Voiced palatal affricate

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Voiced palatal affricate
ɟ͡ʝ
IPA number 108 (139)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɟ​ʝ
Unicode (hex) U+025F U+029D

The voiced palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɟ͡ʝ. It occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, among others. The voiced palatal affricate is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe as a phoneme (it occurs as an allophone in most Spanish dialects), with the aforementioned Uralic languages and Albanian being exceptions. It usually occurs with its voiceless counterpart, the voiceless palatal affricate.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palatal affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It is not a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian[1] uveyya [uβeɟ͡ʝa] 'sheep' See Asturian Phonology
Hungarian gyár [ɟ͡ʝaːr] 'factory' See Hungarian phonology
Norwegian Western and Central dialects[2] leggja [leɟ͡ja] 'lay' See Norwegian phonology
Spanish Castilian[3] yate [ˈɟ͡jate̞] 'yacht' Occurs only in the onset. See Spanish phonology
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I leave'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Menéndez García, Manuel (1965), El Cuarto de los Valles (Un habla del occidente astur) (in Spanish), IDEA, pp. 147–148 
  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian), Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)