Pinocchio has proven himself brave, truthful, and selfless; to reward him, she reverses the Pleasure Island curse and turns him into a real human boy reviving him in the process. Much to everyone's joy, Pinocchio awakens when they find out he's now a real boy. As the group celebrates, Jiminy steps outside to thank the Fairy and is rewarded with a solid gold badge that certifies him as an official conscience.
- Dick Jones as Pinocchio, a wooden puppet carved by Geppetto, and turned into a living puppet by the Blue Fairy.
- Cliff Edwards as Jiminy Cricket, a cheerful, intelligent, and wisecracking cricket, who acts as Pinocchio's "conscience", and the partial narrator of the story.
- Christian Rub as Geppetto, a kind and elderly wood-carver, who creates Pinocchio, and wishes for him to become a real boy.
- Walter Catlett as "Honest" John Worthington Foulfellow, a dishonest, deceptive, illiterate, poor and greedy anthropomorphic red fox and the main antagonist who cons Pinocchio twice.
- "Giddy" Gideon the Cat, Honest John's mute, dimwitted and bumbling anthropomorphic feline sidekick who serves as the film's comic relief. He was originally intended to be voiced by Mel Blanc of Looney Tunes fame (in his second work for Disney until his final work in Who Framed Roger Rabbit), but the filmmakers removed his dialogue from the script in favor of a mute performance just like Dopey in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and the circus elephant title character Dumbo, however, Gideon's hiccups were provided by Blanc.
- Charles Judels as Stromboli, a cruel Italian puppet-maker, who forces Pinocchio to perform onstage in order to make money and with the next intent to use him as "firewood" once he gets "too old" to perform. He speaks with an Italian accent, and curses in Italian when he gets angry, though he is identified as a Gypsy, or at least by Honest John. He is the only character of the film to be part of the official Disney Villains line-up.
- Judels also voiced the cruel and wicked Coachman, owner and operator of Pleasure Island, who turns unruly boys into donkeys and sells them.
- Evelyn Venable as The Blue Fairy, who brings Pinocchio to life, and turns him into a real boy at the end of the film.
- Frankie Darro as Lampwick, a naughty boy that Pinocchio befriends on his way to Pleasure Island. He is turned into a donkey on Pleasure Island.
- Stuart Buchanan as the Carnival Barker, the announcer heard on Pleasure Island.
In September 1937, during the production of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, animator Norman Ferguson brought a translated version of Carlo Collodi's 1883 Italian children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio to the attention of Walt Disney. After reading the book, "Walt was busting his guts with enthusiasm" as Ferguson later recalled. Disney then commissioned storyboard artist Bianca Majolie to write a new story outline for the book, but after reading it, he felt her outline was too faithful. Pinocchio was intended to be the studio's third feature, after Bambi. However, due to difficulties with Bambi (adapting the story and animating the animals realistically), Disney announced that Bambi would be postponed while Pinocchio would move ahead in production. Ben Sharpsteen was then re-assigned to supervise the production while Jack Kinney was given directional reins.
Writing and design
Unlike Snow White, which was a short story that the writers could expand and experiment with, Pinocchio was based on a novel with a very fixed story. Therefore, the story went through drastic changes before reaching its final incarnation. In the original novel, Pinocchio is a cold, rude, ungrateful, inhuman brat that often repels sympathy and only learns his lessons the hard way. The writers decided to modernize the character and depict him similar to Edgar Bergen's dummy Charlie McCarthy, but equally as rambunctious as the puppet in the book. The story was still being developed in the early stages of animation.
Early scenes animated by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston show that Pinocchio's design was exactly like that of a real wooden puppet with a long pointed nose, a peaked cap and bare wooden hands. Disney, however, was not impressed with the work that was being done on the film. He felt that no one could really sympathize with such a character and called for an immediate halt in production. Fred Moore redesigned the character slightly to make him more appealing, but the design still retained a wooden feel. Young and upcoming animator Milt Kahl felt that Thomas, Johnston and Moore were "rather obsessed with the idea of this boy being a wooden puppet" and felt that they should "forget that he was a puppet and get a cute little boy; you can always draw the wooden joints and make him a wooden puppet afterwards". Co-supervising director Hamilton Luske suggested to Kahl that he should demonstrate his beliefs by animating a test sequence. Kahl showed Disney a test scene in which Pinocchio is underwater looking for his father. From this scene, Kahl re-envisioned the character by making him look more like a real boy, with a child's Tyrolean hat and standard cartoon character four-fingered (or three and a thumb) hands with Mickey Mouse-type gloves on them. The only parts of Pinocchio that still looked more or less like a puppet were his arms, legs and his little button wooden nose. Disney embraced Kahl's scene and immediately urged the writers to evolve Pinocchio into a more innocent, naïve, somewhat coy personality that reflected Kahl's design.
However, Disney discovered that the new Pinocchio was too helpless and was far too often led astray by deceiving characters. Therefore, in the summer of 1938, Disney and his story team established the character of the cricket. Originally, the cricket was only a minor character that Pinocchio killed by squashing him with a mallet and that later returned as a ghost. Disney dubbed the cricket "Jiminy", and made him into a character that would try to guide Pinocchio into the right decisions. Once the character was expanded, he was depicted as a realistic cricket with toothed legs and waving antennae, but Disney wanted something more likable. Ward Kimball had spent several months animating two sequences—a soup-eating musical number and a bed-building sequence—in Snow White, which was cut from the film due to pacing reasons. Kimball was about to quit until Disney rewarded him for his work by promoting him to the supervising animator of Jiminy Cricket. Kimball then conjured up the design for Jiminy Cricket, whom he described as a little man with an egg head and no ears. Jiminy "was a cricket because we called him a cricket," Kimball later joked.
Due to the huge success of Snow White, Walt Disney wanted more famous voices for Pinocchio, which marked the first time an animated film had used celebrities as voice actors. He cast popular singer Cliff Edwards, also known as "Ukelele Ike", as Jiminy Cricket. Disney rejected the idea of having an adult play Pinocchio and insisted that the character be voiced by a real child. He cast 11-year-old child actor Dickie Jones, who had previously been in Frank Capra's Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. He also cast Frankie Darro as Lampwick, Walter Catlett as Foulfellow the Fox, Evelyn Venable as the Blue Fairy, Charles Judels as both the villainous Stromboli and the Coachman, and Christian Rub as Geppetto, whose design was even a caricature of Rub.
Another voice actor recruited was Mel Blanc, best remembered for voicing many of the characters in Warner Bros. cartoon shorts. Blanc was hired to perform the voice of Gideon the Cat. However, it was eventually decided that Gideon would be mute, so all of Blanc's recorded dialogue was subsequently deleted except for a solitary hiccup, which was heard three times in the finished film.
Animation on the film began in January 1938, but work on Pinocchio's animation was discontinued as the writers sought to re-work his characterization and the film's narrative structure. However, animation on the film's supporting characters started in April 1938. Animation would not resume again with the revised story until September.
During the production of the film, story artist Joe Grant formed a character model department, which would be responsible for building three-dimensional clay models of the characters in the film, known as maquettes. These models were then given to the staff to observe how a character should be drawn from any given angle desired by the artists. The model makers also built working models of Geppetto's cuckoo clocks, as well as Stromboli's gypsy wagon and the Coachman's carriage. However, owing to the difficulty animating a realistic moving vehicle, the artists filmed the carriage maquettes on a miniature set using stop motion animation. Then, each frame of the animation was transferred onto animation cels using an early version of a Xerox. The cels were then painted on the back and overlaid on top of background images with the cels of the characters to create the completed shot on the rostrum camera. Like Snow White, live-action footage was shot for Pinocchio with the actors playing the scenes in pantomime, supervised by Luske. Rather than tracing, which would result in stiff unnatural movement, the animators used the footage as a guide for animation by studying human movement and then incorporating some poses into the animation (though slightly exaggerated).
Pinocchio was a groundbreaking achievement in the area of effects animation. In contrast to the character animators who concentrate on the acting of the characters, effects animators create everything that moves other than the characters. This includes vehicles, machinery and natural effects such as rain, lightning, snow, smoke, shadows and water, as well as the fantasy or science-fiction type effects like Fairy Dust. The influential abstract animator Oskar Fischinger, who mainly worked on Fantasia contributed to the effects animation of the Blue Fairy's wand. Effects animator Sandy Strother kept a diary about his year-long animation of the water effects, which included splashes, ripples, bubbles, waves and the illusion of being underwater. To help give depth to the ocean, the animators put more detail into the waves on the water surface in the foreground, and put in less detail as the surface moved further back. After the animation was traced onto cels, the assistant animators would trace it once more with blue and black pencil leads to give the waves a sculptured look. To save time and money, the splashes were kept impressionistic. These techniques enabled Pinocchio to be one of the first animated films to have highly realistic effects animation. Ollie Johnston remarked "I think that's one of the finest things the studio's ever done, as Frank Thomas said, 'The water looks so real a person can drown in it, and they do.'"
The songs in Pinocchio were composed by Leigh Harline with lyrics by Ned Washington. Leigh Harline and Paul J. Smith composed the incidental music score. The soundtrack was first released on February 9, 1940. Jiminy Cricket's song, "When You Wish Upon A Star", became a major hit and is still identified with the film, and later as the theme song of The Walt Disney Company itself. The soundtrack won an Academy Award for Best Original Score.
M. Keith Booker considers the film to be the most down-to-earth of the Disney animated films despite its theme song and magic, and notes that the film's protagonist has to work to prove his worth, which he remarked seemed "more in line with the ethos of capitalism" than most of the Disney films. Claudia Mitchell and Jacqueline Reid-Walsh believe that the male protagonists of films like Pinocchio and Bambi (1942) were purposefully constructed by Disney to appeal to both boys and girls. Mark I. Pinsky said that it is "a simple morality tale—cautionary and schematic—ideal for moral instruction, save for some of its darker moments", and noted that the film is a favorite of parents of young children.
Nicolas Sammond argues that the film is "an apt metaphor for the metaphysics of midcentury American child-rearing" and that the film is "ultimately an assimilationist fable". He considered it to be the central Disney film and the most strongly middle class, intended to relay the message that indulging in "the pleasures of the working class, of vaudeville, or of pool halls and amusement parks, led to a life as a beast of burden". For Sammond, the purpose of Pinocchio is to help convey to children the "middle-class virtues of deferred gratification, self-denial, thrift, and perseverance, naturalized as the experience of the most average American".
Author and illustrator Maurice Sendak, who saw the film in theaters in 1940, called the film superior to Collodi's novel in its depiction of children and growing up. "The Pinocchio in the film is not the unruly, sulking, vicious, devious (albeit still charming) marionette that Collodi created. Neither is he an innately evil, doomed-to-calamity child of sin. He is, rather, both lovable and loved. Therein lies Disney's triumph. His Pinocchio is a mischievous, innocent and very naive little wooden boy. What makes our anxiety over his fate endurable is a reassuring sense that Pinocchio is loved for himself -- and not for what he should or shouldn't be. Disney has corrected a terrible wrong. Pinocchio, he says, is good; his "badness" is only a matter of inexperience," and also that "Pinocchio's wish to be a real boy remains the film's underlying theme, but "becoming a real boy" now signifies the wish to grow up, not the wish to be good."
On July 16, 1985, it was released on home video and LaserDisc in North America for the first time as part of the Walt Disney Classics label, the second title with the Classics label after Robin Hood which was released the previous December. It would become the best-selling home video title of the year selling 130–150,000 units at $80 each. It was re-issued on October 14, 1986 to advertise the home video debut of Sleeping Beauty. It was then released on VHS in the UK in 1988 for the first time. The digital restoration that was completed for the 1992 cinema re-issue was released on VHS on March 26, 1993, followed by its fourth VHS release and first release on Disney DVD as the 60th Anniversary Edition on October 25, 1999.
The film was re-issued on DVD and one final time on VHS as part of the Walt Disney Gold Classics Collection release on March 7, 2000. Along the film, the VHS edition also contained a making-of documentary while the DVD had the film's original theatrical trailer as supplemental features. The Gold Classic Collection release was returned to the Disney Vault on January 31, 2002.
A special edition VHS and DVD of the film was released in the United Kingdom on March 3, 2003. The fourth DVD release and first Blu-ray Disc release (the second Blu-ray in the Walt Disney Platinum Editions series) was released on March 10, 2009. Like the 2008 Sleeping Beauty Blu-ray release, the Pinocchio Blu-ray package featured a new restoration by Lowry Digital in a two-disc Blu-ray set, with a bonus DVD version of the film also included. This set returned to the Disney Vault on April 30, 2011. A Signature Edition was released on Digital HD on January 10, 2017 and was followed by a Blu-ray/DVD combo pack on January 31, 2017.
Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times gave the film five out of five stars, saying "Pinocchio is here at last, is every bit as fine as we had prayed it would be—if not finer—and that it is as gay and clever and delightful a fantasy as any well-behaved youngster or jaded oldster could hope to see." Time gave the film a positive review, stating "In craftsmanship and delicacy of drawing and coloring, in the articulation of its dozens of characters, in the greater variety and depth of its photographic effects, it tops the high standard Snow White set. The charm, humor and loving care with which it treats its inanimate characters puts it in a class by itself." Variety praised the animation as superior to Snow White's writing the "[a]nimation is so smooth that cartoon figures carry impression of real persons and settings rather than drawings to onlooker." In summary, they felt Pinocchio "will stand on [its] own as a substantial piece of entertainment for young and old, providing attention through its perfection in animation and photographic effects. The Hollywood Reporter wrote "Pinocchio is entertainment for every one of every age, so completely charming and delightful that there is profound regret when it reaches the final fade-out. Since comparisons will be inevitable, it may as well be said at once that, from a technical standpoint, conception and production, this picture is infinitely superior to Snow White." The film won the Academy Awards for Best Original Song and Best Original Score, the first Disney film to win either.
Initially, Pinocchio was not a box-office success. The box office returns from the film's initial release were both below Snow White's unprecedented success and below studio expectations. Of the film's $2.6 million negative cost – twice the cost of Snow White – Disney only recouped $1 million by late 1940, with studio reports of the film's final original box office take varying between $1.4 million and $1.9 million. Animation historian Michael Barrier notes that Pinocchio returned rentals of less than one million by September 1940, and in its first public annual report, Walt Disney Productions charged off a $1 million loss to the film. Barrier relays that a 1947 Pinocchio balance sheet listed total receipts to the studio of $1,423,046.78. This was primarily due to the fact that World War II and its aftermath had cut off the European and Asian markets overseas, and hindered the international success of Pinocchio and other Disney releases during the early and mid-1940s. Joe Grant recalled Walt Disney being "very, very depressed" about Pinocchio's initial returns at the box office. The distributor RKO recorded a loss of $94,000 for the film from worldwide rentals of $3,238,000.
With the re-release of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1944 came the tradition of re-releasing Disney films every seven to ten years. Pinocchio was theatrically re-released in 1945, 1954, 1962, 1971, 1978, 1984, and 1992. RKO handled the first two reissues in 1945 and 1954, while Disney itself reissued the film from 1962 on through its Buena Vista Distribution division. The 1992 re-issue was digitally restored by cleaning and removing scratches from the original negatives one frame at a time, eliminating soundtrack distortions, and revitalizing the color.
Despite its initial struggles at the box office, a series of reissues in the years after World War II proved more successful, and allowed the film to turn a profit. By 1973, the film had earned rentals of $13 million in the United States and Canada from the initial 1940 release and four reissues. After the 1978 reissue, the rentals had increased to $19.9 million from a total gross of $39 million. The 1984 reissue grossed $26.4 million in the U.S. and Canada, bringing its total gross there to $65.4 million and $145 million worldwide. The 1992 reissue grossed $18.9 million in the U.S. and Canada bringing Pinocchio's lifetime gross to $84.3 million at the U.S. and Canadian box office.
On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has the website's highest rating of 100%, meaning every single one of the 52 reviews of the film, from contemporaneous reviews to modern re-appraisals, on the site are positive, with an average rating of 9.1/10. The general consensus of the film on the site is "Ambitious, adventurous, and sometimes frightening, Pinocchio arguably represents the pinnacle of Disney's collected works - it's beautifully crafted and emotionally resonant.". On Metacritic, Pinocchio has a weighted score of 99 out of 100 based on 17 critics, indicating "universal acclaim".
Many film historians consider this to be the film that most closely approaches technical perfection of all the Disney animated features. Film critic Leonard Maltin said, "with Pinocchio, Disney reached not only the height of his powers, but the apex of what many critics consider to be the realm of the animated cartoon."
In 1994, Pinocchio was added to the United States National Film Registry as being deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". Filmmaker Terry Gilliam selected it as one of the ten best animated films of all time in a 2001 article written for The Guardian and in 2005, Time named it one of the 100 best films of the last 80 years, and then in June 2011 named it the best animated movie of "The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films".
In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Pinocchio was acknowledged as the second best film in the animation genre, after Snow White. It was nominated for the AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies, and received further nominations for their Thrills and Heroes and Villains (Stromboli) lists. The song "When You Wish Upon A Star" ranked number 7 on their 100 Songs list, and the film ranked 38th in the 100 Cheers list. The quote "A lie keeps growing and growing until it's as plain as the nose on your face" was nominated for the Movie Quotes list, and the film received further nomination in the AFI's Greatest Movie Musicals list.
Canadian psychologist Jordan Peterson has spoken about the film in his lectures extensively, citing it as an example of "the manner in which great mythological and archetypal themes inform and permeate narrative." Film critic Roger Ebert, adding it to his list of "Great Movies", wrote that the movie "isn't just a concocted fable or a silly fairy tale, but a narrative with deep archetypal reverberations."
In 1987, DIC Entertainment released a "thinly-veiled" animated sequel to Pinocchio, titled Madeline (TV series). Set a year after Pinocchio became Pepito, the TV received mainly negative reviews from critics and was a commercial failure. Disney sued DIC for copyright infringement, but DIC won the lawsuit on the grounds that Book's work is in the public domain.
Many of Pinocchio's characters are costumed characters at Disney parks. Pinocchio's Daring Journey is a popular ride at the original Disneyland, Tokyo Disneyland, and Disneyland Park in Paris. Pinocchio Village Haus is a quick service restaurant at Walt Disney World that serves pizza and macaroni and cheese. There are similar quick-service restaurants at the Disneyland parks in Anaheim and Paris as well, with almost identical names.
Disney on Ice starring Pinocchio, toured internationally from 1987 to 1992. A shorter version of the story is also presented in the current Disney on Ice production "One Hundred Years of Magic".
Aside from the Sega Genesis/Mega Drive, Game Boy, and SNES games based on the animated film, Geppetto and Pinocchio also appear as characters in the game Kingdom Hearts. The inside of Monstro is also featured as one of the worlds. Jiminy Cricket appears as well, acting as a recorder, keeping a journal of the game's progress in Kingdom Hearts, Kingdom Hearts: Chain of Memories, and, Kingdom Hearts II. Pinocchio's home world was slated to appear in Kingdom Hearts 358/2 Days, but was omitted due to time restrictions, although talk-sprites of Pinocchio, Geppetto, Honest John and Gideon have been revealed. As compensation, this world appears in Kingdom Hearts 3D: Dream Drop Distance, under the name "Prankster's Paradise", with Dream world versions of Pinocchio, Jiminy Cricket, Geppetto, Cleo, Monstro and the Blue Fairy appearing.
In the mid-2000s, Disneytoon Studios began development on a sequel to Pinocchio. Robert Reece co-wrote the film's screenplay, which saw Pinocchio on a "strange journey" for the sake of something dear to him. "It's a story that leads Pinocchio to question why life appears unfair sometimes," said Reece. John Lasseter cancelled Pinocchio II soon after being named Chief Creative Officer of Walt Disney Animation Studios in 2006.
In 1985, Jim Henson and director Steve Barron approached Walt Disney Pictures with the idea of a live-action version of Pinocchio, but Disney turned down the project. In April 2015, it was announced that Disney was developing a feature length live-action adaptation of Pinocchio, with Peter Hedges writing the script. In May 2017, Sam Mendes entered talks to direct the film, with Chris Weitz serving as screenwriter and producer. In November, Mendes stepped down as director.
By February 2018, Paul King was announced as director, with Andrew Milano co-producing with Weitz and Jack Thorne rewriting the script. Principal photography was announced to take place in England and Italy, beginning in 2019. By November 2018, Tom Hanks entered talks to portray Geppetto. In January 2019, King stepped down as director, due to familial personal reasons.
By October 2019, Robert Zemeckis entered talks to serve as the director on the project, with a script co-written by King, Weitz, and Simon Farnaby. Weitz and Milano are still confirmed as producers. The same month, it was reported that due to the less-than-expected box office numbers from Dumbo and Maleficent: Mistress of Evil, Disney was considering releasing the film exclusively through its streaming service, Disney+. By January 2020, it was announced that Zemeckis had officially joined the project as director, with a script he co-wrote with Weitz, that Jack Rapke and Jackie Levine will serve as executive producers, and that the film would still receive a theatrical release. In August 2020, Tom Hanks, a recurring collaborator of Zemeckis', once again entered talks to play Geppetto. In December 2020, the official release of Pinocchio on Disney+ was announced and that Hanks had officially signed on to play Geppetto. The film will feature the original's classic songs and new musical numbers written by Alan Silvestri and Glen Ballard. In January 2021, Oakes Fegley was in talks to portray Lampwick in the film and Luke Evans signed on to play the Coachman.
In other media
- 1940 in film
- List of American films of 1940
- List of Walt Disney Pictures films
- List of Disney theatrical animated features
- List of animated feature films of the 1940s
- List of highest-grossing animated films
- List of Disney animated films based on fairy tales
- List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, a film review aggregator website
- List of films considered the best
- Williams, Pat; Denney, Jim (January 1, 2010). How to Be Like Walt: Capturing the Disney Magic Every Day of Your Life. Simon and Schuster. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-7573-9446-1.
- "Pinocchio: Detail View". American Film Institute. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- Barrier 1999, p. 266.
- Green, Stanley (1999). Hollywood Musicals Year by Year (2nd ed.). Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 91. ISBN 0-634-00765-3.
- Collodi, Carlo. The Adventures of Pinocchio. Apple Books. Chapter 4.
- "Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved May 7, 2020.
- McNary, Dave (April 8, 2015). "Disney Developing Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Movie". Variety. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- No Strings Attached: The Making of Pinocchio (Media notes). Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment. 2009.
- Gabler 2006, p. 291.
- Barrier 1999, p. 236.
- Barrier 1999, p. 237.
- Gabler 2006, p. 294.
- Barrier 1999, pp. 237–8.
- Barrier 1999, p. 238.
- Canemaker 2001, p. 137.
- Gabler 2006, p. 306.
- Barrier 2008, pp. 140–1.
- Barrier 1999, p. 239.
- Gabler 2006, p. 305.
- Canemaker 2001, pp. 99–101.
- Barrier 1999, p. 240.
- Gabler 2006, p. 304.
- Ruhlmann, William. "Cliff "Ukelele Ike" Edwards | Biography". AllMusic. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "Almanac: "Pinocchio"". CBS News. February 23, 1940. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Barrier 1999, pp. 267–8.
- Barrier 1999, pp. 260–1.
- Moritz 2004, p. 84.
- Barrier 1999, p. 262.
- "Pinocchio [RCA] - Original Soundtrack | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Roberts 2006, p. 134.
- Booker 2010, p. 11.
- Mitchell & Reid-Walsh 2008, p. 48.
- Pinsky 2004, p. 28.
- Honeyman 2013, p. 29.
- Booker 2010, pp. 11–12.
- Sendak, Maurice (October 7, 1988). "Walt Disney's Triumph - The Art of Pinocchio". The Washington Post.
- Bierbaum, Tom (May 9, 1985). "Disney Goes To Vault For Its 'Pinocchio' HV". Variety. p. 1.
- "Disney Vid Points 'Sword' At March Release Schedule". Variety. January 29, 1986. p. 10.
- "Disney Releases 'Pinocchio' Video". Chicago Tribune. July 12, 1985. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- Stevens, Mary (March 19, 1993). "'Pinocchio' Is The Winner by a Nose". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
- "Pinocchio (Gold Classic Collection) [VHS]: Dickie Jones, Christian Rub, Mel Blanc, Don Brodie, Walter Catlett, Marion Darlington, Frankie Darro, Cliff Edwards, Charles Judels, Patricia Page, Evelyn Venable, Ben Sharpsteen, Bill Roberts, Hamilton Luske, Jack Kinney, Norman Ferguson, T. Hee, Wilfred Jackson, Aurelius Battaglia, Bill Peet: Movies & TV". Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Imagination for a Lifetime -- Disney Titles All the Time; Walt Disney Home Video Debuts the "Gold Classic Collection"; An Animated Masterpiece Every Month in 2000" (Press release). Burbank, California: TheFreeLibrary.com. Business Wire. January 6, 2000. Archived from the original on May 22, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
- "Pinocchio — Disney Gold Collection". Archived from the original on August 15, 2000. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
- "Time Is Running Out ... Four of Disney's Greatest Animated Classics Are Disappearing into the Vault". TheFreeLibrary.com (Press release). Walt Disney Press Release. PR Newswire. January 23, 2002. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016.
- "Pinocchio DVD Release Date March 3, 2003" – via www.blu-ray.com.
- "Pinocchio Blu-ray: 70th Anniversary Platinum Edition". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Pinocchio: 70th Anniversary - Platinum Edition (DVD 1940)". DVD Empire. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Pinocchio | Disney Movies". Disneydvd.disney.go.com. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Knopp, JeniLynn (November 19, 2016). "D23: Pinocchio is joining the Walt Disney Signature Collection on January 10". Insidethemagic.net. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Oh My Disney Contributor (November 19, 2016). "BREAKING: PINOCCHIO TO JOIN THE WALT DISNEY SIGNATURE COLLECTION". Ohmy.disney.com. Retrieved November 19, 2016.
- Nugent, Frank S. (February 8, 1940). "The Screen in Review; 'Pinocchio,' Walt Disney's Long-Awaited Successor to 'Snow White,' Has Its Premiere at the Center Theatre". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Cinema: The New Pictures". Time. Vol. 35 no. 9. February 26, 1940. pp. 64, 66. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Film Reviews: Pinocchio". Variety. January 31, 1940. p. 14. Retrieved September 16, 2020 – via Internet Archive.
- "'Pinocchio': THR's 1940 Review". The Hollywood Reporter. February 23, 1940. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
- Barrier 1999, pp. 269–73.
- Thomas 1994, p. 161.
- Barrier 1999, pp. 318, 602.
- Barrier 1999, p. 272.
- Barrier 1999, pp. 269–73, 602.
- "Richard B. Jewell's RKO film grosses, 1929–51: The C. J. Trevlin Ledger: A comment". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and television, Volume 14, Issue 1, 1994.
- "Pinocchio (1940) - Release Summary". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Hunter, Stephen (June 25, 1992). "'Pinocchio' returns The restored print looks better than the original". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Wasko 2013, p. 137.
- "Updated All-Time Film Rental Champs". Variety. January 9, 1974. p. 23.
- "All-Time Film Rental Champs". Variety. January 11, 1983. p. 16.
- "Pinocchio". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- Harris, Kathryn (June 12, 1992). "A Nose for Profit: 'Pinocchio' Release to Test Truth of Video Sales Theory". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
- "Pinocchio (1940)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved February 29, 2020.
- "Pinocchio (1940)". Metacritic. Retrieved April 3, 2020.
- "Pinocchio - Disney Movies History". August 4, 2003. Archived from the original on August 4, 2003. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Maltin, Leonard (1973). "Pinocchio". The Disney Films. New York: Crown Publishers. p. 37. ISBN 978-0517177419.
- "25 Films Added to National Registry". The New York Times. November 15, 1994. p. C20. Retrieved September 20, 2020.
- Gilliam, Terry (April 27, 2001). "Terry Gilliam Picks the Ten Best Animated Films of All Time". The Guardian. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Corliss, Richard (June 21, 2011). "Pinocchio | The 25 All-TIME Best Animated Films". Time. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "AFI's 10 Top 10". American Film Institute. June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
- "Movies_Ballot_06" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "400 Nominees for AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills". Listology. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "AFI'S 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains" (PDF). American Film Institute. June 20, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2017. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "AFI's 100 YEARS...100 SONGS". American Film Institute. June 22, 2004. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "AFI'S 100 Years... 100 Cheers" (PDF). American Film Institute. June 20, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2018. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "AFI'S 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes" (PDF). American Film Institute. June 20, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2019. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "AFI's 100 YEARS OF MUSICALS". American Film Institute. September 3, 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "The 25 Best Disney Animated Movies". IGN. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- Peterson, Jordan. "2017 Maps of Meaning 02: Marionettes & Individuals (Part 1)". YouTube.
- Ebert, Roger. "Pinocchio movie review". RogerEbert.com.
- Beck 2005.
- "Pinocchio's Daring Journey | Rides & Attractions | Disneyland Park | Disneyland Resort". Disneyland.disney.go.com. May 25, 1983. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Tokyo Disney Resort". Tokyodisneyresort.co.jp. Archived from the original on August 19, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Disneyland Paris Rides | Les Voyages de Pinocchio". Parks.disneylandparis.co.uk. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Pinocchio Village Haus | Walt Disney World Resort". Disneyworld.disney.go.com. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Blankenship, Bill (December 1, 2013). "Disney on Ice brings back '100 Years of Magic' to Expocentre". CJOnline.com. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Disney's Pinocchio (Mega Drive): Amazon.co.uk: PC & Video Games". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Jiminy Cricket - Kingdom Hearts 3D Wiki Guide". IGN. July 31, 2012. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- "Prankster's Paradise (Riku) - Kingdom Hearts 3D Wiki Guide". IGN. July 31, 2012. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Armstrong, Josh (April 22, 2013). "From Snow Queen to Pinocchio II: Robert Reece's animated adventures in screenwriting". Animated Views. Retrieved April 24, 2013.
- "DisneyToon Studios to be Restructured and Will Operate as a Separate Unit Within Walt Disney Animation Studios" (Press release). Walt Disney Studios. June 22, 2007. Archived from the original on August 1, 2017. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- Fleming Jr., Mike (April 8, 2015). "'Pinocchio'-Inspired Live-Action Pic in the Works at Disney". Deadline Hollywood.
- Busch, Anita (May 22, 2017). "Sam Mendes in Early Talks To Direct Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'". Deadline Hollywood.
- Galuppo, Mia (November 13, 2017). "Sam Mendes Exits Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Kit, Borys (February 20, 2018). "Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Enlists 'Paddington' Director". The Hollywood Reporter.
- Medina, Joseph Jammer (August 21, 2018). "Disney's Live-Action Pinocchio Writer Chris Weitz Says They're Still Developing The Script (Exclusive)". LRM Online. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
- Coggan, Devan (November 29, 2018). "Tom Hanks in early talks to play Geppetto in Disney's live-action Pinocchio". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
- "Exclusive: Tom Hanks Eyed to Play Geppetto in Disney's 'Pinocchio' Movie". Collider. November 29, 2018.
- "Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Reportedly Loses 'Paddington' Director". Comicbook. January 13, 2019. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
- "Robert Zemeckis in Talks to Direct Live-Action 'Pinocchio' for Disney (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. October 18, 2019.
- "Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Remake Could Be Making The Move To Disney+". The DisInsider. October 29, 2019.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 24, 2020). "Robert Zemeckis Closes Deal To Direct & Co-Write Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio'". Deadline Hollywood.
- "Robert Zemeckis Closes Deal To Direct Disney's Live-Action 'Pinocchio' Remake". The DisInsider. January 24, 2020.
- Kroll, Justin (August 5, 2020). "Disney Eyeing Tom Hanks To Play Geppetto In Robert Zemeckis' 'Pinocchio'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 5, 2020.
- Rubin, Rebecca (December 10, 2020). "'Pinocchio' With Tom Hanks, 'Peter Pan and Wendy' to Skip Theaters for Disney Plus". Variety. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- Shuler, Skyler (December 11, 2020). "Exclusive: Alan Silvestri to Compose Disney+'s 'Pinocchio' With Glen Ballard Writing New Songs". TheDisInsider. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
- Sharpe, Josh (January 7, 2021). "Disney Eying Oakes Fegley for Role in Pinocchio". TheDisInsider. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- D'Alessandro, Anthony (January 26, 2021). "'Beauty And The Beast' Star Luke Evans Joins Disney's Tom Hanks 'Pinocchio' Movie". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 26, 2021.
- Karp, Hubie; Grant, Bob; De Maris, Merrill; Taliaferro, Al; Porter, Hank (2018). Silly Symphonies: The Complete Disney Classics, vol 3. San Diego: IDW Publishing. ISBN 978-1631409882.
- Barrier, Michael (1999). Hollywood Cartoons : American Animation in Its Golden Age: American Animation in Its Golden Age. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-802079-0.
- Barrier, Michael (2008). The Animated Man: A Life of Walt Disney. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520256194.
- Beck, Jerry (2005). The Animated Movie Guide. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-56976-222-6.
- Booker, M. Keith (2010). Disney, Pixar, and the Hidden Messages of Children's Films. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37672-6.
- Canemaker, John (2001). Walt Disney's Nine Old Men and the Art of Animation. Disney Editions. ISBN 978-0786864966.
- Gabler, Neal (2006). Walt Disney: The Triumph of the American Imagination. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0-679-75747-4.
- Honeyman, Susan (2013). Consuming Agency in Fairy Tales, Childlore, and Folkliterature. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-60395-2.
- Mitchell, Claudia; Reid-Walsh, Jacqueline (2008). Girl Culture: Studying girl culture : a readers' guide. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-33909-7.
- Moritz, William (2004). Optical Poetry: The Life and Work of Oskar Fischinger. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-34348-8.
- Pinsky, Mark I. (2004). "4". The Gospel According to Disney: Faith, Trust, and Pixie Dust. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-23467-6.
- Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles and Albums. Guinness World Records Limited. ISBN 978-1-904994-10-7.
- Thomas, Bob (1994) . Walt Disney: An American Original. San Val, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-7857-5515-9.
- Wasko, Janet (2013). Understanding Disney: The Manufacture of Fantasy. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-7456-6904-5.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pinocchio (1940 film).|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Pinocchio (1940 film)|
- Official website
- Pinocchio at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Pinocchio at AllMovie
- Pinocchio at The Big Cartoon DataBase
- Pinocchio at Box Office Mojo
- Pinocchio at IMDb
- Pinocchio at Rotten Tomatoes
- Pinocchio at the TCM Movie Database
- Eagan, Daniel (2010). "Pinocchio". America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry. A & C Black. pp. 311–313. ISBN 978-0826429773.
- Kaufman, J.B. (2014). "Pinocchio" (PDF). National Film Registry.