Alamogordo, New Mexico
|Alamogordo, New Mexico|
Downtown Alamogordo, looking west on 10th Street toward White Sands Boulevard
|Motto: The Friendliest Place on Earth|
Location in the State of New Mexico
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Country||United States of America|
|County||Otero County – seat|
|Named for||álamo gordo, Spanish for "fat cottonwood"|
|• Mayor||Susie Galea|
|• Mayor Pro Tem||Al Hernandez|
|• City Manager||Jim Stahle|
|• Total||19.3 sq mi (50.1 km2)|
|• Land||19.3 sq mi (50.1 km2)|
|• Water||0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)|
|Elevation||4,336 ft (1,322 m)|
|Time zone||MST (Mountain Standard Time) (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (Mountain Daylight Time) (UTC-6)|
|ZIP codes||88310, 88311 (PO Box)|
|GNIS feature ID||0903054|
|Website||City of Alamogordo|
Alamogordo // is the county seat and economic center of Otero County in south-central New Mexico, United States. A city in the Tularosa Basin of the Chihuahuan desert, it is bordered on the east by the Sacramento Mountains. It is the city nearest to Holloman Air Force Base. The population was 30,403 as of the 2010 census. Alamogordo is known for its connection with the Trinity test, the first explosion of an atomic bomb, and also for the Atari video game burial of 1983.
Humans have lived in the Alamogordo area for at least 11,000 years. The present settlement, established in 1898 to support the construction of the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad, is an early example of a planned community. The city was incorporated in 1912. Tourism became an important economic factor with the creation of White Sands National Monument in 1934. During the 1950-60s, Alamogordo was an unofficial center for research on pilot safety and the developing United States' space program.
Alamogordo is a charter city with a council-manager form of government. City government provides a large number of recreational and leisure facilities for its citizens, including a large park in the center of the city, many smaller parks scattered through the city, a golf course, Alameda Park Zoo, a network of walking paths, Alamogordo Public Library, and a senior citizens' center. Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center is a nonprofit shared military/civilian facility that is also the hospital for Holloman.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Arts and culture
- 6 Sports
- 7 Parks and recreation
- 8 Government
- 9 Education
- 10 Media
- 11 Infrastructure and transportation
- 12 Notable natives and residents
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Tularosa Basin has been inhabited for at least 11,000 years. There are signs of previous inhabitants in the area such as the Clovis culture, the Folsom culture, the peoples of the Archaic period, and the Formative stage. The Mescalero Apache were already living in the Tularosa Basin when the Spanish came in 1534, and Mescalero oral history says they have always lived there. The Spanish built a chapel at La Luz (about 5 miles (8.0 km) from the future site of Alamogordo) in 1719, although La Luz was not settled until about 1860.:167
The city of Alamogordo was founded in June 1898, when the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad, headed by Charles Bishop Eddy, extended the railway to the town.:4, 6–7 Eddy influenced the design of the community, which included large wide thoroughfares and tree-lined irrigation canals. Charles Eddy's brother John Arthur Eddy named the new city Alamogordo ("large/fat cottonwood" in Spanish) after a grove of fat cottonwoods he remembered from the Pecos River area.:x–1 When Alamogordo was laid out in 1898, the east-west streets were given numerical designations, while north-south streets were named after states. The present-day White Sands Boulevard was then called Pennsylvania Avenue.:42, 44–45
Several government buildings in Alamogordo were constructed by the Works Progress Administration, a government program created in 1935 in response to the Great Depression. These include the Otero County Administration Building at 1101 New York Avenue, a Pueblo style building originally constructed as the main U.S. Post Office in 1938. The building is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The main entrance portico features frescoes by Peter Hurd completed in 1942. The Post Office moved out in 1961, and the building was used by a succession of Federal agencies and was known as the Federal Building. The last Federal agency to occupy it was the United States Forest Service who used it as the headquarters of the Lincoln National Forest until October 2008, when that agency moved to a newly constructed building. Ownership of the building was transferred to Otero County government and many government offices were moved from the Courthouse to the new Administration Building in February 2009. Alamogordo briefly made international news in late 2001 when Christ Community Church held a public book burning of books in the Harry Potter series, and several other series, on December 30.
As of 2010, Alamogordo had a total area of 19.3 square miles (50.0 km2), all of it land. The city is located at an elevation of 4,336 feet (1,322 m) on the western flank of the Sacramento Mountains and on the eastern edge of the Tularosa Basin. It is in the Rio Grande rift and in the northernmost part of the Chihuahuan Desert.:36 Tectonic activity is low in the Tularosa Basin. Plants native to the area are typical of the southern New Mexico foothills and include creosote bush, mesquite, saltbush, cottonwood, desert willow, and many species of cactus and yucca.
The Tularosa Basin is a closed basin, that is, no water flows out of it. Because of this and because of the geology of the region, water in the basin is hard: it has very high total dissolved solids concentrations, in excess of 3,000 mg/L. The Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility, a Bureau of Reclamation laboratory doing research and development on desalination of brackish water, is located in Alamogordo. The gypsum crystals of White Sands National Monument are formed in Lake Lucero. Water drains from the mountains carrying dissolved gypsum and collects in Lake Lucero. After the water dries, the winds pick up the gypsum crystals and distribute them over the basin.:37
|Climate data for Alamogordo, New Mexico. (Elevation 4,380ft)|
|Record high °F (°C)||76
|Average high °F (°C)||56.3
|Average low °F (°C)||29.2
|Record low °F (°C)||−14
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.63
|Source: The Western Regional Climate Center|
As of the census of 2000, there were 35,582 people, 13,704 households, and 9,728 families residing in the city. There were 15,920 housing units. The racial makeup of the city was 75.4% White; 5.6% African American, 1.1% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 12.1% from some other race, and 4.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.0% of the population.:38
There were 13,704 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.0% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.07.:38
In the city the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.1 males.:39
In 1999 the median income for a household in the city was $30,928, and the median income for a family was $35,673. Males had a median income of $28,163 versus $18,860 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,662. About 13.2% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 11.8% of those age 65 or over.
non-agricultural civilian employment (number of people)
fishing & hunting
|Transportation & warehousing||537|
|Finance & insurance||436|
|Real estate & rental & leasing||162|
|Professional & technical services||729|
companies & enterprises
|Administrative & waste services||883|
|Health care & social assistance||1,994|
|Arts, entertainment & recreation||63|
|Accommodation & food services||1,590|
except public admin
|Total private sector||11,179|
New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions,
Employment Statistics, Table D
Alamogordo is the economic center of Otero County, with over half the Otero County population living within the city limits. Alamogordo today has very little manufacturing and has a primarily service and retail economy, driven by tourism, a large nearby military installation and a concentration of military retirees. In 2006 the per capita income in Otero County was $22,377 versus per capita income in New Mexico of $29,346.
Alamogordo was founded as a company town to support the building of the El Paso and Northeastern Railroad,:2 a portion of the transcontinental railway that was being constructed in the late 19th century. Initially its main industry was timbering for railroad ties.:1 The railroad founders were also eager to found a major town that would persist after the railroad was completed; they formed the Alamogordo Improvement Company to develop the area,:5 making Alamogordo an early example of a planned community. The Alamogordo Improvement Company owned all the land, platted the streets, built the first houses and commercial buildings, donated land for a college, and placed a restrictive covenant on each deed prohibiting the manufacture, distribution, or sale of intoxicating liquor.:1,9,13,44
Tourism became an important part of the local economy from the creation of White Sands National Monument in 1934.:53 Construction began on the Alamogordo Army Air Field (the present-day Holloman Air Force Base) in 1942, and the Federal government has been a strong presence in Alamogordo ever since.:39,53 Education has also been an important part of the local economy. In addition to the local school system, Alamogordo is home to the New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired, founded in 1903, and a branch of New Mexico State University founded in 1958.:44,58 The largest non-government employer in the city is the Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center with 650 employees in 2008.
Holloman Air Force Base is the largest employer in Alamogordo, and has a major effect on the local economy. According to some estimates, Holloman accounts for half of the Alamogordo economy. According to the 49th Fighter Wing Public Affairs office, as of January 2008 Holloman directly employs 6,111 personnel with a gross payroll of $266 million. It indirectly creates another 2,047 jobs with a payroll of $77 million. The estimated amount spent in the community, including payroll, construction projects, supplies, services, health care, and education, is $482 million.
An estimated 6,700 military retirees live in the area. Counting both USAF and German Air Force personnel there are 1,383 active military and 1,641 military dependents living on base and 2,765 active military and 2,942 military dependents living off base.
Future Combat Systems is a wide-ranging modernization project of the US Army. Much of the work will be done at Fort Bliss, with some at White Sands Missile Range and some at Holloman Air Force Base. Alamogordo is expected to get some economic benefit due to its proximity to these three bases.
Otero County Economic Development Council is a nonprofit organization founded in 1984. Its focus has generally been on job creation and recruiting and expanding businesses in Otero County, including helping them satisfy business regulations in New Mexico and lining up funding. Its role expanded in 2000, when Alamogordo passed an Economic Development Gross Receipts Tax. OCEDC continues to work to attract businesses, but now it also helps develop the incentive packages that will be paid by the new tax, and a portion of the tax receipts go to fund OCEDC's operating expenses. Formal economic development plans have been adopted by Alamogordo and by Otero County.
OCEDC has recruited several new employers by using financial incentives. A 1-800-Flowers call center opened in November 2001 and received $1.25 million in city rent abatements, a 50% reduction in property taxes from Otero County, and $940,000 in plant training funds from the State of New Mexico. A Sunbaked Biscuits cookie factory opened in 2006 and received $800,000 in job-training incentives from the state. When the company went out of business in 2007, Marietta Baking took over the cookie factory and received interest-free loans, job-training incentives, and partial forgiveness of indebtedness for job creation. A branch office of PreCheck Inc., a company performing background checks of health-care workers, opened in 2006. PreCheck received $2.4 million in high-wage job creation tax credits, $1.5 million in job-training subsidies, $1.5 million in capital outlay money for roads and infrastructure, a $625,000 allocation from City of Alamogordo for upgrading sewer lines in the area, and 20.8 aces of land from Heritage Group, a developer.
The Otero County Film Office, an office of Otero County Economic Development Council, promotes film-making in Otero County by publicizing potential locations in the county and New Mexico's film financial incentive programs and by recruiting extras for film productions. It sponsors the Desert Light Film Competition for middle and high school students to encourage learning about the film industry. The 2007 film Transformers spent $5.5 million in New Mexico and $1 million in Alamogordo.
Arts and culture
There are two amateur theatrical groups in Alamogordo. Alamogordo Music Theatre produces two musical productions annually at the Flickinger Center for Performing Arts. The NMSU-A Theatre on the Hill produces an annual spring performance for young audiences at the Rohovec Fine Arts Center on the New Mexico State University at Alamogordo campus, and an annual Fall performance for general audiences.
Annual cultural events
The Earth Day Fair is held annually on the last Saturday in April at Alameda Park Zoo. It features a butterfly release, a science fair, activities for children, and information booths from local health agencies and nonprofits.
Otero County Fair is held annually in early August at the County Fairgrounds at the corner of White Sands Boulevard and Fairgrounds Road in Alamogordo. It features a rodeo, animal judging, food and game booths, and carnival rides. Nonprofit and government agencies set up information booths in the exhibit hall.
The Cottonwood Arts and Crafts Festival is put on each Labor Day Weekend in Alameda Park by the Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce. It is primarily a showplace for vendors of handmade items, but also features music, entertainment, and food.
White Sands Balloon Invitational is held annually in late September. Hot air balloons launch from the Riner-Steinhoff Soccerplex on First Street or from White Sands National Monument and float over the Tularosa Basin.
Flickinger Center for Performing Arts, located at 1110 New York Avenue, is a 590-seat theater created in 1988 from a re-purposed movie theater. It hosts concerts and live theatrical performances by touring groups, and is the venue for the local amateur group Alamogordo Music Theater.
Alamogordo Museum of History (formerly Tularosa Basin Historical Society Museum) collects artifacts related to the history of Alamogordo and the Tularosa Basin. It is a private museum, operated by the Tularosa Basin Historical Society. Among notable items in the collection is a 47-star US Flag; New Mexico was the 47th state admitted to the Union, and US flags were made with 47 stars only for one month, until Arizona was admitted. The Museum shop has a large collection of local history books. The Historical Society also publishes its own series of monographs on local history, Pioneer. The Museum had planned to move from its location at 1301 N. White Sands Boulevard to a historic adobe building at the corner of White Sands Boulevard and Tenth Street by the end of 2008, but as of July 2009 this plan has stalled due to lack of money to renovate the building.
American Armed Forces Museum is a museum on U.S. Route 82 near Florida Avenue that opened in 2011. It collects and displays all kinds of military memorabilia from all wars and military engagements.
The Shroud Exhibit And Museum, located in White Sands Mall, showcases a full-sized back-lit photographic transparency of the Shroud of Turin, a religious relic believed by some to be the burial cloth of Jesus Christ. They also feature a working VP8 Image Analyzer, the only one in the world where one can walk in and interact with this old analog computer. This town was founded the same year (1898) that Secundo Pia took the first photograph of the Shroud which started the modern investigation into the Shroud. This is highlighted in the museum. In 1977 in Albuquerque, they held the conference that resulted in the 1978 study of the Shroud with more scientists from New Mexico than any other state. The displayed photograph was created from the 1978 photographs made by Barrie M. Schwortz as part of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP). The displays include historical background materials, scientific information, kiosks with a variety of information, videos available for viewing and an exhibit of electronic image analysis of the shroud, among other interesting artifacts.
The Alamogordo Desert Dawgs are an amateur football team formed in 2008. They are part of the New Mexico Football Alliance. The Desert Dawgs are organized as a limited liability company owned by Kenneth Mitchell, and have local sponsors underwriting expenses. The team has an agreement with Alamogordo Public Schools by which the Desert Dawgs practice and play home games at Alamogordo High School's Tiger Stadium and the school district receives 20% of the home gate. Tiger Stadium is nicknamed "The Dawg Pound" when the Desert Dawgs play there. Several of the team members are airmen from nearby Holloman Air Force Base. The White Sands PupFish were the first ever professional baseball team in Alamogordo. They play in the Pecos League of Professional Baseball Clubs and started in the 2011 Season.
Fun run/walks are popular in Alamogordo, although most are one-shot affairs put on as part of some larger event. One recurring event is Walk Out West, a 1.5-mile (2.4 km) walk held each October in Alameda Park Zoo. It incorporates a health fair, live music, and fun events for kids. An offshoot of this is Dance Otero, an informal approach to ballroom dancing as a form of physical exercise that meets throughout the year. Both programs are run through Otero PATH, a local nonprofit that encourages preventive measures for good health.
There are a number of annual sports events. The Tommy Padilla Memorial Basketball Tournament is an annual event held in March. It is an adult tournament that raises money for scholarships for Alamogordo High School students. The Gus Macker 3-on-3 Basketball Tournament is a national program that holds a tournament in Alamogordo each year in May. Prior to 2008 it was hosted by the Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce, and since then by the City of Alamogordo. The City receives 72% of the entry fees and 5% of the gross proceeds taken in by vendors. The event is held annually at Washington Park in conjunction with Saturday in the Park and Armed Forces Day. In 2009 more than 233 teams participated in the tournament. Several golf tournaments are held each year at Desert Lakes Golf Course, including the Robert W. Hamilton Charity Golf Classic.
Parks and recreation
Alamogordo has numerous small parks scattered through the city, and a few larger ones. Mentioned here are some of the more notable parks.
Alameda Park is a city park lying on the west side of White Sands Boulevard between Tenth Street and Indian Wells Road. Most of the park is shaded by cottonwood trees. At the south end of the park is Alameda Park Zoo and at the north end is The Toy Train Depot, a railroad and toy train museum.
Washington Park is a city park in the center of town, bounded by Washington and Oregon Avenues and running from First Street to Indian Wells Road. City Hall and several other city buildings are located in the park. At the north end of the park is Kids Kingdom, a children's play area with a giant jungle gym.
There are public athletic fields at the Jim R. Griggs Sports Complex, located at the corner of Florida Avenue and Fairgrounds Road, and the Travis C. Hooser Ballfield Complex (also called Walker Field) located at the corner of U.S. Route 70 and Walker Road.
The Alamogordo Family Recreation Center, at 1100 Oregon Avenue, is a city-owned facility offering a weight room, swimming pool (open year round), and basketball gym. There are outdoor tennis courts north of the building. The Alamogordo Senior Center is a city facility for senior citizens that provides a social center and an exercise room and serves congregate meals and Meals on Wheels.
Desert Lakes Golf Course is a city-owned golf course located at the south end of town on Hamilton Road at Desert Lakes Road. It is an 18-hole course. The clubhouse houses a restaurant and a pro shop. There is a PGA golf pro on duty at the course.
Not inside the city but nearby are several national and state parks. The Oliver Lee Memorial State Park is about 10 miles south on U.S. Route 54, offers camping, hiking, and picnicking. The White Sands National Monument, a U.S. National Monument, is located about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Alamogordo along U.S. Route 70. The area is in the mountain-ringed Tularosa Basin valley area and comprises the southern part of a 275-square-mile (710 km2) field of white sand dunes composed of gypsum crystals. The Lincoln National Forest, whose headquarters are in Alamogordo, is a mountainous area that starts about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Alamogordo and offers hiking, fishing, and camping. The Sidney Paul Gordon Shooting Range, located about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of town at 19 Rock Cliff Road in La Luz, is a supervised range with rifle, pistol, and archery ranges. Several competitions are held at the range each month.
Alamogordo was incorporated in 1912.:136 It is a charter city (also called a home rule city ), and the charter is included as Part I of the Code of Ordinances. It has a Council-manager government form of government (called Commission/Manager in New Mexico).:Article II There are seven city commissioners, each elected from a district within the city, on staggered 4-year terms.:Article VII The city manager is considered the chief executive officer of the city and is tasked to enforce and implement the City Council's directives and policy. The mayor is a member of the City Council. Currently, Ron Griggs holds the position of mayor.
Alamogordo's fiscal year ends on June 30 each year; thus Fiscal Year 2008 runs from July 1, 2007, through June 30, 2008. The FY 2008 budget projects income of $61,454,402:7 and expenditures of $73,655,777.:5 Sources of City government income and their percentages of the whole were::7 gross receipts tax (31%), miscellaneous (23%), grants (22%), user fees (19%), and property tax (5%).
New Mexico State University Alamogordo is a two-year community college established in 1958. It currently has approximately 1,800 students. There are two high schools, three middle schools, and 11 elementary schools in the Alamogordo Public School District. Prior to 2008 there were two private schools in Alamogordo: Legacy Christian Academy and Father James B. Hay Catholic School. A third private school, Imago Dei Academy, opened in August 2008 and provides a classical Christian education. Kindergarten through eighth grade is taught with plans to gradually expand to the 12th grade.
The German government operates the Deutsche Schule (German School) for children of German Air Force personnel stationed at the German tactical training center at Holloman Air Force Base. The New Mexico School for the Blind and Visually Impaired is a state school located in Alamogordo.
The main newspaper in Alamogordo is Alamogordo Daily News (ADN), owned by MediaNews Group. ADN is published six days a week; on Monday, when it does not appear, subscribers receive the El Paso Times. ADN also publishes Hollogram, a free weekly newspaper distributed at the nearby Holloman Air Force Base and covering happenings on base. There are no alternative newspapers published in Alamogordo but The Ink, a free Las Cruces monthly newspaper devoted to the arts, is distributed in the city. The city government publishes City Profile, a monthly print newsletter that is mailed to all households in the city and is published electronically on the city web site, and Communiqué, a blog with city news.
One television station, KVBA-LP, broadcasts from Alamogordo. It has a religious format, and a weekly local news magazine broadcast Thursday through Saturday. Cable television service is provided by Baja Broadband.
There are two commercial radio broadcast companies, WP Broadcasting and Burt Broadcasting; each operates several stations in several formats. There are two "listener-supported" radio stations that do not carry advertising but depend on sponsorships and donations. KLAG has a gospel music radio format and some live coverage of local events, including many remote broadcasts from civic events. KALH-LP is a low-power FM station that carries a variety radio format, network news on the hour, and local news on some hours. Neither station is an NPR affiliate. The local NPR outlet is KRWG-FM in Las Cruces, which reaches Alamogordo through a local relay transmitter.
Several major motion pictures were filmed in or near Alamogordo. The 2007 film Transformers was shot primarily at White Sands Missile Range, with additional filming at Holloman Air Force Base, both in the Alamogordo area. Its 2009 sequel Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen also prominently featured these two military bases. The 2009 film Year One was shot partly at White Sands National Monument, near Alamogordo. Alamogordo was one of the fourteen cities profiled in the 2005 documentary 14 Days in America. The Otero County Film Office maintains a list of films shot partly or wholly in Alamogordo and Otero County.
In May 2013, Alamogordo's City Commission approved a deal for Canada-based film production company Fuel Industries to excavate the Atari landfill site. Fuel Entertainment partnered with Xbox Entertainment Studios and Lightbox to make a documentary about the 1983 massive game burial of Atari games, said to be one of the gaming culture's greatest urban legends. On April 26, 2014, video game archaeologists began sifting through years of trash from the old Alamogordo landfill. The first batch of E.T. games was discovered after about three hours of digging, and hundreds more were found in the mounds of trash and dirt scooped by a backhoe. In the deal between the City of Alamogordo and Fuel Entertainment regarding the excavation, Fuel Entertainment was to be given 250 games or 10 percent of what was found.
Infrastructure and transportation
The major intercity surface routes from Alamogordo are U.S. Highways 54, 70, and 82, all of which are four-lane roads. The major north-south street within the city is White Sands Boulevard. The Charlie T. Lee Memorial Relief Route, which is designated as U.S. Route 54 and 70, is a bypass road constructed to the west of the city in 2001 to relieve congestion on White Sands Boulevard.
U.S. Route 70 and U.S. Route 54 traverses through the north and south ends of the city. At the south end of the city, White Sands Boulevard is a major named street that merges into U.S. Route 54/Charles T. Lee Memorial Relief Route, running south to El Paso, Texas. In the south part of the city, U.S. Route 70 splits from U.S. Route 54 in a southwestern direction towards Holloman Air Force Base, White Sands National Monument, White Sands Missile Range, and Las Cruces. At the north end of the city, White Sands Boulevard and the Charles T. Lee Memorial Relief Route become a merged U.S. Route 54 and U.S. Route 70 running north to Tularosa. U.S. Route 82 starts at the same point and runs east to Cloudcroft and the mountain communities of Otero County, and then to Artesia. Meanwhile, in Tularosa, U.S. 70 and U.S. 54 both split in which U.S. 70 heads east through the mountains, and towards Ruidoso and Roswell, while U.S. 54 heads north towards Carrizozo and keeps going north until it heads east again starting in Vaughn.
Alamogordo-White Sands Regional Airport is the municipal airport located in the Alamogordo area. It is primarily used for general aviation. There is no longer scheduled commercial service from New Mexico Airlines, previously operated under a subsidy from the Essential Air Service program.
Z-Trans is the mass transit system, providing paratransit and scheduled service within the city center and to White Sands Mall, Holloman Air Force Base and Inn of the Mountain Gods Resort & Casino in Mescalero. Z-Trans is unusual in that it is privately owned (by Zia Therapy Center, a non-profit), although it does get some local and state subsidies.
The Alamogordo city government is building a network of bike routes and walking routes. More information and maps are in the Alamogordo Comprehensive Plan.:42–44 The New Mexico Rails-to-Trails Association operates a Rails to Trails project to convert old railroad beds to walking trails. Its trail system in Otero County, the Cloud Climbing Rail Trail, is planned to eventually surround Alamogordo.:45
Electric power is supplied within the city by PNM Resources. PNM also provides electrical power in the Tularosa Basin, while Otero County Electric Cooperative, a member cooperative of Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association and of Touchstone Energy, serves other areas of the county. Natural gas is supplied within the city by New Mexico Gas Company, a subsidiary of Continental Energy Systems. Severn Trent operates both the water and sewage treatment facilities for the City of Alamogordo. Severn Trent maintains all water storage facilities, booster pump stations, city wells and treats the waste water to be re-used by the city to water the parks, Desert Lakes Golf Course and is sold to construction companies for dust control. Rural houses have individual wells.
Alamogordo has a dark sky ordinance to reduce the amount of light pollution in the night skies.:Article 31 The ordinance was passed in 1990 to promote the growth and scientific productivity of Apache Point Observatory. City streetlights are high-pressure sodium vapor lamps.
Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center is a private not-for-profit 99-bed general hospital that serves the Alamogordo area. The hospital is a shared military/civilian facility that is also the hospital for nearby Holloman Air Force Base.
The Otero County Community Health Council prepares a detailed health profile each year with many facts and figures about health in Otero County. Otero County is ranked in the middle of most health rankings within the state. New Mexico is near the bottom of most national rankings, for example it was 38th in the United Health Foundation 2007 report, but has been slowly improving (it was 40th in 2005). When health-promoting features are considered, instead of the healthiness of the population, Alamogordo is ranked as one of the 50 healthiest places to live in the United States, among six in New Mexico.:frontispiece :116–118 Civic boosters such as the Chamber of Commerce publicize this ranking.
Notable natives and residents
Among scientists, Edward Condon, a physicist and a past director of National Institute of Standards and Technology, was born in Alamogordo. Alan Hale, an astronomer and co-discoverer of Comet Hale-Bopp, grew up in Alamogordo and lives in nearby Cloudcroft.
Among politicians, Edwin L. Mechem, a past governor and United States Senator from New Mexico, was born in Alamogordo, as was Cindy Chavez, a past member of the San Jose, California City Council.
Joseph Anthony Mirabal (Joe Tony), who was one of 33 inmates killed in the notable prison riot at Santa Fe, New Mexico, was born in Alamogordo and buried in the local Catholic cemetery.
- "City of Rio Rancho (official web site)". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved July 26, 2008.
- "Alamogordo". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 17, 2013.
- Eidenbach (1983). "XII.Summary and Conclusions". In Eidenbach, Peter L. The Prehistory of Rhodes Canyon, N.M.: Survey and Mitigation. Tularosa, NM: Human Systems Research. pp. 145–149. OCLC 11576830.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Serna, Mary M.; James W. Steely. "Mescalero Apache". Office of the State Historian: Digital History Project. State of New Mexico. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Julyan, Robert (1998). The Place Names of New Mexico (Revised ed.). University of New Mexico Press. p. 191. ISBN 0-8263-1689-1.
- Gilbert, Beth (June 1988). Alamogordo: The Territorial Years, 1898–1912. Albuquerque: Starline Printing. OCLC 18265396.
- Townsend, David; Clif McDonald (July 1999) . Centennial: Where the Old West Meets the New Frontier. Alamogordo, NM: Alamogordo/Otero County Centennial Celebration. ISBN 978-1-887045-05-6. OCLC 41400788.
- "Alamogordo-city of the "big cottonwood"". SouthernNewMexico.com. November 26, 2001. Archived from the original on June 14, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2009.[dead link]
- Pearce, T.M.; Ina Sizer Cassidy (1965). The Place Names of New Mexico. Helen S. Pearce (third printing ed.). Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press. p. 4.
- Garcia, Joe (September 4, 2007). "The New Deal and the Forest Service headquarters". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 9A. OCLC 10674593.
- "USFS will show off green facility Thursday". Alamogordo Daily News. November 30, 2008. pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 10674593.
- London, Laura (January 15, 2008). "County gets Forest Service building". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 7A. OCLC 10674593.
- "Meeting Minutes, Otero County Commission Meeting of February 19, 2009" (PDF). Otero County, New Mexico. March 18, 2009. pp. 133–134. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- Matise, James (December 31, 2001). "Holy bonfire consumes amid protest". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 1. OCLC 10674593.
- "'Satanic' Harry Potter books burnt". British Broadcasting Corporation. December 31, 2001. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- "Burning Books in New Mexico (photo, caption, cutline)". New York Times 151. January 1, 2002. p. A19. ISSN 0362-4331.
- "ASCII text versions of Places". Census 2000 U.S. Gazetteer Files. US Census Bureau. June 8, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- "NMBGMR Tour: Rio Grande Rift". New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology: New Mexico Bureau of Geology & Mineral Resources. June 1, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Jaeger, Edmund (1957). The North American Deserts. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0498-4. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
- Bedinger, M. S.; Sargent, K. A.; Brady, B. T. (1985). Geologic and Hydrologic Characterization and Evaluation of the Basin and Range Province Relative to the Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste: Part III Geologic and Hydrologic Evaluation (PDF). U.S. Department of the Interior Geological Survey. Circular 904-C. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. pp. 5–7. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Morrow, Baker H. (1985). Best plants for New Mexico gardens and landscapes: keyed to cities and regions in New Mexico and adjacent areas. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-8263-1595-3. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Tularosa Basin". NMWRRI GIS Laboratory. New Mexico State University: New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute. December 4, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Anning, David (March–April 2008). "Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers of the Southwest" (PDF). Southwest Hydrology (University of Arizona) 7: 18–19. ISSN 1552-8383. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- "Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility". U.S. Department of the Interior: Bureau of Reclamation. August 4, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Information". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- "Profiles of General Demographic Characteristics, 2000 Census of Population and Housing, New Mexico" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. May 2001. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- "Fact sheet, DP-3 Profile of Economic Characteristics 2000, Alamogordo city, New Mexico". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 29, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2008.
- "Table 4: Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in New Mexico, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (SUB-EST2008-04-35)". US Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2009. Retrieved July 31, 2009.
- "Employment Statistics". New Mexico Department of Workforce Solutions. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
- "Community Profile". Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
A national survey rated Alamogordo as one of the 50 healthiest places to live in the U.S.
- Tom O'Connell (September 28, 2007). "Alamogordo looks to diversity for economic success". New Mexico Business Weekly. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- "Holloman Air Force Base". My Base Guide. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- "New Mexico Per Capita Personal Income by County". University of New Mexico, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. April 23, 2009. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
- Retrieved September 18, 2009. Also see Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center wikipedia article.
- Wagoner, Alice Louise (May 14, 2005). "Committee of 50's work pays off". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 1. OCLC 10674593.
- Becker, Michael (October 1, 2006). "No slowdown for phaseout". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Economic Impact Statement 2007" (PDF). Holloman Air Force Base, 49th Fighter Wing Public Affairs. 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
- "State campaign to lure defense jobs". Alamogordo Daily News. August 7, 2007. p. 1A. OCLC 10674593.
- Churchman, Tamara (July 20, 1992). "OCEDC creates structure for economic development". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Border, Heather (September 19, 1993). "Otero County's future: What shape will it take?". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1B. OCLC 10674593.
- Parker, Gaylon (March 28, 2001). "City Commission approves OCEDC fund". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Rogers, Dave (July 11, 1996). "City may be able to offer incentives". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 8A. OCLC 10674593.
- Parker, Gaylon (August 31, 2000). "County Commission approved economic development plan". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 5B. OCLC 10674593.
- Parker, Gaylon (September 20, 2001). "Flowers.com clears hurdles to opening". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 1. OCLC 10674593.
- Shinabery, Michael (2001-006-2). "Commission OKs Flowers tax abatement". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 2. OCLC 10674593. Check date values in:
- Bear, John (September 28, 2006). "Homans makes follow-up visit". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 2A. OCLC 10674593.
- Becker, Michael (August 18, 2007). "Marietta working to take over Sunbaked". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 2A. OCLC 10674593.
- Anderson, Karl (November 30, 2007). "Marietta begins production". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 10674593.
- Hunt, Laura (February 14, 2006). "New business checks in". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 10674593.
- "Film Otero". Otero County Film Office. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved May 25, 2008.
- "New Mexico's Film Incentives". New Mexico Film Office. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Brown, Monica M. (October 20, 2005). "Young filmmakers bring light to film festival". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Stevens, Jeff (November 24, 2006). "Transformers movie spent $1 mil. in Alamogordo". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Alamogordo Music Theatre". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
- Breding, Connie (April 2007). "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory at Rohovec". NMSU-A Today (Alamogordo, New Mexico: New Mexico State University at Alamogordo) 9 (4): 6–7. OCLC 51523032.
- Eckman-Onyskow, Bev (September 3, 2009). "'Big Dogs' earns award". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 2A. OCLC 10674593. Archived from the original on September 3, 2009. Retrieved September 3, 2009.
- "'The Nerd' enters final weekend". Alamogordo Daily News. November 13, 2008. OCLC 10674593.
- "Call for artists (The Diary of Anne Frank)". Alamogordo Daily News – ¡Vámonos! insert. September 4, 2009. p. 9. OCLC 10674593. Archived from the original on September 4, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2009.
A Theatre on the Hill will hold auditions for The Diary of Anne Frank on Saturday, September 12, at 1 pm, and on Sunday, September 13, at 2 pm at the Rohovec Fine Arts Center located on the campus of New Mexico State University in Alamogordo.
- Österreich, Elva (April 23, 2008). "Organizers tout biggest Earth Day Fair yet". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- London, Laura (August 16, 2007). "County fair gets under way". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Cottonwood Arts and Crafts Festival". Archived from the original on June 16, 2009. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Anderson, Karl (September 2, 2007). "Cottonwood Festival breaks attendance record". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Anderson, Karl (September 16, 2007). "Pilots' event draws 400". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Straeter, Nina (September 23, 2008). "Oktoberfest coming". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "About the Museum". State of New Mexico, Department of Cultural Affairs. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Wells, Kandra (April 1, 2008). "Flick continues rebuilding process". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Flickinger Center for Performing Arts". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Eckman-Onyskow, Bev (August 6, 2009). "Flickinger reaches half of fund-raising goal; first-year drive raises $125,000". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 7A. OCLC 10674593. Archived from the original on August 12, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Tularosa Basin Historical Society". Archived from the original on January 5, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- "Tularosa Basin Historical Society – Our 47 Star Flag". Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Pioneer (Alamogordo, NM: Tularosa Basin Historical Society). OCLC 49596229.
- London, Laura (October 25, 2007). "City hears museum plans". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- London, Laura (July 24, 2009). "Nightmare at the museum; Tularosa Basin Historical Society tells city it can't afford Plaza Pub building". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 5A. OCLC 10674593.
- "Alamogordo Daily News "New Museum open"". Retrieved August 2, 2011.
- "Shroud Exhibit And Museum (SEAM)". Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- McNamara, J. David (April 2009). "Shroud of Turin Exhibit Opens in Alamogordo's White Sands Mall". Agua Viva. Las Cruces, New Mexico: Roman Catholic Diocese of Las Cruces. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
- "Shroud of Turin Lifesize Photographs". Barrie M. Schwortz. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
- "History of Alamogordo". Ci.alamogordo.nm.us. September 20, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- "Alamogordo Desert Dawgs Football". Alamogordo Desert Dawgs. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Kaiser, Gidal (February 21, 2008). "The Dawgs are coming". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "New Mexico Football Alliance". New Mexico Football Alliance. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "Alamogordo Desert Dawgs Football – Sponsor Us". Alamogordo Desert Dawgs. Retrieved August 9, 2009.[dead link]
- "Alamogordo Desert Dawgs Football – Game and Practice Schedule". Alamogordo Desert Dawgs. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Strong II, John D. (April 30, 2008). "Alamogordo Desert Dawgs have Air Power". United States Air Force, Holloman Air Force Base. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "White Sands Pupfish". White Sands Pupfish. Archived from the original on September 19, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010.
- Tilman, Lori; Loney, Lee Ann (October 7, 2007). "It's Walk Out West time again". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Tilman, Lori (June 30, 2007). "Walk/Dance Otero programs for the community". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Otero PATH – Preventive Action Towards Health". Otero PATH. Archived from the original on May 15, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2008.
- "Tommy Padilla Memorial Basketball Tournament". Tommy Padilla Memorial Basketball Tournament. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Kaiser, Gidal (March 28, 2008). "Padilla tournament starts today". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Wells, Kandra (January 24, 2008). "Commissioners give nod to Armed Forces Day tourney". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- Escutia, Sondra (May 21, 2009). "Alamogordo celebrates Armed Forces day with Saturday in the Park". United States Air Force, Holloman Air Force Base. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "Tournament raises $10,800". Alamogordo Daily News. June 26, 2007. OCLC 10674593.
- "City of Alamogordo Parks" (PDF). City of Alamogordo. July 5, 2007. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- "Area Attractions". Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce. April 18, 2009. Retrieved August 15, 2009.
- Hunt, Laura (October 4, 2005). "Kids Kingdom turns 10". Alamogordo Daily News: 1A. OCLC 10674593.
- "Family Recreation Center". City of Alamogordo. Archived from the original on June 24, 2008. Retrieved May 21, 2008.
- "Alamo Senior Center". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Desert Lakes Golf Course". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- "Lincoln National Forest". USDA Forest Service. August 10, 2009. Retrieved August 16, 2009.
- "Sidney Paul Gordon Shooting Range". County of Otero. Archived from the original on June 27, 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
- Lang, Diane (December 1991). "Dillon's Rule...and the Birth of Home Rule" (PDF). New Mexico Municipal League. Archived from the original on May 30, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2008.
- "Code of Ordinances". City of Alamogordo (published on Web by Municode.com). Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2008.
- "City Manager". Ci.alamogordo.nm.us. September 14, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- "Commissioners Phone Numbers". Ci.alamogordo.nm.us. December 4, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
- City of Alamogordo Fiscal Year 2008 Annual Budget. Alamogordo, NM: City of Alamogordo.
- "NMSU Alamogordo". New Mexico State University. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- Our History. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
- "Alamogordo Area Schools". Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
- Scharmack, Michelle (July 26, 2008). "New school to open in August". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 10674593.
- "Imago Dei Academy". Alamogordo Daily News. November 29, 2008. pp. 6B. OCLC 10674593.
- "Library General Information". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Community Borrower Policy". New Mexico State University at Alamogordo. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Alamogordo Daily News: Contact Us". Alamogordo Daily News. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Hollogram nameplate, masthead". The Hollogram (Alamogordo, New Mexico: Alamogordo Daily News). August 13, 2009. pp. 1, 2.
- "The Ink nameplate, masthead". The Ink (Alamogordo, New Mexico: Alamogordo Daily News). August 2009. pp. 1, 2.
- "The City Profile Newsletter". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- "Communiqué". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Welcome to KVBA Vision Broadcasting". KVBA Visions Broadcasting Network. May 31, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "The Local 19: Alamogordo's News". KVBA Visions Broadcasting Network. May 31, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce: Relocation". May 29, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "WP Broadcasting". WP Broadcasting. March 19, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Shinabery, Michael (May 7, 2006). "New station's format is kinda cool". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 5A. OCLC 10674593.
(about Burt Broadcasting and KQEL-FM)
- "Airmen invade airwaves". United States Air Force, Holloman Air Force Base. May 28, 2008. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Meadows, Jennifer L. (September 11, 2002). "New radio station goes live for 9-11 tribute". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 10A. OCLC 10674593.
- "KALH-FM Variety 95.1". KALH Radio. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "About KRWG". New Mexico State University. August 11, 2009. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "The Making Of The Transformers Movie". Entertainment News International. June 15, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Escutia, Sondra (June 26, 2009). "Hollywood 'transforms' Holloman yet again". United States Air Force, Holloman Air Force Base. Retrieved August 11, 2009.
- Anderson, Karl (April 22, 2008). "Local faces make mark on comedy". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Fourteen Days in America: Opening and Touring Schedule". Mad Brit Films/David Gibbons Design. 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Wagoner, Alice Louise (November 21, 2005). "'14 Days' world premier draws students, viewers". Alamogordo Daily News. pp. 1A. OCLC 10674593.
- "Film History Film Otero". Otero County Film Office. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- "Five Million E.T. Pieces". Snopes.com. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- "Atari's E.T. tomb unearthed at old Alamogordo landfill". Alamogordo Daily News. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- "Atari cartridges found in New Mexico landfill". Reuters. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- "Atari 'E.T.' games found in Alamogordo landfill". Las Cruces News. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- "US54/70 Alamogordo Relief Route Open for Business" (Press release). State of New Mexico Highway and Transportation Department. August 31, 2001. Retrieved August 1, 2009.
- Coltharp, Richard (March 1, 2005). "Relief route dedicated". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
Alamogordo's relief route was dedicated yesterday, not just to a man Charlie T. Lee but to a "way of life."
- "Alamogordo – White Sands Regional Airport". City of Alamogordo. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Ended in April 2012 Wells, Kandra (January 16, 2008). "Confusion at Alamo airport". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Locations: Alamogordo, New Mexico". Greyhound Lines. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- "Alamo Shuttle". Alamo Shuttle Service. Retrieved August 13, 2009.
- Price, Joan (March 1, 2005). "Mescalero tribe, Z Trans begin public bus service". Alamogordo Daily News. p. 7A. OCLC 10674593.
- Taschek Environmental Consulting (March 4, 2003). "Alamogordo Comprehensive Plan 2000" (PDF). City of Alamogordo. Retrieved May 30, 2008.
- Shinabery, Michael (January 12, 2005). "Springer hails rail trails". Alamogordo Daily News. OCLC 10674593.
- "Otero County Electric Cooperative, Inc.". Otero County Electric Cooperative, Inc. Retrieved September 12, 2009.
- Schmittle, Maureen K. (September 2007). "Water Projects for Alamogordo" (PDF). City Profile (City of Alamogordo): 2. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
- Alamogordo City Commission Meeting Minutes for November 13, 1990 (Report). City of Alamogordo. pp. 13–16.
- "Letters from February through May 2008: Letter to the Editor from Maureen K. Schmittle, Public Communications Manager submitted May 12, 2008" (PDF). City of Alamogordo. Retrieved July 30, 2009.
- "GCRMC History". Gerald Champion Regional Medical Center. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
- "Otero County Community Health Profile FY2008" (PDF). Otero County Community Health Council. Retrieved May 29, 2008.[dead link]
- "America's Health Rankings, State Snapshots: New Mexico". United Health Foundation. Archived from the original on April 17, 2008. Retrieved May 31, 2008.
- Ford, Norman D. (1991) . The 50 healthiest places to live and retire in the United States. Bedford, MA: Mills & Sanderson. ISBN 978-0-938179-25-2. OCLC 22510679.
- Branscomb, Lewis M. (July 17, 2008). "Washington University Libraries Special Collections – About Wayman Crow – Edward U. Condon, 1902–1974". Washington University in St. Louis. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- "Biography of Alan Hale". Southwest Institute for Space Research. October 31, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- "MECHEM, Edwin Leard, (1912–2002) Biographical Information". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. United States Congress. Archived from the original on August 8, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- DeBolt, Daniel (May 12–18, 2006). "Chavez put on the spot: Mayoral candidate answers our many questions" (PDF). Almaden Times Weekly (Times Media, Inc.). pp. 1, 22–23. Retrieved July 28, 2009.
- Pamphlet, "Flying J. Wranglers: A White Mountain Christmas, December 3–4, 2004, p. 3
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alamogordo, New Mexico.|