|— Municipality of Belgium —|
|• Mayor||Renaat Landuyt (sp.a)|
|• Governing party/ies||CD&V, sp.a|
|• Total||138.40 km2 (53.44 sq mi)|
|Population (1 January 2012)|
|• Density||850/km2 ( 2,200/sq mi)|
|• Foreigners||3.52% (1 January 2007)|
|Postal codes||8000, 8200, 8310, 8380|
Bruges (// in English; Dutch: Brugge, [ˈbrʏʝə], French: Bruges, [ˈbʁyːʒ], German: Brügge, [ˈbrʏɡə]) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country.
The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge (meaning "Brugge aan Zee" or "Bruges on Sea"). The historic city centre is a prominent World Heritage Site of UNESCO. It is oval-shaped and about 430 hectares in size. The city's total population is 117,073 (1 January 2008), of which around 20,000 live in the city centre. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 616 km² and has a total of 255,844 inhabitants as of 1 January 2008.
Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as "The Venice of the North". Bruges has a significant economic importance thanks to its port. At one time, it was the "chief commercial city" of the world.
The place-name Bruges is first mentioned as Bruggas, Brvggas, Brvccia in 840 - 875, then Bruciam, Bruociam in 892, Brutgis uico end 9th century, in portu Bruggensi around 1010, Bruggis in 1012, Bricge in 1037 (Anglo-Saxon chronicle), Brugensis in 1046, Brycge 1049 - 1052 (ASC), Brugias in 1072, Bruges in 1080 - 1085, Bruggas around 1084, Brugis in 1089, Brugge in 1116.
Probably from Old Dutch, cf. Middle Dutch brucge, brugge (or brugghe, brigghe, bregghe, brogghe). cf. Dutch bruggehoofd "bridgehead", Dutch Brug "bridge"), The Dutch word brug(ghe) would be variant form from the south. from Proto-Germanic *brugjō- "bridge", "harbour bridge", "veenbrug" (cf. English bridge)
Very few traces of human activity in Bruges date from the Pre-Roman Gaul era. The first fortifications were built after Julius Caesar's conquest of the Menapii in the first century BC, to protect the coastal area against pirates. The Franks took over the whole region from the Gallo-Romans around the 4th century and administered it as the Pagus Flandrensis. The Viking incursions of the ninth century prompted Baldwin I, Count of Flanders to reinforce the Roman fortifications; trade soon resumed with England and Scandinavia.
Golden age (12th to 15th century)
Bruges received its city charter on July 27, 1128, and new walls and canals were built. Since about 1050, gradual silting had caused the city to lose its direct access to the sea. A storm in 1134, however, re-established this access, through the creation of a natural channel at the Zwin. The new sea arm stretched all the way to Damme, a city that became the commercial outpost for Bruges.
Bruges had a strategic location at the crossroads of the northern Hanseatic League trade and the southern trade routes. Bruges was already included in the circuit of the Flemish and French cloth fairs at the beginning of the 13th century, but when the old system of fairs broke down the entrepreneurs of Bruges innovated. They developed, or borrowed from Italy, new forms of merchant capitalism, whereby several merchants would share the risks and profits and pool their knowledge of markets. They employed new forms of economic exchange, including bills of exchange (i.e. promissory notes) and letters of credit. The city eagerly welcomed foreign traders, most notably the Portuguese pepper and spice traders.
With the reawakening of town life in the twelfth century, a wool market, a woollens weaving industry, and the market for cloth all profited from the shelter of city walls, where surpluses could be safely accumulated under the patronage of the counts of Flanders. The city's entrepreneurs reached out to make economic colonies of England and Scotland's wool-producing districts. English contacts brought Normandy grain and Gascon wines. Hanseatic ships filled the harbor, which had to be expanded beyond Damme to Sluys to accommodate the new cog-ships. In 1277, the first merchant fleet from Genoa appeared in the port of Bruges, first of the merchant colony that made Bruges the main link to the trade of the Mediterranean. This development opened not only the trade in spices from the Levant, but also advanced commercial and financial techniques and a flood of capital that soon took over the banking of Bruges. The Bourse opened in 1309 (most likely the first stock exchange in the world) and developed into the most sophisticated money market of the Low Countries in the 14th century. By the time Venetian galleys first appeared, in 1314, they were latecomers. Numerous foreign merchants were welcomed in Bruges, such as the Castilian wool merchants who first arrived in the 13th century. The foreign merchants expanded the city's trading zones. They maintained separate communities governed by their own laws until the economic collapse after 1700.
Such wealth gave rise to social upheavals, which were for the most part harshly contained by the militia. In 1302, however, after the Bruges Matins (the nocturnal massacre of the French garrison in Bruges by the members of the local Flemish militia on 18 May 1302), the population joined forces with the Count of Flanders against the French, culminating in the victory at the Battle of the Golden Spurs, fought near Kortrijk on July 11. The statue of Jan Breydel and Pieter de Coninck, the leaders of the uprising, can still be seen on the Big Market square. The city maintained a militia as a permanent paramilitary body. It gained flexibility and high prestige by close ties to a guild of organized militia, comprising professionals and specialized units. Militia men bought and maintained their own weapons and armour, according to their family status and wealth.
At the end of the 14th century, Bruges became one of the Four Members, along with Franc of Bruges, Ghent and Ypres. Together they formed a parliament, however they frequently quarrelled amongst themselves.
In the 15th century, Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, set up court in Bruges, as well as Brussels and Lille, attracting a number of artists, bankers, and other prominent personalities from all over Europe. The weavers and spinners of Bruges were thought to be the best in the world, and the population of Bruges grew to 200,000 inhabitants at this time.
The new Flemish-school, oil-painting techniques gained world renown. The first book in English ever printed was published in Bruges by William Caxton. This is also the time when Edward IV and Richard III of England spent time in exile here.
Decline after 1500
Starting around 1500, the Zwin channel, which had given the city its prosperity, also started silting. The city soon fell behind Antwerp as the economic flagship of the Low Countries. During the 17th century, the lace industry took off, and various efforts to bring back the glorious past were made. During the 1650s, the city was the base for Charles II of England and his court in exile. The maritime infrastructure was modernized, and new connections with the sea were built, but without much success, as Antwerp became increasingly dominant. Bruges became impoverished and gradually faded in importance; its population dwindling from 200,000 to 50,000 by 1900.
The symbolist novelist George Rodenbach even made the sleepy city into a character in his novel Bruges-la-Morte, meaning "Bruges-the-dead", which was adapted into Erich Wolfgang Korngold's opera, Die tote Stadt (The Dead City).
In the last half of the 19th century, Bruges became one of the world's first tourist destinations attracting wealthy British and French tourists. By 1909 it had in operation an association called 'Bruges Forward: Society to Improve Tourism.' After 1965 the original medieval city experienced a renaissance. Restorations of residential and commercial structures, historic monuments, and churches generated a surge in tourism and economic activity in the ancient downtown area. International tourism has boomed, and new efforts have resulted in Bruges being designated 'European Capital of Culture' in 2002. It attracts some 2 million tourists annually.
The port of Zeebrugge was built in 1907. The Germans used it for their U-boats in World War I. It was greatly expanded in the 1970s and early 1980s and has become one of Europe's most important and modern ports.
The municipality comprises:
- The historic city centre of Bruges, Sint-Jozef and Sint-Pieters (I)
- Koolkerke (II)
- Sint-Andries (III)
- Sint-Michiels (IV)
- Assebroek (V)
- Sint-Kruis (VI)
- Dudzele (VII)
- Lissewege (with Zeebrugge and Zwankendamme) (VIII)
|Historic Centre of Bruges|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||ii, iv, vi|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||2000 (24th Session)|
Many of its medieval buildings are notable, including the Church of Our Lady, whose brick spire reaches 122.3 m (401.25 ft), making it one of the world's highest brick towers/buildings. The sculpture Madonna and Child, which can be seen in the transept, is believed to be Michelangelo's only sculpture to have left Italy within his lifetime.
Bruges' most famous landmark is its 13th-century belfry, housing a municipal carillon comprising 48 bells. The city still employs a full-time carillonneur, who gives free concerts on a regular basis.
Other famous buildings in Bruges include:
- The Beguinage
- The Basilica of the Holy Blood (Dutch: Heilig-Bloedbasiliek). The relic of the Holy Blood, which was brought to the city after the Second Crusade by Thierry of Alsace, is paraded every year through the streets of the city. More than 1,600 inhabitants take part in this mile-long religious procession, many dressed as medieval knights or crusaders.
- The modern Concertgebouw ("Concert Building")
- The Old St-John's Hospital
- The Saint Salvator's Cathedral
- The Groeningemuseum
- The City Hall on the Burg square
- The Provincial Court (Provinciaal Hof)
- The preserved old city gateways: the Kruispoort, the Gentpoort, the Smedenpoort and the Ezelpoort. The Dampoort, the Katelijnepoort and the Boeveriepoort are gone.
Bruges also has a very fine collection of medieval and early modern art, including the world-famous collection of Flemish Primitives. Various masters, such as Hans Memling and Jan van Eyck, lived and worked in Bruges.
Bridge at Bruges, (ca. 1919)
by Louis Dewis.
View of the Steenstraat with the St. Salvator's Cathedral in the background.
Part of the Markt (market square).
The Bonne-Chière windmill.
Culture and art
Theatres and concert halls
- Concertgebouw ("Concert Building")
- De Dijk
- De Werf
- Het Entrepot
- Joseph Ryelandtzaal
- Studio Hall
- Cinema Lumière (alternative movies)
- Cinema Liberty
- Kinepolis Bruges
- Artistic works from the 15th to 21st century:
- The Bruggemuseum ("Bruges Museum") (general name for 11 different historical museums in the city):
- Beguine's House
- Brewery museum
- Hof Bladelin
- Basilica of the Holy Blood
- Choco-Story (chocolate museum)
- Lumina Domestica (lamp museum)
- Museum-Gallery Xpo: Salvador Dalí
- Diamond Museum
- English Convent
- Frietmuseum (museum dedicated to Belgian Fries)
- Jerusalem Church
- Lace centre
- St. George’s Archers Guild
- Saint Salvator's Cathedral
- St. Sebastian’s Archers’ Guild
- St. Trudo Abbey
- Public Observatory Beisbroek
- Ter Doest Abbey (in Lissewege)
Bruges has motorway connections to all directions:
- A10 to Ostend
- A10/E40 to Ghent and Brussels
- A18/E40 to Veurne and France
- A17/E403 to Kortrijk and Tournai
- N31/E403 to Zeebrugge
- N49/E34 to Antwerp
Driving within the 'egg', the historical centre enclosed by the main circle of canals in Bruges, is discouraged by traffic management schemes, including a network of one way streets. The system encourages the use of set routes leading to central car parks and direct exit routes. The car parks are convenient for the central commercial and tourist areas; they are inexpensive.
Bruges' main railway station is the focus of lines to the Belgian coast. It also provides at least hourly trains to all other major cities in Belgium, as well as to Lille, France. Further there are several regional and local trains.
Bus links to the centre are frequent, though the railway station is just a 10-minute walk from the main shopping streets and a 20-minute walk from the Market Square.
The national Brussels Airport, one hour away by train or car, offers the best connections. The nearest airport is the Ostend-Bruges International Airport in Ostend (around 25 km from the city centre of Bruges), but it offers limited passenger transport and connections.
Public city transport
Bruges has an extensive web of bus lines, operated by De Lijn, providing access to the city centre and the suburbs (city lines, Dutch: stadslijnen) and to many towns and villages in the region around the city (regional lines, Dutch: streeklijnen).
Although a few streets are restricted, no part of Bruges is car free.
Cars are required to yield to pedestrians and cyclists. Plans have long been under way to ban cars altogether from the historic center of Bruges or to restrict traffic much more than it currently is, but these plans have yet to come to fruition. In 2005, signs were changed for the convenience of cyclists, allowing two-way cycle traffic on more streets, however car traffic has not decreased. Recent cycle fatalities have increased pressure to close bridges and further calm inner Bruges, but laws have not yet passed. Due to heavily populated suburbs, bus traffic is high on the narrow streets. This makes cycling even trickier.
Nevertheless, in common with many cities in the region, there are thousands of cyclists in the city of Bruges.
The port of Bruges is Zeebrugge (Bruges-on-Sea). It is the most modern and second biggest port of Belgium and one of the most important in Europe. On 6 March 1987, the British ferry MS Herald of Free Enterprise capsized after leaving the port, killing 187 people, the worst disaster involving a British civilian vessel since 1919.
Bruges is traditionally the starting town for the annual Tour of Flanders cycle race, held in April and one of the biggest sporting events in Belgium.
Bruges is also a football town, represented by two teams at the top level (Belgian First Division): Club Brugge K.V. and Cercle Brugge K.S.V., both playing in the Jan Breydel Stadium (30,000 seats) in Sint-Andries. There are plans for a new stadium with about 45,000 seats in the south of the city, near the junction of the E40 and the E403.
Bruges is an important centre for education in West Flanders. Next to the several common primary and secondary schools, there are a few colleges, like the KHBO (Katholieke Hogeschool Brugge-Oostende) or the HOWEST (Hogeschool West-Vlaanderen). Furthermore, the city is home to the College of Europe, a prestigious institution of postgraduate studies in European Economics, Law and Politics, and of the United Nations University Institute on Comparative Regional Integration Studies (UNU-CRIS), a Research and Training Institute of the United Nations University specialising in the comparative study of regional integration.
Town twinning policy
On principle, Bruges has to date never entered into close collaboration with twin cities. Without denying the usefulness of this schemes for towns with fewer international contacts, the main reason is that Bruges would find it difficult to choose between cities and thinks that it has enough work already with its many international contacts. Also, it was thought[who?] in Bruges that twinning was too often an occasion for city authorities and representatives to travel on public expense.
This principle resulted, in the 1950s, in Bruges refusing a jumelage with Nice and other towns, signed by a Belgian ambassador without previous consultation. In the 1970s, a Belgian consul in Oldenburg made the mayor of Bruges sign a declaration of friendship which he tried to present, in vain, as a jumelage.
The twinning between some of the former communes, merged with Bruges in 1971, were discontinued.
This does not mean that Bruges would not be interested in cooperation with others, as well in the short term as in the long run, for particular projects. Here follow a few examples.
- Bastogne, Luxembourg, Belgium
- After World War II and into the 1970s, Bruges, more specifically the Fire Brigade of Bruges, entertained friendly relations with Bastogne. Each year a free holiday was offered at the seaside in Zeebrugge, to children from the Nuts city.
- Arolsen, Hesse, Germany
- From the 1950s until the 1980s, Bruges was the patron of the Belgian First Regiment of Horse Guards, quartered in Arolsen.
- Salamanca, Castilla y León, Spain
- Both towns having been made European Capital of Culture in 2002, Bruges had some exchanges organized with Salamanca.
- Mons, Hainaut, Belgium
- In 2007, cultural and artistic cooperation between Mons and Bruges was inaugurated.
- Burgos, Castilla y León, Spain
- On 29 January 2007, the mayors of Burgos and Bruges signed a declaration of intent about future cooperation on cultural, touristic and economic matters.
The following people were born in Bruges:
- Jan Breydel and Pieter de Coninck, freedom fighters
- Philip I of Castile, first Habsburg ruler in Spain (1478–1506)
- Adrian Willaert, composer of the Renaissance, (birth in Bruges uncertain, c. 1490-1562)
- Simon Stevin, mathematician and engineer (1548–1620)
- Franciscus Gomarus, Calvinist theologian (1563–1641)
- Guido Gezelle, poet and priest (1830–1899)
- Gotye, Australian-Belgian singer songwriter (1980)
- Isidore van Kinsbergen, Dutch-Flemish engraver, (1821–1905)
- Hugo Claus, Belgian author (1929-2008)
In the 15th century, the city became the magnet for a number of prominent personalities:
- Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy set up court in Bruges, Brussels, and Lille in the 15th century
- William Caxton, English merchant, diplomat, writer, and printer
- Petrus Christus, Flemish painter
- Gerard David, Flemish painter
- Hans Memling, Flemish painter
- Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter
- Juan Luís Vives, Spanish scholar and humanist
- Simon Bening and Levina Teerlinc, Limners
- Bruges is known for its lace.
- Several beers are named after Bruges, such as Brugge Blond, Brugge Tripel, Brugs, Brugse Babbelaar, Brugse Straffe Hendrik and Brugse Zot. However, only Brugse Zot and Brugse Straffe Hendrik are still brewed in the city itself, in the Halve Maan Brewery.
- In Sint-Michiels is the amusement park Boudewijn Seapark, which features a dolphinarium.
- The patron saint of Bruges is Andrew the Apostle.
- Bruges-la-Morte, a short novel by the Belgian author Georges Rodenbach, first published in 1892. The libretto of Erich Wolfgang Korngold's opera Die Tote Stadt, written in 1920, is based on this book
- In Bruges, a film from Oscar-winning director Martin McDonagh, starring Colin Farrell and Brendan Gleeson, is set almost entirely in Bruges. The city's major landmarks and history are mentioned repeatedly throughout the film, as are the contrasted viewpoints of the two lead characters of the story.
- The detective stories of Pieter Aspe are situated in Bruges.
- The Nun's Story, a dramatic film released by Warner Bros. Pictures in 1959, is mostly set in Bruges.
- Niccolò Rising, the first volume of the 8 book House of Niccolò series by Dorothy Dunnett is largely set in Bruges, and other books in the series also have sections set in Bruges.
- Floris, a Dutch television action series, written by Gerard Soeteman.
- Alan Hollinghurst's novel The Folding Star is set in a Flemish town that is recognisably Bruges.
- L'Astrologue de Bruges, a Belgian bande dessinée in the Yoko Tsuno series by Roger Leloup, is entirely set in Bruges, both contemporary and in 1545.
- In the last chapter of Saul Bellow's novel The Adventures of Augie March Augie is driving through France on his way to Bruges on business.
- Population per municipality on 1 January 2012 (XLS; 214 KB)
- Degraer, Hugo (1968). Repertorium van de pers in West-Vlaanderen 1807-1914. Nauwelaerts, University of Michigan. p. 143., Snippet pages 143
- Boniface, Brian G.; Cooper, Christopher P. (2001). Worldwide destinations: the geography of travel and tourism (3 ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 140. ISBN 0-7506-4231-9., page 140
- Statistics Belgium; Population de droit par commune au 1 janvier 2008 (excel-file) Population of all municipalities in Belgium, as of 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
- Statistics Belgium; De Belgische Stadsgewesten 2001 (pdf-file) Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Bruges is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie), which in this case is Bruges municipality, with 117,073 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 166,502. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 255,844. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.
- Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 158.
- Maurits Gysseling, Toponymisch woordenboek van België, Nederland, Luxemburg, Noord-Frankrijk en West-Duitsland (vóór 1226), Brussel 1960, p. 195.
- Etymology of Bruges and Brug (Dutch)
- M. Philippa, F. Debrabandere, A. Quak, T. Schoonheim & N. van der Sijs (2003–2009), Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands, AUP: Amsterdam.
- Mack Ott (2012). The Political Economy of Nation Building: The World's Unfinished Business. Transaction Publishers. p. 92.
- James Donald Tracy (1993). The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750. Cambridge U.P. p. 263.
- Braudel, Fernand, The Perspective of the World, in Vol. III Civilization and Capitalism, 1984
- William D. Phillips, Jr. "Local Integration and Long-Distance Ties: The Castilian Community in Sixteenth-Century Bruges," Sixteenth Century Journal (1986) 17#1 pp 33-49
- Philip the Good: the apogee of Burgundy by Richard Vaughan, p201
- Jan Dumolyn, "'Our land is only founded on trade and industry.' Economic discourses in fifteenth-century Bruges," Journal of Medieval History (2010) 36#4 pp 374-389
- Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 160.
- David Plant (2007-09-10). "Charles, Prince of Wales, (later Charles II), 1630-85". British-civil-wars.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-07-07.
- Andre de Vries (2007). Flanders:A Cultural History: A Cultural History. Oxford U.P. p. 143.
- Stephen V. (Stephen Victor) Ward (1998). Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities, 1850-2000. Spon. p. 40.
- Jack E. Boucher, "Bruges, Belgium," American Preservation (1978) 2#1 pp 30-39.
- Historic centre of Bruges becomes a UNESCO World Heritage Site
- Dunton, Larkin (1896). The World and Its People. Silver, Burdett. p. 161.
- Andrew the Apostel at saints.sqpn.com Retrieved 26.March 2013.
- de Roover, Raymond. Money, Banking and Credit in Mediaeval Bruges: Italian Merchant-Bankers Lombards and Money-Changers: A Study in The Origins of Banking (Harvard U.P. 1948);
- Murray, James M. Bruges, Cradle of Capitalism 1280–1390 (2005)
- "Bruges", Belgium and Holland: Handbook for Travellers (6th ed.), Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1881
- The visitors universal handybook and guide to Antwerp, Brussels, Waterloo, Ghent, Bruges, Liège, etc. etc. (5th ed.). Antwerp: John De Wit & Joris. 1884.
- W. Pembroke Fetridge (1885), "Bruges", Harper's hand-book for travellers in Europe and the east: being a guide through Great Britain and Ireland, France, Belgium, Holland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Switzerland, Tyrol, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Russia, Spain, and Portugal, New York: Harper & Brothers
- "Bruges", Belgium and Holland, including the grand-duchy of Luxembourg (15th ed.), Leipzig: Karl Baedeker, 1910, OCLC 397759
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