Environmental impact of aviation
Like other emissions resulting from fossil fuel combustion, aircraft engines produce gases, noise, and particulates, raising environmental concerns over their global impact and their local air quality effect.
Jet airliners contribute to climate change by emitting carbon dioxide (CO
2), the best understood greenhouse gas, and, with less scientific understanding, nitrogen oxides, contrails and particulates. Their radiative forcing is estimated at 1.3–1.4 that of CO
2 alone, excluding induced cirrus cloud with a very low level of scientific understanding. In 2018, global commercial operations generated 2.4% of all CO
Jet airliners have become 70% more fuel efficient between 1967 and 2007, and CO
2 emissions per Revenue Ton-kilometer (RTK) in 2018 were 47% of those in 1990. In 2018, CO
2 emissions averaged 88 grams of CO
2 per revenue passenger per km. While the aviation industry is more fuel efficient, overall emissions have risen as the volume of air travel has increased. By 2020, aviation emissions were 70% higher than in 2005 and they could grow by 300% by 2050.
Aircraft noise pollution disrupts sleep, children's education and could increase cardiovascular risk. Airports can generate water pollution due to their extensive handling of jet fuel and deicing chemicals if not contained, contaminating nearby water bodies. Aviation emit ozone and ultrafine particles, both health hazards, and general aviation burn Avgas, releasing toxic lead.
Aviation's environmental impact can be reduced by better fuel economy in aircraft or Air Traffic Control and flight routes can be optimised to lower non-CO
2 impact on climate from NO
x, particulates or contrails. Aviation biofuel, emissions trading and carbon offsetting, part of the ICAO's CORSIA, can lower CO
2 emissions. Aviation usage can be lowered by short-haul flight bans, train connections, personal choices and aviation taxation and subsidies. Fuel-powered aircraft may be replaced by hybrid electric aircraft and electric aircraft or by hydrogen-powered aircraft.
Airplanes emit gases (carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides or carbon monoxide − bonding with oxygen to become CO
2 upon release) and atmospheric particulates (incompletely burned hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides, black carbon), interacting among themselves and with the atmosphere. While the main greenhouse gas emission from powered aircraft is CO
2, jet airliners contribute to climate change in four ways as they fly in the tropopause:
- Carbon dioxide (CO
2 emissions are the most significant and best understood contribution to climate change. The effects of CO
2 emissions are similar regardless of altitude. Airport ground vehicles, those used by passengers and staff to access airports, emissions generated by airport construction and aircraft manufacturing also contribute to the greenhouse gas emissions from the aviation industry.
- Nitrogen oxides (NO
x, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide)
- In the tropopause, emissions of NO
x favor ozone (O
3) formation in the upper troposphere. At altitudes from 8 to 13 km (26,000 to 43,000 ft), NO
x emissions result in greater concentrations of O
3 than surface NO
x emissions and these in turn have a greater global warming effect. The effect of O
3 surface concentrations are regional and local, but it becomes well mixed globally at mid and upper tropospheric levels. NO
x emissions also reduce ambient levels of methane, another greenhouse gas, resulting in a climate cooling effect, though not offsetting the O
3 forming effect. Aircraft sulfur and water emissions in the stratosphere tend to deplete O
3, partially offsetting the NO
3 increases, although these effects have not been quantified. Light aircraft and small commuter aircraft fly lower in the troposphere, not in the tropopause.
- Contrails and Cirrus clouds
- Fuel burning produces water vapour, which condenses at high altitude, under cold and humid conditions, into visible line clouds: condensation trails (contrails). They are thought to have a global warming effect, though less significant than CO
2 emissions. Contrails are uncommon from lower-altitude aircraft. Cirrus clouds can develop after the formation of persistent contrails and can have an additional global warming effect. Their global warming contribution is uncertain and estimating aviation's overall contribution often excludes cirrus cloud enhancement.
- Compared with other emissions, sulfate and soot particles have a smaller direct effect: sulfate particles have a cooling effect and reflect radiation, while soot has a warming effect and absorbs heat, while the clouds' properties and formation are influenced by particles. Contrails and cirrus clouds evolving from particles may have a greater radiative forcing effect than CO
2 emissions. As soot particles are large enough to serve as condensation nuclei, they are thought to cause the most contrail formation. Soot production may be decreased by reducing the Aromatic compound of jet fuel.
In 1999, the IPCC estimated aviation's radiative forcing in 1992 to be 2.7 (2 to 4) times that of CO
2 alone − excluding the potential effect of cirrus cloud enhancement. This was updated for 2000, with aviation's radiative forcing estimated at 47.8 mW/m2, 1.9 times the effect of CO
2 emissions alone, 25.3 mW/m2.
In 2005, research by David S. Lee, et al, published in the scientific journal Atmospheric Environment estimated the cumulative radiative forcing impact of aviation at 55 mW/m2, which is twice the 28 mW/m2 radiative forcing impact of its CO
2 emissions alone, excluding induced cirrus cloud, with a very low level of scientific understanding. In 2012, research from Chalmers university estimated this weighting factor at 1.3–1.4 if aviation induced cirrus is not included, 1.7-1.8 if they are included (within a range of 1.3–2.9).
Uncertainties remain on the NOx–O3–CH4 interactions, aviation-produced contrails formation, the effects of soot aerosols on cirrus clouds and measuring non-CO2 radiative forcing.
In 2018, CO
2 represented 34.3 mW/m2 of aviation's effective radiative forcing (ERF, on the surface), with a high confidence level (± 6 mW/m2), NOx 17.5 mW/m2 with a low confidence level (± 14) and contrail cirrus 57.4 mW/m2, also with a low confidence level (± 40). All factors combined represented 43.5 mW/m2 (1.27 that of CO
2 alone) excluding contrail cirrus and 101 mW/m2 (±45) including them, 3.5% of the anthropogenic ERF of 2290 mW/m2 (± 1100).
By 2018, airline traffic reached 4.3 billion passengers with 37.8 million departures, an average of 114 passengers per flight and 8.26 trillion RPKs, an average journey of 1,920 km (1,040 nmi), according to ICAO. The traffic was experiencing continuous growth, doubling every 15 years, despite external shocks − a 4.3% average yearly growth and Airbus forecasts expect the growth to continue. While the aviation industry is more fuel efficient, halving the amount of fuel burned per flight compared to 1990 through technological advancement and operations improvements, overall emissions have risen as the volume of air travel has increased. Between 1960 and 2018, RPKs increased from 109 to 8,269 billion.
In 1992, aircraft emissions represented 2% of all man-made CO
2 emissions, having accumulated a little more than 1% of the total man-made CO
2 increase over 50 years. By 2015, aviation accounted for 2.5% of global CO
2 emissions. In 2018, global commercial operations emitted 918 million tonnes (Mt) of CO
2, 2.4% of all CO
2 emissions: 747 Mt for passenger transport and 171 Mt for freight operations. Between 1960 and 2018, CO
2 emissions increased 6.8 times from 152 to 1,034 million tonnes per year.
Between 1990 and 2006, greenhouse gas emissions from aviation increased by 87% in the European Union. In 2010, about 60% of aviation emissions came from international flights, which are outside the emission reduction targets of the Kyoto Protocol. International flights are not covered by the Paris Agreement, either, to avoid a patchwork of individual country regulations. That agreement was adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization, however, capping airlines carbon emissions to the year 2020 level, while allowing airlines to buy carbon credits from other industries and projects.
As it accounts for a large share of their costs - 28% by 2007, Airlines have a strong incentive to lower their fuel consumption, reducing their environmental impact. Jet airliners have become 70% more fuel efficient between 1967 and 2007. Jetliner fuel efficiency improves continuously, 40% of the improvement come from engines and 30% from airframes. Efficiency gains were larger early in the jet age than later, with a 55-67% gain from 1960 to 1980 and a 20-26% gain from 1980 to 2000.
The average fuel burn of new aircraft fell 45% from 1968 to 2014, a compounded annual reduction of 1.3% with variable reduction rate.
By 2018, CO
2 emissions per Revenue Ton-kilometer (RTK) were more than halved compared to 1990, at 47%. The aviation energy intensity went from 21.2 to 12.3 MJ/RTK between 2000 and 2019, a 42% reduction.
In 2018, CO
2 emissions totalled 747 million tonnes for passenger transport, for 8.5 trillion revenue passenger kilometres (RPK), giving an average of 88 gram CO
2 per RPK. The ICAO targets a 2% efficiency improvement per year between 2013 and 2050, while the IATA targets 1.5% for 2009-2020 and to cut net CO2 emissions in half by 2050 relative to 2005.
In 1999, the IPCC estimated aviation's radiative forcing may represent 190 mW/m2 or 5% of the total man-made radiative forcing in 2050, with the uncertainty ranging from 100 to 500 mW/m2. If other industries achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over time, aviation's share, as a proportion of the remaining emissions, could rise.
Alice Bows-Larkin estimated that the annual global CO
2 emissions budget would be entirely consumed by aviation emissions to keep the climate change temperature increase below 2 °C by mid-century. Given that growth projections indicate that aviation will generate 15% of global CO
2 emissions, even with the most advanced technology forecast, she estimated that to hold the risks of dangerous climate change to under 50% by 2050 would exceed the entire carbon budget in conventional scenarios.
In 2013, the National Center for Atmospheric Science at the University of Reading forecast that increasing CO
2 levels will result in a significant increase in in-flight turbulence experienced by transatlantic airline flights by the middle of the 21st century.
In 2015, the Center for Biological Diversity estimated that aircraft could generate 43 Gt of carbon dioxide emissions through 2050, consuming almost 5% of the remaining global carbon budget. Without regulation, global aviation emissions may triple by mid-century and could emit more than 3 Gt of carbon annually under a high-growth, business-as-usual scenario. Many countries have pledged emissions reductions for the Paris Agreement, but the sum of these efforts and pledges remains insufficient and not addressing airplane pollution would be a failure despite technological and operational advancements.
By 2020, global international aviation emissions were around 70% higher than in 2005 and the ICAO forecasts they could grow by over further 300% by 2050 in the absence of additional measures.
By 2050, aviation climate impacts could be decreased by a 2% increase in fuel efficiency and a decrease in NOx emissions, due to advanced aircraft technologies, operational procedures and renewable alternative fuels decreasing radiative forcing due to sulfate aerosol and black carbon.
Air traffic causes annoying aircraft noise, which disrupts sleep, adversely affects children's school performance and could increase cardiovascular risk for airport neighbours. Sleep disruption can be reduced by banning or restricting flying at night, but disturbance progressively decreases and legislation differs across countries.
The ICAO Chapter 14 noise standard applies for aeroplanes submitted for certification after 31 December 2017, and after 31 December 2020 for aircraft below 55 t (121,000 lb), 7 EPNdB (cumulative) quieter than Chapter4. The FAA Stage 5 noise standards are equivalent. Higher bypass ratio engines produce less noise. The PW1000G is presented as 75% quieter than previous engines. Serrated edges or 'chevrons' on the back of the nacelle reduce noise impact.
Airports can generate significant water pollution due to their extensive use and handling of jet fuel, lubricants and other chemicals. Chemical spills can be mitigated or prevented by spill containment structures and clean-up equipment such as vacuum trucks, portable berms and absorbents.
Deicing fluids used in cold weather can pollute water, as most of them fall to the ground and surface runoff can carry them to nearby streams, rivers or coastal waters.:101 Deicing fluids are based on ethylene glycol or propylene glycol.:4 Airports use pavement deicers on paved surfaces including runways and taxiways, which may contain potassium acetate, glycol compounds, sodium acetate, urea or other chemicals.:42
During degradation in surface waters, ethylene and propylene glycol exert high levels of biochemical oxygen demand, consuming oxygen needed by aquatic life. Microbial populations decomposing propylene glycol consume large quantities of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water column.:2–23 Fish, macroinvertebrates and other aquatic organisms need sufficient dissolved oxygen levels in surface waters. Low oxygen concentrations reduce usable aquatic habitat because organisms die if they cannot move to areas with sufficient oxygen levels. Bottom feeder populations can be reduced or eliminated by low DO levels, changing a community's species profile or altering critical food-web interactions.:2–30
Aircraft engines emit ultrafine particles (UFPs) in and near airports, as does ground support equipment. During takeoff, 3 to 50 × 1015 particles were measured per kg of fuel burned, while significant differences are observed depending on the engine. Other estimates include 4 to 200 × 1015 particles for 0.1–0.7 gram, or 14 to 710 × 1015 particles, or 0.1-10 × 1015 black carbon particles for 0.046–0.941 g.
In the United States, 167,000 piston aircraft engines, representing three-quarters of private airplanes, burn Avgas, releasing lead into the air. The Environmental Protection Agency estimated this released 34,000 tons of lead into the atmosphere between 1970 and 2007. The Federal Aviation Administration recognizes inhaled or ingested lead leads to adverse effects on the nervous system, red blood cells, and cardiovascular and immune systems. Lead exposure in infants and young children may contribute to behavioral and learning problems, lower IQ, and autism.
On 11 February 2021, Europe's aviation sector unveiled its Destination 2050 sustainability initiative towards zero CO2 emissions by 2050:
- Aircraft technology improvements for 37% emission reductions;
- sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) for 34%;
- economic measures for 8%;
- air traffic management (ATM) and operations improvements for 6%;
Reducing air travel
Aviation's environmental impact would be mitigated by reducing air travel, route optimization, emission caps, short-distance restrictions, increased taxation, and decreased subsidies.
- Route optimization
An improved Air Traffic Management system, with more direct routes than suboptimal air corridors and optimized cruising altitudes, would allow airlines to reduce their emissions by up to 18%. In the European Union, a Single European Sky has been proposed since 1999 to avoid overlapping airspace restrictions between EU countries and to reduce emissions. By 2007, 12 million tons of CO
2 emissions per year were caused by the lack of a Single European Sky. As of September 2020, the Single European Sky has still not been completely achieved, costing 6 billion euros in delays and causing 11.6 million tonnes of excess CO
- Emissions trading
ICAO has endorsed emissions trading to reduce aviation CO
2 emission, guidelines were to be presented to the 2007 ICAO Assembly. Within the European Union, the European Commission has included aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme operated since 2012, capping airline emissions, providing incentives to lower emissions through more efficient technology or to buy carbon credits from other companies. The Centre for Aviation, Transport and Environment at Manchester Metropolitan University estimates the only way to lower emissions is to put a price on carbon and to use market-based measures like the EU ETS.
- Short-haul flight ban
A short-haul flight ban is a prohibition imposed by governments on airlines to establish and maintain a flight connection over a certain distance, or by organisations or companies on their employees for business travel using existing flight connections over a certain distance, in order to mitigate the environmental impact of aviation. In the 21st century, several governments, organisations and companies have imposed restrictions and even prohibitions on short-haul flights, stimulating or pressuring travellers to opt for more environmentally friendly means of transportation, especially trains.
- Train connections
Train connections reduce feeder flights. By March 2019, Lufthansa offered connections through Frankfurt with the Deutsche Bahn (AIRail Service) and Air France offered TGV connections through Paris. In October 2018, Austrian Airlines and the Austrian Federal Railways introduced train connections through Vienna Airport. In March 2019, the Dutch cabinet was working on an Amsterdam connection via NS International or Thalys. By July 2020, Lufthansa and Deutsche Bahn expanded their offer through Frankfurt Airport to 17 major cities.
- International conferences
Most international professional or academic conference attendants travel by plane, conference travel is often regarded as an employee benefit as costs are supported by employers. By 2003, Access Grid technology had hosted several international conferences. The Tyndall Centre has reported means to change common institutional and professional practices.
- Flight shame
In Sweden the concept of "flight shame" or "flygskam" has been cited as a cause of falling air travel. Swedish rail company SJ AB reports that twice as many Swedish people chose to travel by train instead of by air in summer 2019 compared with the previous year. Swedish airports operator Swedavia reported 4% fewer passengers across its 10 airports in 2019 compared to the previous year: a 9% drop for domestic passengers and 2% for international passengers.
- ICAO regulation and CORSIA
In 2016, the International Civil Aviation Organization committed to improve aviation fuel efficiency by 2% per year and to stabilise carbon emissions from 2020. To achieve these goals, multiple measures have been planned: more fuel-efficient aircraft technology; development and deployment of sustainable aviation fuels; Improved air traffic management; market-based measures like emission trading, levies, and carbon offsetting, the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA).
Developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and adopted in October 2016. Its goal is to have a carbon neutral growth from 2020. CORSIA uses Market-based environmental policy instruments to offset CO2 emissions: aircraft operators have to purchase carbon credits from the carbon market. Starting in 2021, the scheme is voluntary for all countries until 2027.
Taxation and subsidies
Financial measures can discourage airline passengers and promote other transportation modes and motivates airlines to improve fuel efficiency. Aviation taxation include:
- Air passenger taxes, paid by passengers for environmental reasons, may be variable by distance and include domestic flights;
- Departure taxes, paid by passengers leaving the country, sometimes also applies outside aviation;
- Jet fuel taxes, paid by airlines for the consumed jet fuel, like the kerosene tax for the European Union or fuel taxes in the United States.
Consumer behaviour can be influenced by cutting subsidies for unsustainable aviation and subsidising the development of sustainable alternatives. By September–October 2019, a carbon tax on flights would be supported by 72% of the EU citizens, in a poll conducted for the European Investment Bank.
Aviation taxation could reflect all its external costs and could be included in an emissions trading scheme. International aviation emissions escaped international regulation until the ICAO triennial conference in 2016 agreed on the CORSIA offset scheme. Due to low or nonexistent taxes on aviation fuel, air travel has a competitive advantage over other transportation modes.
By 2003 in the UK, levying £9 billion of additional taxes would reduced the annual growth for air travel demand to 2%. To manage demand to stabilize emissions regarding fuel efficiency improvements, the Environmental Audit Select Committee of the UK House of Commons advises to increase taxation ant to rethink the airport expansion policy. A 10% fare increase would cause a 5–15% reduction in demand.
In 2020, Airbus unveiled liquid-hydrogen-powered aircraft concepts as zero-emissions airliners, poised for 2035. In early 2021, Boeing's CEO Dave Calhoun said drop-in sustainable aviation fuels are "the only answer between now and 2050" to reduce carbon emissions. Liquified natural gas could be used in airplanes.
An aviation biofuel or bio-jet-fuel or bio-aviation fuel (BAF) or sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) is a biofuel used to power aircraft. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) considers it to be one of the key elements to reduce the carbon footprint within the environmental impact of aviation. Aviation biofuel could help decarbonize medium- and long-haul air travel generating most emissions, and could extend the life of older aircraft types by lowering their carbon footprint.
Biofuels are biomass-derived fuels, from plants or waste; depending on which type of biomass is used, they could lower CO₂ emissions by 20–98% compared to conventional jet fuel. The first test flight using blended biofuel was in 2008, and in 2011 blended fuels with 50% biofuels were allowed in commercial flights. In 2019, the IATA was aiming for a 2% penetration by 2025.
Aviation biofuel can be produced from plant sources like Jatropha, algae, tallows, waste oils, palm oil, Babassu and Camelina (bio-SPK); from solid biomass using pyrolysis processed with a Fischer–Tropsch process (FT-SPK); with an alcohol-to-jet (ATJ) process from waste fermentation; or from synthetic biology through a solar reactor. Small piston engines can be modified to burn ethanol.
Sustainable biofuels do not compete with food crops, prime agricultural land, natural forest or fresh water. Sustainable aviation fuel are certified as being sustainable by a third-party organisation.
Besides carbon dioxide, aviation produces nitrogen oxides (NO
x), particulates, unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and contrails. Flight routes can be optimised: modelling CO
2O and NO
x effects of transatlantic flights in winter shows westbound flights climate forcing can be lowered by up to 60% and ~25% for jet stream-following eastbound flights, costing 10–15% more due to longer distances and lower altitudes consuming more fuel, but 0.5% costs increase can reduce climate forcing by up to 25%.
- Nitrogen oxides (NO
- As designers work to reduce NO
x emissions from jet engines, they fell by over 40% between 1997 and 2003. Cruising at a 2,000 ft (610 m) lower altitude could reduce NO
x-caused radiative forcing from 5 mW/m2 to ~3 mW/m2.
- Modern engines are designed so that no smoke is produced at any point in the flight while particulates and smoke were a problem with early jet engines at high power settings.
- Unburned hydrocarbons (UHC)
- Produced by incomplete combustion, more unburned hydrocarbons are produced with low compressor pressures and/or relatively low combustor temperatures, they have been eliminated in modern jet engines through improved design and technology, like particulates.
- Contrail formation would be reduced by lowering the cruise altitude with slightly increased flight times, but this would be limited by airspace capacity, especially in Europe and North America, and increased fuel burn due to lower efficiency at lower altitudes, increasing CO
2 emissions by 4%. Contrail radiative forcing could be minimized by schedules: night flights cause 60-80% of the forcing for only 25% of the air traffic, while winter flights contribute half of the forcing for only 22% of the air traffic. As 2% of flights are responsible for 80% of contrail radiative forcing, changing a flight altitude by 2,000 ft (610 m) to avoid high humidity for 1.7% of flights would reduce contrail formation by 59%.
A carbon offset is a means of compensating aviation emissions by saving enough carbon or absorbing carbon back into plants through photosynthesis (for example, by planting trees through reforestation or afforestation) to balance the carbon emitted by a particular action.
In UK, transportation replaced power generation as the largest emissions source. This includes aviation's 4% contribution. This is expected to expand until 2050 and passenger demand may need to be reduced. For the UK Committee on Climate Change (CCC), the UK target of an 80% reduction from 1990 to 2050 was still achievable from 2019, but the committee suggests that the Paris Agreement should tighten its emission targets. Their position is that emissions in problematic sectors, like aviation, should be offset by greenhouse gas removal, carbon capture and storage and reforestation.
- Consumer option
- Some airlines offer carbon offsets to passengers to cover the emissions created by their flight, invested in green technology such as renewable energy and research into future technology. Airlines offering carbon offsets include British Airways, Continental Airlines, easyJet,; and also Air Canada, Air New Zealand, Delta Air Lines, Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air, Jetstar, Lufthansa, Qantas, United Airlines and Virgin Australia. Consumers can also purchase offsets on the individual market. There are certification standards for these, including the Gold Standard and the Green-e.
In 2019, Air France announced it would offset CO
2 emissions on its 450 daily domestic flights, that carry 57,000 passengers, from January 2020, through certified projects. The company will also offer its customers the option to voluntarily compensate for all their flights and aims to reduce its emissions by 50% per pax/km by 2030, compared to 2005.
Starting in November 2019, UK budget carrier EasyJet decided to offset carbon emissions for all its flights, through investments in atmospheric carbon reduction projects.
It claims to be the first major operator to be carbon neutral, at a cost of £25 million for its 2019-20 financial year.
2 emissions were 77g per passenger in its 2018-19 financial year, down from 78.4g the previous year.
From January 2020, British Airways began offsetting its 75 daily domestic flights emissions through carbon-reduction project investments. The airline seeks to become carbon neutral by 2050 with fuel-efficient aircraft, sustainable fuels and operational changes. Passengers flying overseas can offset their flights for £1 to Madrid in economy or £15 to New York in business-class.
US low-cost carrier JetBlue planned to use offsets for its emissions from domestic flights starting in July 2020, the first major US airline to do so. It also plans to use sustainable aviation fuel made from waste by Finnish refiner Neste starting in mid-2020. In August 2020, JetBlue became entirely carbon-neutral for its U.S. domestic flights, using efficiency improvements and carbon offsets. Delta Air Lines pledged to do the same within ten years.
To become carbon neutral by 2050, United Airlines invests to build in the US the largest Carbon capture and storage facility through the company 1PointFive, jointly owned by Occidental Petroleum and Rusheen Capital Management, with Carbon Engineering technology, aiming for nearly 10% offsets.
Electric aircraft operations do not produce any emissions and electricity can be generated by renewable energy. Lithium-ion batteries including packaging and accessories gives a 160 Wh/kg energy density while aviation fuel gives 12,500 Wh/kg. As electric machines and converters are more efficient, their shaft power available is closer to 145 Wh/kg of battery while a gas turbine gives 6,545 Wh/kg of fuel: a 45:1 ratio. For Collins Aerospace, this 1:50 ratio forbids electric propulsion for long-range aircraft. By November 2019, the German Aerospace Center estimated large electric planes could be available by 2040. Large, long-haul aircraft are unlikely to become electric before 2070 or within the 21st century, whilst smaller aircraft can be electrified. As of May 2020, the largest electric airplane was a modified Cessna 208B Caravan.
For the UK's Committee on Climate Change (CCC), huge technology shifts are uncertain, but consultancy Roland Berger points to 80 new electric aircraft programmes in 2016–2018, all-electric for the smaller two-thirds and hybrid for larger aircraft, with forecast commercial service dates in the early 2030s on short-haul routes like London to Paris, with all-electric aircraft not expected before 2045. Berger predicts a 24% CO2 share for aviation by 2050 if fuel efficiency improves by 1% per year and if there are no electric or hybrid aircraft, dropping to 3–6% if 10-year-old aircraft are replaced by electric or hybrid aircraft due to regulatory constraints, starting in 2030, to reach 70% of the 2050 fleet. This would greatly reduce the value of the existing fleet of aircraft, however. Limits to the supply of battery cells could hamper their aviation adoption, as they compete with other industries like electric vehicles. Lithium-ion batteries have proven fragile and fire-prone and their capacity deteriorates with age. However, alternatives are being pursued, such as sodium-ion batteries.
- Aviation Environment Federation, UK concerned organisation
- Energy efficiency in transport
- European Green Deal
- Environmental impact of aviation in the United Kingdom
- Environmental impact of transport
- Flying Matters, UK former pro-aviation coalition
- Health hazards of air travel
- Individual action on climate change
- Plane Mad, Irish concerned action group
- D.S.Lee; et al. (2021), "The contribution of global aviation to anthropogenic climate forcing for 2000 to 2018", Atmospheric Environment, 244: 117834, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117834, PMC 7468346, PMID 32895604
- "Aircraft Engine Emissions". International Civil Aviation Organization.
- Brasseur, Guy P.; Gupta, Mohan; et al. (April 2016). "Impact of aviation on climate" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. FAA's ACCRI Phase II. 97 (4): 561–583. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00089.1. hdl:1721.1/109270.
- Joyce E. Penner; et al. (1999). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC. Bibcode:1999aga..book.....P.
- Sausen et al. (August 2005). "Aviation radiative forcing in 2000: an update on IPCC" (PDF). Meteorologische Zeitschrift. Gebrüder Borntraeger. 14 (4): 555–561. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2005/0049.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Horvath A, Chester M (1 December 2008), Environmental Life-cycle Assessment of Passenger Transportation An Energy, Greenhouse Gas and Criteria Pollutant Inventory of Rail and Air Transportation, University of California Transportation Center, UC BerkeleyCS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Derwent, Richard; Collins, William; et al. (1 October 2002), "Global Ozone Concentrations and Regional Air Quality", Environmental Science & Technology, 36 (19): 379A–382A, doi:10.1021/es022419q, PMID 12380066
- Joyce E. Penner; et al. (1999). "Summary for Policymakers". What are the Current and Future Impacts of Subsonic Aviation on Radiative Forcing and UV Radiation?. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC.
- "Summary for Policymakers" (PDF), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, February 2007, archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2007
- Le Page, Michael (27 June 2019). "It turns out planes are even worse for the climate than we thought". New Scientist.
- "Questions & Answers on Aviation & Climate Change". Press corner. European Commission. 27 September 2005.
- Kärcher, B. (2016). "The importance of contrail ice formation for mitigating the climate impact of aviation". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 121 (7): 3497–3505. Bibcode:2016JGRD..121.3497K. doi:10.1002/2015JD024696.
- Corporan, E.; et al. (2007). "Emissions characteristics of a turbine engine and research combustor burning a Fischer-Tropsch jet fuel". Energy & Fuels. 21 (5): 2615–2626. doi:10.1021/ef070015j.
- Lobo, P.; Hagen, D.E.; Whitefield, P.D. (2011). "Comparison of PM emissions from a commercial jet engine burning conventional, biomass, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels". Environmental Science & Technology. 45 (24): 10744–10749. Bibcode:2011EnST...4510744L. doi:10.1021/es201902e. PMID 22043875.
- Moore, R.H.; et al. (2017). "Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions" (PDF). Nature. 543 (7645): 411–415. Bibcode:2017Natur.543..411M. doi:10.1038/nature21420. PMID 28300096. S2CID 4447403.
- David S. Lee; et al. (July 2009). "Aviation and global climate change in the 21st century" (PDF). Atmospheric Environment. 43 (22–23): 3520–3537. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.04.024. PMC 7185790. PMID 32362760.
- Azar, Christian; Johansson, Daniel J. A. (April 2012). "Valuing the non-CO2 climate impacts of aviation". Climatic Change. 111 (3–4): 559–579. Bibcode:2012ClCh..111..559A. doi:10.1007/s10584-011-0168-8.
- "The World of Air Transport in 2018". ICAO.
- "Global Market Forecast" (PDF). Airbus. 2019.
- "Aviation industry reducing its environmental footprint". Air Transport Action Group.
- CO2 emissions from fuel combustion: detailed estimates, IEA, 2014 and "International Energy Statistics", www.eia.gov, EIA, 2015 Missing or empty
|url=(help) via Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette (2016). "Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft" (PDF). Nature Climate Change. 6 (4): 412–417. Bibcode:2016NatCC...6..412S. doi:10.1038/nclimate2865.
- Brandon Graver, Ph.D., Kevin Zhang, Dan Rutherford, Ph.D. (September 2019). "CO2 emissions from commercial aviation, 2018" (PDF). International Council on Clean Transportation.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Climate change: Commission proposes bringing air transport into EU Emissions Trading Scheme" (Press release). EU Commission. 20 December 2006.
- Owen, Bethan; Lee, David S.; Lim, Ling (2010). "Flying into the Future: Aviation Emissions Scenarios to 2050". Environmental Science & Technology. 44 (7): 2255–2260. Bibcode:2010EnST...44.2255O. doi:10.1021/es902530z. PMID 20225840.
- Lowy, Joan (7 October 2016). "UN agreement reached on aircraft climate-change emissions". Associated Press.
- Joyce E. Penner; et al. (1999). "Summary for Policymakers". What are the Overall Climate Effects of Subsonic Aircraft?. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC.
- Giovanni Bisignani, CEO of the IATA (20 September 2007). "Opinion: Aviation and global warming". New York Times.
- Joyce E. Penner; et al. (1999), "9.2.2. Developments in Technology", Special Report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere, IPCC
- Peeters, P. M.; et al. (November 2005). "Fuel efficiency of commercial aircraft" (PDF). Netherlands National Aerospace Laboratory.
An overview of historical and future trends
- Anastasia Kharina, Daniel Rutherford (August 2015), Fuel efficiency trends for new commercial jet aircraft: 1960 to 2014 (PDF), ICCTCS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- >Fuel Fact Sheet (PDF), IATA, December 2019
- Aviation report, International Energy Agency, 2020
- "Reducing emissions from aviation". Climate Action. European Commission.
- Joyce E. Penner; et al. (1999). "Potential Climate Change from Aviation". The Role of Aircraft in Climate Change-Evaluation of Sample Scenarios. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC.
- Bows A.; et al. (2009), "5", Aviation and Climate Change: Lessons for European Policy, Routledge, p. 146
- Alice Bows-Larkin (August 2010), "Aviation and climate change: confronting the challenge", Aeronautical Journal, 114 (1158), pp. 459–468
- Paul D. Williams & Manoj M. Joshi (8 April 2013). "Intensification of winter transatlantic aviation turbulence in response to climate change". Nature Climate Change. 3 (7): 644. Bibcode:2013NatCC...3..644W. doi:10.1038/nclimate1866.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Bows-Larkin A.; et al. (2016), "Aviation and Climate Change – The Continuing Challenge", Encyclopedia of aerospace engineering, Fig. 7
- Timmis, A.; et al. (2014). "Environmental impact assessment of aviation emission reduction through the implementation of composite materials". Int J Life Cycle Assess (Submitted manuscript). 20 (2): 233–243. doi:10.1007/s11367-014-0824-0. S2CID 55899619.
- Current Market Outlook, 2014–2033 (PDF), Boeing, 2014, archived from the original (PDF) on 15 October 2014
- Flying by Numbers: Global Market Forecast 2015–2034, Airbus, 2015, archived from the original on 15 January 2013
- Paradee, Vera (December 2015). "Up in the air: how airplane carbon pollution jeopardizes global climate goals" (PDF). Tucson, AZ, USA: Center for Biological Diversity. Lay summary.
- Pharoah Le Feuvre (18 March 2019). "Are aviation biofuels ready for take off?". International Energy Agency.
- Basner, Mathias; et al. (2017). "Aviation Noise Impacts: State of the Science". Noise & Health. 19 (87): 41–50. doi:10.4103/nah.NAH_104_16 (inactive 17 January 2021). PMC 5437751. PMID 29192612.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of January 2021 (link)
- "Reduction of Noise at Source". ICAO.
- "Aircraft Noise Levels and Stages". FAA. 1 July 2020.
- Peter Coy (15 October 2015). "The Little Gear That Could Reshape the Jet Engine". Bloomberg.
- Rolls-Royce (1996). The Jet Engine. ISBN 0-902121-2-35.
- Basic Principles of the Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) for the Non-Aviation Community (PDF), UK Civil Aviation Authority
- "European Joint Industry CDA Action Plan". Eurocontrol. 2009.
- Sector S: Vehicle Maintenance Areas, Equipment Cleaning Areas, or Deicing Areas Located at Air Transportation Facilities (Report). Industrial Stormwater Fact Sheet Series. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). December 2006. EPA-833-F-06-034.
- Technical Development Document for the Final Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Airport Deicing Category (Report). EPA. April 2012. EPA-821-R-12-005.
- Environmental Impact and Benefit Assessment for the Final Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Standards for the Airport Deicing Category (Report). EPA. April 2012. EPA-821-R-12-003.
- Eastham, Sebastian D.; Barrett, Steven R. H. (1 November 2016). "Aviation-attributable ozone as a driver for changes in mortality related to air quality and skin cancer". Atmospheric Environment. 144: 17–23. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.08.040. ISSN 1352-2310.
- Herndon, S.C.; et al. (2005). "Particulate Emissions from in-use Commercial Aircraft". Aerosol Science and Technology. 39 (8): 799–809. Bibcode:2005AerST..39..799H. doi:10.1080/02786820500247363.
- Herdon, S.C.; et al. (2008). "Commercial Aircraft Engine Emissions Characterization of in-Use Aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport". Environmental Science & Technology. 42 (6): 1877–1883. doi:10.1021/es072029+. PMID 18409607.
- Lobo, P.; Hagen, D.E.; Whitefield, P.D. (2012). "Measurement and analysis of aircraft engine PM emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport". Atmospheric Environment. 61: 114–123. Bibcode:2012AtmEn..61..114L. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.028.
- Klapmeyer, M.E.; Marr, L.C. (2012). "CO2, NOx, and Particle Emissions from Aircraft and Support Activities at a Regional Airport". Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (20): 10974–10981. Bibcode:2012EnST...4610974K. doi:10.1021/es302346x. PMID 22963581.
- Moore, R.H.; et al. (2017). "Take-off engine particle emission indices for in-service aircraft at Los Angeles International Airport". Scientific Data. 4: 170198. Bibcode:2017NatSD...470198M. doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.198. PMC 5744856. PMID 29257135.
- "Leaded Fuel Is a Thing of the Past—Unless You Fly a Private Plane". Mother Jones. 10 January 2013.
- "Lead-free airplane fuel testing is in progress at Lewis" (Press release). Lewis University. 18 July 2011.
- "Fact Sheet – Leaded Aviation Fuel and the Environment". FAA. 20 November 2019.
- "Study: Lead exposure can cause autism". Metro US. 26 February 2013.
- "Europe's aviation sector launches ambitious plan to reach net zero CO2 emissions by 2050" (PDF) (Press release). Destination 2050. 11 February 2021.
- Crespo, Daniel Calleja; de Leon, Pablo Mendes (2011). Achieving the Single European Sky: Goals and Challenges. Alphen aan de Rijn: Kluwer Law International. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9789041137302.
- Sam Morgan (22 September 2020). "Corona-crisis and Brexit boost EU air traffic reform hopes". Euractiv.
- "International Civil Aviation Day calls for the greening of aviation" (PDF) (Press release). ICAO. 30 November 2005.
- Reducing the Climate Change Impact of Aviation (PDF), European Commission, 2005
- "Climate change: Commission proposes bringing air transport into EU Emissions Trading Scheme" (Press release). European Commission. 20 December 2006.
- Lee, D.; et al. (2013), Bridging the aviation CO2 emissions gap: why emissions trading is needed, Centre for Aviation, Transport and the Environment
- Matthias Wabl and Christopher Jasper (9 June 2020). "Airline bailouts point to greener travel—and higher fares". BNN Bloomberg. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- Judith Harmsen (6 March 2019). "Van Amsterdam naar Brussel vliegen blijft mogelijk". Trouw (in Dutch).
- Tom Boon (23 March 2019). "More And More Flights Are Being Replaced By Trains To Help The Environment". Simple Flying.
- Neal Luitwieler (15 July 2019). "In Oostenrijk zijn er al vluchten vervangen door treinen; waarom lukt dat Nederland niet?". Luchtvaartnieuws (in Dutch). Retrieved 22 October 2020.
- "Deutsche Bahn und Lufthansa bauen Partnerschaft aus". airliners.de (in German). 17 July 2020. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- Reay, David S (2004). "New Directions: Flying in the face of the climate change convention" (PDF). Atmospheric Environment. 38 (5): 793–794. Bibcode:2004AtmEn..38..793R. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2003.10.026. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- Le Quéré, C. et al. 2015. Towards a culture of low-carbon research for the 21st Century.
- Nudging Climate Scientists To Follow Their Own Advice On Flying. FiveThirtyEight. by Christie Aschwanden. 26 March 2015.
- Haines, Gavin (31 May 2019). "Is Sweden's 'flight shame' movement dampening demand for air travel?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 1 June 2019 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- Kerry Reals (6 September 2019). "'Flight shaming' is changing the face of travel". Flightglobal.
- "'Flight shame' a factor in Swedish traffic decline". Flightglobal. 10 January 2020.
- "Sustainable Aviation Fuels Guide" (PDF). ICAO. December 2018.
- "Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA)". ICAO.
- Kate Abnett (10 March 2020). "Ban short-haul flights for climate? In EU poll 62% say yes". Reuters.
- ICF Consulting (1 February 2006). "Including Aviation into the EU ETS: Impact on EU allowance prices" (PDF).
- "Resolution A39-3 : Consolidated statement of continuing ICAO policies and practices related to environmental protection – Global Market-based Measure (MBM) scheme" (PDF). ICAO. 15 February 2019.
- "Study: Aviation tax breaks cost EU states €39 billion a year". euractiv. 25 July 2013.
- "EU governments miss out on up to €39bn a year due to aviation's tax breaks". Transport and Environment. 24 July 2013.
- Sewill, Brendon (February 2003). "The Hidden Cost of Flying" (PDF). Aviation Environment Federation. pp. 19–20.
- "Select Committee on Environmental Audit Ninth Report". British House of Commons. 19 July 2006. paras. 112, 118–125, 113–114 & 126–133.
- Cairns, Dr Sally & Carey Newson (September 2006). "Predict and decide — Aviation, climate change and UK policy" (PDF). University of Oxford - Environmental Change Institute.
- Guy Norris (4 February 2021). "Boeing Moves Forward With Airbus A321XLR-Competitor Plan". Aviation Week.
- "Sustainable aviation fuel market demand drives new product launches". Investable Universe. 4 December 2020.
- Doliente, Stephen S.; et al. (2020). "Bio-aviation Fuel: A Comprehensive Review and Analysis of the Supply Chain Components". Frontiers in Energy Research. 8. doi:10.3389/fenrg.2020.00110. ISSN 2296-598X. S2CID 218947674.
- "Developing Sustainable Aviation Fuel (SAF)". IATA.
- Bauen, Ausilio. "Review of the potential for biofuels in aviation". E4tech. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
- Volker Grewe; et al. (September 2014). "Reduction of the air traffic's contribution to climate change: A REACT4C case study". Atmospheric Environment.
- Ole Amund Søvde; et al. (October 2014). "Aircraft emission mitigation by changing route altitude: A multi-model estimate of aircraft NOx emission impact on O3 photochemistry". Atmospheric Environment.
- Williams, Victoria; et al. (November 2002). "Reducing the climate change impacts of aviation by restricting cruise altitudes". Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 7 (6): 451–464. doi:10.1016/S1361-9209(02)00013-5.
- Nicola Stuber; et al. (15 June 2006). "The importance of the diurnal and annual cycle of air traffic for contrail radiative forcing". Nature.
- Caroline Brogan (12 February 2020). "Small altitude changes could cut contrail impact of flights by up to 59 per cent". Imperial College.
- Kerry Reals (7 January 2019). "Don't count on technology to save us". Flightglobal. Retrieved 20 October 2020.
- British Airways Carbon Offset Programme, British Airways, retrieved 2 May 2010
- Continental Airlines Carbon Offset Programme, Continental Airlines, archived from the original on 2 March 2012, retrieved 2 May 2010
- Continental Airlines Carbon Offset Schemes, Bloomberg, retrieved 2 May 2010
- easyJet Carbon Offset Programme, easyJet, retrieved 2 May 2010
- 11 Airlines That Offer Carbon Offset Programs
- How to Buy Carbon Offsets(subscription required)
- The Gold Standard
- Find Green-e Certified Carbon Offsets
- "Carbon neutral airline gets on board UN scheme to cut greenhouse gas emissions". UN News. 20 November 2008.
- "Corporate Responsibility > Going Green". Harbour Air.
- "flypop plans to be first international carbon-neutral airline" (Press release). flypop. 17 July 2019.
- "Air France to proactively offset 100% of CO2 emissions on its domestic flights as of January 1st, 2020" (Press release). Air France. 1 October 2019.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (19 November 2019). "EasyJet to offset carbon emissions across whole network". Flightglobal.
- "BA begins offsetting domestic flight emissions". Flightglobal. 3 January 2020.
- Pilar Wolfsteller (6 January 2020). "JetBlue to be first major US airline to offset all emissions from domestic flights". Flightglobal.
- "All JetBlue Flights Are Now Carbon Neutral Within The US". simpleflying.
- "Delta burns tons of jet fuel - but says it's on track to be carbon neutral. What?". CNN. 14 February 2020.
- Jon Hemmerdinger (10 December 2020). "United to invest in 'direct air capture' as it makes 2050 carbon-neutral pledge". Flightglobal.
- Philip E. Ross (1 June 2018). "Hybrid Electric Airliners Will Cut Emissions—and Noise". IEEE Spectrum.
- Bjorn Fehrm (30 June 2017). "Bjorn's Corner: Electric aircraft". Leeham.
- Paul Seidenman (10 January 2019). "How Batteries Need To Develop To Match Jet Fuel". Aviation Week Network.
- "Don't Expect To See Large Electric Planes Until At Least 2040". Simple Flying. 28 November 2019.
- Chris Baraniuk (18 June 2020). "The largest electric plane ever to fly". Future Planet. BBC.
- "Aviation Emissions, Impacts & Mitigation: A Primer" (PDF). FAA Office of Environment and Energy. January 2015.
- "Strategic Research & Innovation Agenda" (PDF). Advisory Council for Aviation Research and Innovation in Europe. 2017.
- "European Aviation Environmental Report" (PDF). EASA. 2019.
- "airportwatch.org.uk". AirportWatch.
oppose any expansion of aviation and airports likely to damage the human or natural environment, and to promote an aviation policy for the UK which is in full accordance with the principles of sustainable development
- "Aviation: Benefits Beyond Borders". Air Transport Action Group.
information on the many industry measures underway to limit the impact of aviation on the environment
- "sustainableaviation.co.uk". Sustainable Aviation.
collective approach of UK aviation to tackling the challenge of ensuring a sustainable future
- "The aviation sector's climate action framework" (PDF). Air Transport Action Group. November 2015.
- "Aviation Sustainability Center". Washington State University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- "Laboratory for Aviation and the Environment". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- "Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- "Sustainable Sky Institute". Sustainable Sky Institute.
- Stefan Gössling (5 February 2015). "publications". Lund University — Department of Service Management and Service Studies.[which?]
- The Heinrich Böll Foundation and the Airbus Group (May 2016). "Aloft - An Inflight Review" (PDF).
- Antoine Gelain (10 August 2016). "Opinion: The Uncomfortable Truth About Aviation Emissions". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Tracking report: Aviation". International Energy Agency. June 2020.
- Hannah Ritchie (22 October 2020). "Climate change and flying: what share of global CO2 emissions come from aviation?". Our World in Data.