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This article is about the year 1275.
|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1240s 1250s 1260s – 1270s – 1280s 1290s 1300s|
|Years:||1272 1273 1274 – 1275 – 1276 1277 1278|
|1275 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1275 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2028|
|Bahá'í calendar||−569 – −568|
|English Regnal year||3 Edw. 1 – 4 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar||甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
3971 or 3911
— to —
乙亥年 (Wood Pig)
3972 or 3912
|- Vikram Samvat||1331–1332|
|- Shaka Samvat||1197–1198|
|- Kali Yuga||4376–4377|
|Japanese calendar||Bun'ei 12 / Kenji 1
|Minguo calendar||637 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||1818|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1275.|
- March – The 200,000 multiethnic troops of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty, headed by the Turkish commander Bayan, face a Chinese Song Dynasty army of 130,000 led by the Song Chancellor Jia Sidao. The result is a decisive victory for the Yuan Dynasty, and soon after the much-vilified Jia Sidao is stripped of rank and title, and killed by one of his own guards as he is sent to exile in Fujian by the Song court.
- March 4 – Chinese astronomers observe a total eclipse of the Sun in China.
- The invading forces of the Yuan Dynasty capture the Song Dynasty city of Suzhou.
- Marco Polo purportedly visits Xanadu, Kublai Khan's summer capital of the Yuan Dynasty.
- The city of Kunming is made capital of the Yunnan province of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty.
- Nestorian monk Rabban Bar Sauma begins his pilgrimage from China towards Jerusalem.
- The Japanese era Bun'ei ends, and the Kenji era begins.
- April 22 – The first Statute of Westminster is passed by the English Parliament, establishing a series of laws in its 51 clauses, including equal treatment of rich and poor, free and fair elections, and definition of bailable and non-bailable offenses.
- June 14 – King Valdemar I of Sweden is defeated by his brother Magnus in the Battle of Hova, after which Magnus deposes him.
- July 22 – Magnus is elected new king of Sweden.
- October 8 – Battle of Ronaldsway: Scottish forces defeat the Manx of the Isle of Man in a decisive battle, firmly establishing Scottish rule of the island.
- October 27 – Floris V, Count of Holland, gives the city of Amsterdam independence of taxes.
- Eleanor de Montfort is captured by pirates in the employ of Edward I of England to prevent her marriage to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, prince of Wales; she is used as a bargaining chip over the coming years in Edward's attempts to subjugate Llywelyn and Wales.
- The Mongol Golden Horde raids Lithuania for the third time.
- Around Ciney, in present day Wallonia, start of the war of the cow (end in 1278).
- The first main survey of the Hundred Rolls, an English census seen as a follow up to the Domesday Book completed in 1086, is finished; it began in 1274.
- Jean de Meun completes the French allegorical work of fiction, Roman de la Rose, with a second section; the first section was written by Guillaume de Lorris in 1230.
- In Ghent, first recorded instance of emission of life annuities by a town in the Low Countries, this event confirms a trend of consolidation of local public debt in north-western Europe initiated in 1218 by Rheims.
- Ramon Llull establishes a school in Majorca to teach Arabic to preachers in an attempt to aid proselytizing to Moors. He also discovers diethyl ether.
- The era of the tosafot (medieval commentators on the Talmud) ends (began 1100).
- John II, Duke of Brabant (d. 1312)
- Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord Badlesmere (d. 1322)
- Dnyaneshwar, Indian Hindu Marathi saint, philosopher and poet (d. 1296)
- Mondino de Liuzzi, Italian physician and anatomist (d. 1326)
- Giovanni d'Andrea, Italian jurist
- approximate year of birth:
- April 13 – Eleanor of England (b. 1215)
- August 15 – Lorenzo Tiepolo, Doge of Venice
- September 24 – Humphrey de Bohun, 2nd Earl of Hereford, Constable of England (b. 1208)
- Bohemund VI of Antioch (b. 1237)
- Ferdinand de la Cerda, Infante of Castile, Crown Prince of Castile
- Geoffrey of Briel, Baron of Karytaina
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 158. ISBN 978-2-7071-5231-2.
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17565-5.