|Phonemic representation:||ɡ, ɣ, d͡ʒ, ʒ, ɟ|
|Position in alphabet:||3|
Gimel is the third letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew ג, Syriac ܓ and Arabic ǧīm ج (in alphabetical order; 5th in spelling order). Its sound value in the original Phoenician and in all derived alphabets, save Arabic, is a voiced velar plosive [ɡ]; in Modern Standard Arabic, it represents has many standards including [ɡ], see below.
In its unattested Proto-Canaanite form, the letter may have been named after a weapon that was either a staff sling or a throwing stick, ultimately deriving from a Proto-Sinaitic glyph based on the hieroglyph below:
|Various Print Fonts||Cursive
Hebrew spelling: גִּימֵל
The letter gimel is one of the six letters which can receive a Dagesh. The two functions of dagesh are distinguished as either kal (light) or hazak (strong). The six letters are Bet, Gimel, Daled, Kaph, Pe, and Taf. Three of them (Bet, Kaph, and Pe) have their sound value changed in modern Hebrew from the fricative to the plosive by adding a dagesh. The other three represent the same pronunciation in modern Hebrew, but have had alternate pronunciations at other times and places. In the Temani pronunciation, Gimel represents /ɡ/, /ʒ/, or /d͡ʒ/ when with a dagesh, and /ɣ/ without a dagesh. In modern Hebrew, the combination ג׳ (gimel followed by a geresh) is used in loanwords and foreign names to denote [d͡ʒ].
In gematria, gimel represents the number three.
It is written like a vav with a yud as a "foot", and it resembles a person in motion; symbolically, a rich man running after a poor man to give him charity, as in the Hebrew alphabet gimel directly precedes dalet, which signifies a poor or lowly man, from the Hebrew word dal.
The word gimel is related to gemul, which means 'justified repayment', or the giving of reward and punishment.
in Modern Hebrew the frequency of the usage of gimel, out of all the letters, is 1.26%.
In the Syriac alphabet, the third letter is ܓ — Gamal in eastern pronunciation, Gomal in western pronunciation (ܓܵܡܵܠ). It is one of six letters that represent two associated sounds (the others are Bet, Dalet, Kaph, Pe and Taw). When Gamal/Gomal has a hard pronunciation (qûššāyâ ) it represents [ɡ], like "goat". When Gamal/Gomal has a soft pronunciation (rûkkāḵâ ) it traditionally represents [ɣ] (ܓ݂ܵܡܵܠ), or Ghamal/Ghomal. The letter, renamed Jamal/Jomal, is written with a tilde/tie either below or within it to represent the borrowed phoneme [d͡ʒ] (ܓ̰ܡܵܠ), which is used in Garshuni and some Neo-Aramaic languages to write loan and foreign words from Arabic or Persian.
The associated Arabic letter ج is named جيم ǧīm. It is written is several ways depending in its position in the word:
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
Modern Standard Arabic (Literary Arabic) has many standard pronunciations, although in the western countries, the affricate [d͡ʒ] is mostly taught as the standard. Differences in pronunciation occur, because speakers of Modern Standard Arabic pronounce words in accordance to their spoken variety of Arabic. In such varieties, cognate words will have consistent differences in pronunciation of this sound:
- In northern Algeria, Iraq, limited parts of the Levant and most of the Arabian Peninsula, it is [d͡ʒ], yet in the Arabian Peninsula it may be softened to [ʒ] in some situations.
- In Egypt and Yemen (mostly Tihama), it is normally pronounced [ɡ] (as in Hebrew and the other Semitic languages). In some situations this pronunciation may exist in the western most of north Africa in a few words, but not when pronouncing Literary Arabic.
- In most of the Levant and north west Africa (except north Algeria), it is [ʒ].
- In Kuwaiti Arabic and Gulf Arabic, it is pronounced [j] in the most colloquial speech, while [d͡ʒ] and sometimes softened to [ʒ] in Literary Arabic pronunciation.
- In some regions of Sudan and Yemen, it is pronounced [ɟ], another common reconstruction of the Classical Arabic pronunciation.
- Other pronunciations (particularly among Bedouins) it is a palatalized [ɡʲ], which is a common reconstruction of the pronunciation in the Classical Arabic of early Islamic times.
Egyptians always use the letter to represent [ɡ], as well as in names and loanwords, such as جولف "golf". However, it isn't incorrect to use it in Egypt for transcribing /ʒ/~/d͡ʒ/ (normally pronounced [ʒ]). The opposite isn't incorrect among other Arabic language speakers.
In Perso-Arabic script, it is called jīm.
In Egypt, when there is a need to transcribe /ʒ/ or /d͡ʒ/, both are approximated into [ʒ] using چ. In Persian, Urdu, Sindhi, Ottoman Turkish and other languages using Perso-Arabic script, چ represents the affricate /t͡ʃ/.
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER GIMEL||ARABIC LETTER JEEM||SYRIAC LETTER GAMAL||SAMARITAN LETTER GAMAN|
|UTF-8||215 146||D7 92||216 172||D8 AC||220 147||DC 93||224 160 130||E0 A0 82|
|Numeric character reference||ג||ג||ج||ج||ܓ||ܓ||ࠂ||ࠂ|
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER GAMLA||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER GIMEL||PHOENICIAN LETTER GAML|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 130||F0 90 8E 82||240 144 161 130||F0 90 A1 82||240 144 164 130||F0 90 A4 82|
|UTF-16||55296 57218||D800 DF82||55298 56386||D802 DC42||55298 56578||D802 DD02|
|Numeric character reference||𐎂||𐎂||𐡂||𐡂||𐤂||𐤂|