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University of Liverpool

Coordinates: 53°24′22″N 2°58′01″W / 53.406°N 2.967°W / 53.406; -2.967
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University of Liverpool
Coat of arms
MottoLatin: Haec otia studia fovent
Motto in English
These days of peace foster learning[1]
Established1881 – University College Liverpool[2]
1884 – affiliated to the federal Victoria University[3]
1903 – royal charter
Endowment£182.7 million (2023)[4]
Budget£673.2 million (2022/23)[4]
ChancellorWendy Beetlestone
Vice-ChancellorProfessor Tim Jones
VisitorThe Lord President of the Council ex officio
Academic staff
3,110 (2021/22)[5]
Administrative staff
3,385 (2021/22)[5]
Students28,680 (2021/22)[6]
Undergraduates22,265 (2021/22)[6]
Postgraduates6,415 (2021/22)[6]
53°24′22″N 2°58′01″W / 53.406°N 2.967°W / 53.406; -2.967
ColoursThe University
Websiteliverpool.ac.uk Edit this at Wikidata

The University of Liverpool (abbreviated UOL) is a public research university in Liverpool, England. Founded as a college in 1881, it gained its Royal Charter in 1903 with the ability to award degrees, and is also known to be one of the six 'red brick' civic universities, the first to be referred to as The Original Red Brick. It comprises three faculties organised into 35 departments and schools. It is a founding member of the Russell Group, the N8 Group for research collaboration and the university management school is triple crown accredited.[7]

Ten Nobel Prize winners are amongst its alumni and past faculty and the university offers more than 230 first degree courses across 103 subjects.[8] Its alumni include the CEOs of GlobalFoundries, ARM Holdings, Tesco, Motorola and The Coca-Cola Company. It was the UK's first university to establish departments in oceanography, civic design, architecture, and biochemistry (at the Johnston Laboratories).[9] In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, making it the world's first Sino-British university.[10][11][12] For 2022–23, Liverpool had a turnover of £673.2 million, including £118 million from research grants and contracts.[4] It has the seventh-largest endowment of any university in England. Graduates of the university are styled with the post-nominal letters Lpool, to indicate the institution.


University College Liverpool[edit]

The university was established in 1881 as University College Liverpool, admitting its first students in 1882.[2] In 1884, it became part of the federal Victoria University. In 1894 Oliver Lodge, a professor at the university, made the world's first public radio transmission and two years later took the first surgical X-ray in the United Kingdom.[13] The Liverpool University Press was founded in 1899, making it the third-oldest university press in England. Students in this period were awarded external degrees by the University of London.[14]

University status[edit]

The centrepiece of the university estate, the Victoria Building, opened in 1892 as the first purpose built facility for the university. The building was the inspiration for the term "red brick university" which was coined by Professor Edgar Allison Peers.
The Quadrangle, University of Liverpool

Following a royal charter and act of Parliament in 1903, it became an independent university (the University of Liverpool) with the right to confer its own degrees. The next few years saw major developments at the university, including Sir Charles Sherrington's discovery of the synapse and William Blair-Bell's work on chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. In the 1930s to 1940s Sir James Chadwick and Sir Joseph Rotblat made major contributions to the development of the atomic bomb.[13] From 1943 to 1966 Allan Downie, Professor of Bacteriology, was involved in the eradication of smallpox.

In 1994 the university was a founding member of the Russell Group, a collaboration of twenty leading research-intensive universities, as well as a founding member of the N8 Group in 2004. In the 21st century physicists, engineers and technicians from the University of Liverpool were involved in the construction of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, working on two of the four detectors in the LHC.[15]

In 2004, Sylvan Learning, later known as Laureate International Universities, became the worldwide partner for University of Liverpool online.[16] In 2019, it was announced that Kaplan Open Learning, part of Kaplan, Inc, would be the new partner for the University of Liverpool's online programmes.[17] Laureate continued to provide some teaching provision for existing students until 2021.[18]

The university has produced ten Nobel Prize winners, from the fields of science, medicine, economics and peace. The Nobel laureates include the physician Sir Ronald Ross, physicist Charles Barkla, physicist Martin Lewis Perl, the physiologist Sir Charles Sherrington, physicist Sir James Chadwick, chemist Sir Robert Robinson, chemist Har Gobind Khorana, physiologist Rodney Porter, economist Ronald Coase and physicist Joseph Rotblat. Sir Ronald Ross was also the first British Nobel laureate in 1902. The university is also associated with Professors Ronald Finn and Sir Cyril Clarke who jointly won the Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award in 1980 and Sir David Weatherall who won the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science in 2010. These Lasker Awards are popularly known as America's Nobels.[19]

Over the 2013/2014 academic year, members of staff took part in numerous strikes after staff were offered a pay rise of 1% which unions equated to a 13% pay cut since 2008. The strikes were supported by both the university's Guild of Students and the National Union of Students.[20] Some students at the university supported the strike, occupying buildings on campus.[21]

Campus and facilities[edit]

The Foundation Building, one of the university's main administrative facilities.
The Yoko Ono Lennon Centre, opened in 2022.
Abercromby Square, home to numerous university departments.

The university is mainly based around a single urban campus approximately five minutes' walk from Liverpool City Centre, at the top of Brownlow Hill and Mount Pleasant. Occupying 100 acres, it contains 192 non-residential buildings that house 69 lecture theatres, 114 teaching areas and research facilities.

The main site is divided into three faculties: Health and Life Sciences; Humanities and Social Sciences; and Science and Engineering. The Veterinary Teaching Hospital (Leahurst) and Ness Botanical Gardens are based on the Wirral Peninsula. There was formerly a marine biology research station at Port Erin on the Isle of Man until it closed in 2006.

Fifty-one residential buildings, on or near the campus, provide 3,385 rooms for students, on a catered or self-catering basis. The centrepiece of the campus remains the university's original red brick building, the Victoria Building. Opened in 1892, it has recently been restored as the Victoria Gallery and Museum, complete with cafe and activities for school visits.

In 2011 the university made a commitment to invest £660m into the 'Student Experience', £250m of which will reportedly be spent on Student Accommodation. Announced so far have been two large On-Campus halls of residences (the first of which, Vine Court, opened September 2012), new Veterinary Science facilities, and a £10m refurbishment of the Liverpool Guild of Students. New Central Teaching Laboratories for physics, earth sciences, chemistry and archaeology were opened in autumn 2012.[22]

In 2013, the University of Liverpool opened a satellite campus in Finsbury Square in London, offering a range of professionally focussed masters programmes.[23]

Central Teaching Hub[edit]

The Central Teaching Hub is a large multi-use building that houses a recently refurbished Lecture Theatre Block (LTB) and teaching facilities (Central Teaching Labs, CTL) for the Departments of Chemistry and Physics and the School of Environmental Sciences, within the university's Central City Centre Campus. It was completed and officially opened in September 2012 with an estimated project cost of £23m.[24] The main building, the 'Central Teaching Laboratory', is built around a large atrium and houses seven separate laboratories that can accommodate 1,600 students at a time. A flexible teaching space, computing centre, multi-departmental teaching spaces and communal work spaces can also be found inside. The adjoining University Lecture Block building contains four lecture rooms and further social spaces.[25]


In 2008 the University of Liverpool was voted joint seventeenth greenest university in Britain by WWF supported company Green League.[26] This represents an improvement after finishing 55th in the league table the previous year.[27]

The position of the university is determined by point allocation in departments such as Transport, Waste management, sustainable procurement and Emissions among other categories; these are then transpired into various awards.[28] Liverpool was awarded the highest achievement possible in Environmental policy, Environmental staff, Environmental audit, Fair trade status, Ethical investment policy and Waste recycled while also scoring points in Carbon emissions, Water recycle and Energy source.[citation needed]

Liverpool was the first among UK universities to develop their desktop computer power management solution, which has been widely adopted by other institutions.[29] The university has subsequently piloted other advanced software approaches further increasing savings.[30] The university has also been at the forefront of using the Condor HTC computing platform in a power saving environment. This software, which makes use of unused computer time for computationally intensive tasks usually results in computers being left turned on.[31] The university has demonstrated an effective solution for this problem using a mixture of Wake-on-LAN and commercial power management software.[32]

Organisation and structure[edit]

Liverpool Guild of Students

The university is ranked in the top 1% of universities worldwide according to Academic ranking of world universities and has previously been ranked within the top 150 university globally by the guide.[33] It is also a founding member of the Russell Group and a founding member of the Northern Consortium.

The university is a research-based university with 33,000 students pursuing over 450 programmes spanning 54 subject areas. It has a broad range of teaching and research in both arts and sciences, and the University of Liverpool School of Medicine established in 1835 is today one of the largest medical schools in the UK. It also has strong links to the neighbouring Royal Liverpool University Hospital.

The university has a students' union to represent students' interests, known as the Liverpool Guild of Students.

The university previously had a strategic partnership with Laureate International Universities, a for-profit college collective, for University of Liverpool online degrees.[34] In 2019, the university announced a new partnership with Kaplan Open Learning for delivery of their online degrees.[17]

Senior leadership[edit]

The figurehead of the university is the chancellor. The following have served in that role:

The professional head of the university is the vice-chancellor. The following have served in that role:


Since 2009, teaching departments of the university have been divided into three faculties: Science and Engineering, Health and Life Sciences, and Humanities and Social Sciences. Each faculty is headed by an Executive Pro-Vice-Chancellor, who is responsible for all schools in the faculty.[35]

Academic profile[edit]


UCAS Admission Statistics
2023 2022 2021 2020 2019
Applications[α][36] 43,975 43,435 42,255 43,365 40,415
Accepted[α][36] 6,515 5,910 6,630 6,385 5,770
Applications/Accepted Ratio[α] 6.7 7.3 6.4 6.8 7.0
Offer Rate (%)[β][37] 72.1 69.2 72.3 78.1 77.8
Average Entry Tariff[38] 147 144 140
  1. ^ a b c Main scheme applications, International and UK
  2. ^ UK domiciled applicants
HESA Student Body Composition (2022)
Domicile[39] and Ethnicity[40] Total
British White 61% 61
British Ethnic Minorities[a] 15% 15
International EU 3% 3
International Non-EU 21% 21
Undergraduate Widening Participation Indicators[41][42]
Female 55% 55
Private School 13% 13
Low Participation Areas[b] 9% 9

In terms of average UCAS points of entrants, Liverpool ranked 40th in Britain in 2014.[43] The university gives offers of admission to 83.1% of its applicants, the 7th highest amongst the Russell Group.[44]

According to the 2017 Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, approximately 12% of Liverpool's undergraduates come from independent schools.[45] In the 2016–17 academic year, the university had a domicile breakdown of 72:3:25 of UK:EU:non-EU students respectively with a female to male ratio of 55:45.[46]

Rankings and reputation[edit]

National rankings
Complete (2025)[47]18=
Guardian (2024)[48]36
Times / Sunday Times (2024)[49]29=
Global rankings
ARWU (2023)[50]101–150
QS (2025)[51]165=
THE (2024)[52]168=
University of Liverpool's national league table performance over the past ten years

In the Complete University Guide 2013, published in The Independent, the University of Liverpool was ranked 31st out of 124, based on nine measures,[53] while The Times Good University Guide 2008 ranked Liverpool 34th out of 113 universities.[54] The Sunday Times university guide recently ranked the University of Liverpool 27th out of 123.[55] In 2010, The Sunday Times has ranked University of Liverpool 29th of 122 institutions nationwide. In 2008 the THE-QS World University Rankings rated University of Liverpool 99th best in the world, and 137th best worldwide in 2009. In 2011 the QS World University Rankings[56] ranked the university in 123rd place, up 14. In the Times Good University Guide 2013, the University of Liverpool was ranked 29th. Liverpool is ranked 122nd in the world (and 15th in the UK) in the 2016 Round University Ranking.[57]

The 2018 U.S. News & World Report ranks Liverpool 129th in the world.[58] In 2019, it ranked 178th among the universities around the world by SCImago Institutions Rankings.[59]

In the 2021 Research Excellence Framework (REF), which assesses the quality of research in UK higher education institutions, Liverpool is ranked joint 25th by GPA (along with Durham University and the University of Nottingham) and 19th for research power (the grade point average score of a university, multiplied by the full-time equivalent number of researchers submitted).[60] The Research Excellence Framework for 2014 has confirmed the University of Liverpool's reputation for internationally outstanding research. Chemistry, Computer Science, General Engineering, Archaeology, Agriculture, Veterinary & Food Science, Architecture, Clinical Medicine, and English, are ranked in the top 10 in the UK for research excellence rated as 4* (world-leading) or 3* (internationally excellent), and also performed particularly well in terms of the impact of their research.[61] The Computer Science department was ranked 1st in UK for 4* and 3* research, with 97% of the research being rated as world-leading or internationally excellent – the highest proportion of any computer science department in the UK.[62] The Chemistry department was also ranked 1st in the UK with 99% of its research rated as 4* world leading or 3* internationally excellent[63]

Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University[edit]

North Campus, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University; architects: Perkins+Will

In 2006 the university became the first in the UK to establish an independent university in China, making it the world's first Sino-British university.[10][11][12] Resulting from a partnership between the University of Liverpool and Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University is the first Sino-British university between research-led universities, exploring new educational models for China.[64]

The campus is situated in Suzhou Industrial Park in the eastern part of Suzhou in the province of Jiangsu, 90 km west of Shanghai. It is a science and engineering university with a second focus in English, recognised by the Chinese Ministry of Education as a "not for profit" educational institution. The university offers undergraduate degree programmes in the fields of Science, Engineering, and Management. Students are rewarded with a University of Liverpool degree as well as a degree from XJTLU. The teaching language is English.

Student life[edit]

University halls[edit]

Crown Place halls of residence.

The university offers a wide selection of accommodation that are on campus as well as student villages off campus. As part of a £660 million investment in campus facilities and student experience, the university has built 3 new on campus halls, while refurbishing existing accommodation.[65] The accommodation offered currently by the university for 2019/2020 academic year are listed below:

  • Crown Place
  • Philharmonic Court
  • Vine Court
  • Dover Court
  • Tudor Close
  • Melville Grove

Greenbank Student Village

  • Derby & Rathbone Halls
  • Roscoe & Dorothy Kuya Halls

In 2018, the university faced strong criticism from the student body that the university provided halls were too expensive, by the Cut the Rent campaign.[66]

Privately accommodation owned Apollo Court ranked 3rd and Myrtle Court ranked 4th in the UK for value for money on a university review platform StudentCrowd.[67]

In 2021 "Gladstone Halls" was renamed after leading communist and anti-racist leader Dorothy Kuya.[68]


University of Liverpool's Sports Centre

The University of Liverpool has a proud sporting tradition and has many premier teams in a variety of sports. The current sporting project comes under the title of Sport Liverpool and offers over 50 different sports ranging from football, rugby, cricket and hockey to others such as windsurfing, lacrosse and cheerleading.

Many of the sports have both male and female teams and most are involved in competition on a national scale. BUCS is the body which organises national university competitions involving 154 institutions in 47 sports. Most sports involve travelling to various locations across the country, mainly on Wednesday afternoons.

Two other prominent competitions are the Christie Championships[69] and the Varsity Cup. The Christie Cup is an inter-university competition between Liverpool, Leeds and Manchester. The Varsity Cup is a popular "derby" event between Liverpool John Moores University and the University of Liverpool.

Notable alumni[edit]

Helen Marnie
Barham Salih. Prime Minister of Iraqi Kurdistan
Tung Chee Hwa

Nobel Prize winners[edit]

Charles Scott Sherrington
Charles Glover Barkla

There have been ten Nobel Prize Laureates who have been based at the university during a significant point in their career.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Includes those who indicate that they identify as Asian, Black, Mixed Heritage, Arab or any other ethnicity except White.
  2. ^ Calculated from the Polar4 measure, using Quintile1, in England and Wales. Calculated from the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) measure, using SIMD20, in Scotland.


  1. ^ "University Regalia" (PDF). liv.ac.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b "History of the University". University of Liverpool. 27 March 2007. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2007.
  3. ^ http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukla/2004/4 University of Manchester Act 2004. legislation.gov.uk (4 July 2011). Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  4. ^ a b c "Financial Statements for the Year to 31 July 2023" (PDF). University of Liverpool. p. 44. Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  5. ^ a b "Who's working in HE?". hesa.ac.uk.
  6. ^ a b c "Where do HE students study? | HESA". hesa.ac.uk.
  7. ^ "Management School Triple Crown Accredited – University of Liverpool Management School Accreditation and Rankings". liv.ac.uk/management.
  8. ^ a b "Our Nobel Prize winners". University of Liverpool. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 17 November 2021.
  9. ^ "Facts and figures: Our courses – University of Liverpool". 18 August 2007. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Our Universities – University of Liverpool". Russell Group. Archived from the original on 1 August 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
  11. ^ a b "University of Liverpool – News". News.liv.ac.uk.
  12. ^ a b Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University#cite note-0
  13. ^ a b "A brief history of the University – University of Liverpool". Archived from the original on 11 May 2009. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  14. ^ "Student lists". Archived from the original on 14 September 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
  15. ^ Accessed 12 May 2009. Liverpool University. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.Archived 13 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "Laureate Online Education and K.I.T. eLearning B.V., the eLearning partner of the University of Liverpool, announce name change" (PDF).
  17. ^ a b "New partner announced for University's online learning provision". news.liverpool.ac.uk. 13 May 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  18. ^ "Laureate Online Education".
  19. ^ "Awards | The Lasker Foundation". The Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  20. ^ Akkoc, Raziye (3 December 2013). "Liverpool students hit by second lecturers pay strike". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  21. ^ Trew, Alannah (4 December 2013). "Liverpool students occupy campus buildings in solidarity with staff strikes". The Independent. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  22. ^ "GALLERY – Nobel Prize winner, Sir Paul Nurse opens CTL – University of Liverpool News – University of Liverpool". 24 October 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  23. ^ "University of Liverpool in London – University of Liverpool". www.liverpool.ac.uk. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  24. ^ "New £23M Central Teaching Laboratory unveiled". 17 August 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  25. ^ "Victoria Gallery & Museum – University of Liverpool". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  26. ^ People & Planet – The Green League 2008 Archived 28 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Peopleandplanet.org. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  27. ^ People & Planet – People & Planet Green League 2007 Archived 10 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Peopleandplanet.org. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  28. ^ People & Planet – The Green League 2008: Methodology Archived 12 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Peopleandplanet.org. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  29. ^ "PowerDown". 23 October 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  30. ^ "University of Liverpool save estimated £70 per PC". 23 October 2008. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
  31. ^ University of Liverpool Condor Project. Liverpool University. Retrieved on 14 September 2011. Archived 10 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ University of Liverpool case study with Data Synergy PowerMAN software. Datasynergy.co.uk. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  33. ^ "University of Liverpool". Archived from the original on 16 May 2013.
  34. ^ "University of Liverpool Online Programs (in partnership with Laureate Online Education)". www.laureate.net. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  35. ^ "About the University". Liverpool University. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
  36. ^ a b "UCAS Undergraduate Sector-Level End of Cycle Data Resources 2023". ucas.com. UCAS. December 2023. Show me... Domicile by Provider. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  37. ^ "2023 entry UCAS Undergraduate reports by sex, area background, and ethnic group". UCAS. 30 April 2024. Retrieved 30 April 2024.
  38. ^ "University League Tables entry standards 2024". The Complete University Guide.
  39. ^ "Where do HE students study?: Students by HE provider". HESA. HE student enrolments by HE provider. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  40. ^ "Who's studying in HE?: Personal characteristics". HESA. 31 January 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  41. ^ "Widening participation: UK Performance Indicators: Table T2a - Participation of under-represented groups in higher education". Higher Education Statistics Authority. hesa.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  42. ^ "Good University Guide: Social Inclusion Ranking". The Times. 16 September 2022.
  43. ^ "University League Table 2017". Complete University Guide. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  44. ^ "Which elite universities have the highest offer rates". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  45. ^ "The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide 2017". The Good University Guide. London, England. Retrieved 16 August 2016.(subscription required)
  46. ^ "Where do HE students study?". hesa.ac.uk. Higher Education Statistics Authority. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  47. ^ "Complete University Guide 2025". The Complete University Guide. 14 May 2024.
  48. ^ "Guardian University Guide 2024". The Guardian. 9 September 2023.
  49. ^ "Good University Guide 2024". The Times. 15 September 2023.
  50. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities 2023". Shanghai Ranking Consultancy. 15 August 2023.
  51. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2025". Quacquarelli Symonds Ltd. 4 June 2024.
  52. ^ "THE World University Rankings 2024". Times Higher Education. 28 September 2023.
  53. ^ The Independent newspaper, 24 April 2008
  54. ^ The Times: http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/gug/gooduniversityguide.php
  55. ^ The Times: http://extras.timesonline.co.uk/stug/universityguide.php. 23 May 2008
  56. ^ "topuniversities.com". Archived from the original on 27 December 2012.
  57. ^ "Round University Rankings 2016". RUR Rankings Agency. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  58. ^ "U.S. News & World Report Best Global Universities Rankings 2018". U.S. News & World Report.
  59. ^ "SCImago Institutions Rankings – Higher Education – All Regions and Countries – 2019 – Overall Rank". www.scimagoir.com.
  60. ^ "REF 2021: Quality ratings hit new high in expanded assessment". Times Higher Education. 12 May 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2023.
  61. ^ "Liverpool research ranked in UK top 10". 18 December 2014. Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  62. ^ "REF 2014 Computer Science". Retrieved 25 December 2014.
  63. ^ "REF 2014 University of Liverpool Chemistry REF results 2014– Chemistry – University of Liverpool". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  64. ^ "LING JUNHUI in China Today No.9 September 2011, saved on Nov.9, 2013". News.xjtlu.edu.cn. 28 October 2011. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
  65. ^ "Campus development". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  66. ^ "CUT THE RENT: STUDENTS SAY 'NO' TO THE RISING COST OF HALLS". The Sphinx. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  67. ^ "Best Value for Money UK Student Accommodation (2019) | StudentCrowd". www.studentcrowd.com. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  68. ^ "Gladstone Halls to be renamed after Dorothy Kuya from today". University of Liverpool. 27 April 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  69. ^ The Christie Championships – SPORT Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. University of Liverpool. Retrieved on 14 September 2011.
  70. ^ Denselow, Robin (1 December 2017). "John Preston obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 December 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Rigg, J. Anthony (1968) "A comparative history of the libraries of Manchester and Liverpool Universities up to 1903", in: Saunders, W. L., ed. University and Research Library Studies: some contributions from the University of Sheffield Post-graduate School of Librarianship and Information Science. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1968

External links[edit]