Whulshootseed dialect

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Southern Lushootseed
Native toUnited States
Native speakers
1 (2005)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
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Whulshootseed (xʷəlšuʔcid), also called Twulshootseed, is a Native American language in Washington, which was spoken by the Muckleshoot, Puyallup, Suquamish, Duwamish, Nisqually, and Squaxin Island tribes. Whulshootseed is a southern dialect of Lushootseed, which is part of the Coast Salish language group.[3] The last native speaker was Ellen Williams, born 1923.[1][4][5]

Whulshootseed is taught at the Muckleshoot Language Program of the Muckleshoot Tribal College in Auburn, Washington, at a local school, and by the Puyallup Tribal Language Program.[6][7][8] A 1999 video, Muckleshoot: a People and Their Language profiles the Muckleshoot Whulshootseed Language Preservation Project.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Erik Lacitis (2005-02-08). "Last few Whulshootseed speakers spread the word". Seattle Times Newspaper. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Southern Lushootseed". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Holly Taylor (2010-05-06). "Preserving the Lushootseed language for the next generation". Crosscut.com, News of the Great Nearby. Seattle, WA. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  4. ^ Lois Sweet Dorman (2005-06-21). "Lost in translation: a connection to the sacred". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  5. ^ Johansen, Bruce E (2015). "Chapter 10, Muckleshoot language revival". Up from the ashes : nation building at Muckleshoot (First ed.). Seattle, WA: Seattle Publishing. pp. 244–251. ISBN 9780985776411.
  6. ^ "Muckleshoot Language Program". Muckleshoot Tribal College. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  7. ^ Mary Ann Zehr (2010-07-14). "NCLB Seen Impeding Indigenous-Language Preservation". Education Week. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  8. ^ "Puyallup Tribal Language Program". Puyallup Tribe of Indians. Retrieved 2012-09-15.
  9. ^ Scott Ross (Director) (1999). Muckleshoot: a People and Their Language. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2012-12-03.

External links[edit]