Tareen

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The Tareen (or Tarin) (Pashto: ترین‎) is a tribe of Western Pashtun who inhabit Southern Afghanistan, the Balochistan province of Pakistan and Hazara region of northwestern Pakistan.[1][2]

History[edit]

Little is known of the Tareen prior to Muhammad Ghori's incursions into India in the late 12th century. However, much of the tribe is still living a mostly nomadic life in their native lands of Afghanistan and Pishin.[3][4]

The Tareen people identify with descent from Sharkbun, a grandson of Qais Abdur Rasheed. Tareen had three sons, Tor, Speen and Abdal (Durrani). The descendants of spin settled in Dukki, Balochistan, Pakistan. The descendants of tor settled in Pishin Balochistan. Abdali-Durrani was an ancestor of the people of Afghanistan.[1][5]

Sher Shah Suri brought the Tareen from the Pashtun lands to parts of central and northern India such as Bhagalpur, Bihar and regions of contemporary Pakistan.

At the time of Akbar the Great, Alaf Khan was a Tareen leader in Bhagalpur. He was a Mansabdar (government official) of the "Chahr Hazari" rank.[6][7]

During the reign of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (1628 to 1658) a group of Tareen/Tarin from Tarin Kowt emigrated to the area which is now the Hazara area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.[3][8] Later on, in about 1750, when Ahmad Shah Abdali, ruler of the Durrani Empire made incursions into northwestern India, a contingent of Tareen from this area was raised to fight in the Third Battle of Panipat, against the Maratha Empire, in January 1761.[9]

From 1820 to 1849, Punjab came under Sikh control. The Tareen people resisted occupation with sometimes severe consequences.[8][10]

On 29 March 1849, the British annexed Punjab. Initially, the Tareen resisted. Later, the Tareen reconciled themselves to the new situation and gradually found service with the British Raj. The Tareen worked in the military and civil administration.[11][3][8][12]

Branches (septs)[edit]

According to Neamet Ullah in History of the Pashtuns, Tareen, had three sons after which the branches of the Tareen descendants are named: Tor, Speen (Aspin or Spin) and Abdal (Durrani).[13][14]

The Abdal are divided into the Zirak, and the Panjpai. The Abdal became known as the Durrani.[2]

Languages[edit]

The principal languages of Tareen is Pashto and while those living in Hazara Division of Pakistan have adopted Hindko.[4] Persian was once used as a formal language for official records and correspondence. Until the late 1800s, tombstones were also inscribed in Persian.[1] Tareen who have settled away from Pishin have adopted their local languages but some remain bilingual.[2]

Diaspora[edit]

Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan[edit]

In the 1600 and 1700s, Tareen people of Tor descent of the Batezai clan moved to the Haripur District of the Hazara region of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa and established themselves there[3] In the Hazara area, the Tareen people have adopted the ways of the people of the Hazara region.[15]

India[edit]

Small populations of the Tareen have settled in India since the 1100s, particularly near Bhopal and in Sambhal (Sarai Tareen) Uttar Pradesh.[2][3]

Afghanistan[edit]

Tareens in Afghanistan are found in provinces like Kandahar, Oruzgan, Helmand, Herat, Nangarhar, Ghazni, Logar, Kabul, Kunduz etc. In Oruzgan there is a town and provincial capital named Tareenkot. In Afghanistan the highest number of Tareens are of Bor Or abdali Tareen clan (e.g. now mostly known as Durrani after Ahmed shah Abdali) and than comes Tor Tareens number along with some Spin Tareens residing in few areas of Afghanistan and other Tareen branches.

Balochistan[edit]

Tareens in Balochistan reside in areas of Pishin, Harnai, Dukki, Gulistan, Ziarat, Quetta, and Mastung.

Notable people of Tareen descent[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Caroe O. The Pathans 550 B.C.- A.D. 1957 Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-577221-0. Page 521.
  2. ^ a b c d Nawab Muhammad Hyat Khan, "Hayat i Afghan" (Orig. in Persian 1865) trans. by Priestley H. B. "Afghanistan and its Inhabitants", 1874; Reprint Lahore: Sang i Meel Press, 1981
  3. ^ a b c d e Panni S. B. Tarikh i Hazara (1969) 2nd edition, Peshawar. p270 - 275.
  4. ^ a b Ridgeway R. T. I. The Pathans (1911) Reprinted Peshawar, 1983.
  5. ^ Haider G. R. The Pashtuns - a monograph on tribal claims of their origins (1988) University of Peshawar Press p 11 - 13.
  6. ^ Mir Ali Wardi Khan Mansabdar aha Behar (1724) translation to Urdu 1921.
  7. ^ Cardew C. H. H. Bhaugalpore: a short history (1894) Calcutta.
  8. ^ a b c Hazara District Gazetteer 1883 and 1907.
  9. ^ P J Mayne, The North West Frontier and Northern Punjab under the Durrani Afghans (An Historical Study) pub Lahore, 1911. p 169
  10. ^ Rawalpindi Gazetteer 1890.
  11. ^ Spain J. W. The Pathan Borderland (1964)
  12. ^ Attock District Gazetteer 1892
  13. ^ Dorn B. History of the Afghans: translated from the Persian of Neamet Ullah Third edition p42.
  14. ^ Elphinstone, II. p. 162.
  15. ^ Ahmad A. S. Report on the Hazara (1964) DC's Office Abbottabad Hazara District.