Timișoara

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Timișoara
City
2012 Christmas Market on Victory Square
2012 Christmas Market on Victory Square
Coat of arms of Timișoara
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Little Vienna
Timișoara is located in Romania
Timișoara
Timișoara
Location of Timișoara
Coordinates: 45°45′35″N 21°13′48″E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000Coordinates: 45°45′35″N 21°13′48″E / 45.75972°N 21.23000°E / 45.75972; 21.23000
Country  Romania
County Timiș County
Status County capital
Government
 • Mayor Nicolae Robu (USL)
Area
 • City 130.5 km2 (50.4 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,070 km2 (410 sq mi)
Elevation 90 m (300 ft)
Population (2011 census)[1]
 • City 319,279
 • Density 2,446.58/km2 (6,336.6/sq mi)
 • Metro 384,609[citation needed]
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Mailbox code 300001-300990
Tel. code 0256 / 0356
Vehicle registration TM
Website www.primariatm.ro
xTimișoara metropolitan area is a proposed project.

Timișoara (Romanian pronunciation: [timiˈʃo̯ara] ( ); German: Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar, Hungarian: Temesvár, Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈtɛmɛʃvaːr] ( ), Yiddish: טעמשוואר, Serbian: Темишвар/Temišvar, Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár, Turkish: Temeşvar) is the capital city of Timiș County, in western Romania. One of the largest Romanian cities, with a population of 319,279 inhabitants (the third most populous city in the country, as of 2011),[1] and considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat, Timișoara is the main social, economic and cultural center in the western part of Romania.

Geography[edit]

Timișoara lies at an altitude of 95 m on the southeast edge of the Banat plain, part of the Pannonian Plain. The rich black soil and relatively low water table make this a fertile agricultural region.

Due to the hydrography projects undertaken in the 18th century, the city no longer lies on the Timiș River, but on the Bega canal. This is a relatively active seismic area, and earthquakes up to 6 on the Richter scale have been recorded.

History[edit]

Timișoara was first mentioned as a place in either 1212 or 1266. The territory later to be known as Banat was conquered and annexed by the Kingdom of Hungary in 1030. Timișoara grew considerably during the reign of Charles I, who, upon his visit here in 1307, ordered the construction of a royal palace. Timișoara's importance also grew due to its strategic location, which facilitated control over the Banat plain. John Hunyadi established a permanent military encampment here, and moved here together with his family. In 1552, a 16,000 Ottoman army conquered the city and transformed it into a capital city in the region. The local military commander, Stefan Losonczy, was captured and beheaded on July 27, 1552 after resisting the Ottoman invasion with just over 2,300 men.[citation needed]

Timișoara in 1656, a map by Nicolas Sanson

Timișoara remained under Ottoman rule for nearly 160 years, controlled directly by the Sultan and enjoying a special status, similar to other cities in the region such as Budapest and Belgrade. During this period, Timișoara was home to a large Islamic community and produced famous historical figures such as Osman Aga of Temesvar, until Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it in 1716. Subsequently, the city came under Austrian rule, and it remained so until the early 20th century except Ottoman occupation between 1788-1789 during the Ottoman-Hapsburg war.[citation needed] During this time, Timișoara evolved from a strategic fortress to an economic and industrial center: numerous factories were built[citation needed], electric illumination and public transport were introduced[citation needed], and railroad connections were established[citation needed]. The city was defortified, and several major road arteries were built to connect the suburbs with the city center, paving the way for further expansion of the city limits.[citation needed]

It was the first mainland European city to be lit by electric street lamps in 1884.[2] It was also the second European and the first city in what is now Romania with horse-drawn trams in 1867[citation needed]. Gustave Eiffel, the creator of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, drew the projects of one of Timișoara's footbridges over the Bega.

Historical image of a streetcar on Octavia Street in 1910

On October 31, 1918, local military and political elites establish the "Banat National Council", together with representatives of the region's main ethnic groups: Romanians, Germans, Serbs and Hungarians. In the aftermath of World War I, the Banat region was divided between the Kingdom of Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Timișoara came under Romanian administration after Serbian occupation between 1918-1919. In 1920, King Ferdinand I awarded Timișoara the status of a University Center, and the interwar years saw continuous economic and cultural development. A number of anti-fascist and anti-revisionist demonstrations also took place during this time.

During World War II, Timișoara suffered damage from both Allied and Axis bombing raids, especially during the second half of 1944. On August 23, 1944, Romania, which until then was a member of the Axis, declared war on Nazi Germany and joined the Allies. Surprised, the local Wehrmacht garrison surrendered without a fight,[citation needed] and German and Hungarian troops attempted to take the city by force throughout September, without success.

After the war, the People's Republic of Romania was proclaimed, and Timișoara underwent Sovietization and later, systematization. The city's population tripled between 1948 and 1992. In December 1989, Timișoara witnessed a series of mass street protests in what was to become the Romanian Revolution of 1989.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1787 9,479 —    
1847 18,103 +91.0%
1869 32,725 +80.8%
1900 53,033 +62.1%
1912 72,555 +36.8%
1930 91,580 +26.2%
1948 111,987 +22.3%
1956 142,257 +27.0%
1966 174,243 +22.5%
1977 269,353 +54.6%
1992 334,115 +24.0%
2002 317,660 −4.9%
2011 319,279 +0.5%
Source: Census data, Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Central Timișoara (November 2012)

As of 2011 census data, Timișoara has a population of 319,279,[1] while the proposed Timișoara metropolitan area would have a population of 384,609.

Of this population, 86.79% were ethnic Romanians, while 5.12% were Hungarians, 1.37% Germans, 1.3% Serbs, 0.69% ethnic Romani, 0.18% Ukrainians, 0.17% Slovaks, 0.11% Jews and 0.76% others.[3] 14.2% of the population are under 15 years of age, 4.0% are over 75.

The Ukrainian community is currently growing, partly due to the presence of Ukrainian language educational facilities. In recent years, local investment by Italian companies has spurred the creation of an Italian community,[4] even leading to calls for an Italian Cultural Center.[5]

Since 1990, Timișoara saw a slight population decline owing to migration and a drop in birthrates. Notably, the Hungarian and German communities experienced significant decline, with the latter being reduced by half between 1992 and 2002.[6]

Economy[edit]

Timișoara has been an important economic center since the 18th century when the Habsburg administration was installed. Due to Austrian colonization, ethnic and religious diversity and innovative laws, the economy began to develop. The technicians and craftsmen that settled in the city established guilds and helped develop the city's economy. Notably, in 1717, Timișoara became host to the region's first beer factory.[citation needed]

During the Industrial Revolution, numerous modern innovations were introduced. It was the first city in the monarchy with street illumination, and the first city on mainland Europe illuminated by electric light. The Bega river was also channelled during this time. It was the first navigable canal on current Romanian territory. This way, Timișoara had contact with Europe, and even with the rest of the world through the Black Sea, leading to the local development of commercialism.[7][8][9] In the 19th century, the railway system of the Hungarian Kingdom reached Timișoara.

City Business Center
Regional Business Centre

Timișoara was the first city in the country with international routes economic boom as the amount of foreign investment, especially in high-tech sectors, has risen.[10] In terms of living standards, Timișoara ranks fourth nationwide.[11] In an article in late 2005, French magazine L'Expansion called Timișoara Romania's economic showcase,[12] and referred to the increased number of foreign investments as a "second revolution".

Apart from domestic local investment, there has been significant foreign investment from the European Union, particularly from Germany and Italy. Continental AG has produced tires since opening a plant in 2000.[13] The Linde Group produces technical gases, and a part of the wiring moulds for BMW and Audi vehicles are produced by the company Dräxlmaier Group locally. Wiring for Volkswagen and other vehicles are produced at the German company Kromberg & Schubert. Also, Swiss company FM Logistic, already present in Timiș County for Nestlé, P&G and in Bucharest for Cora, L'Oréal, Sanofi Aventis and Yves Rocher, and for companies like PROFI Rom Foods, BIC, Kraft Foods or SCA Packaging - offering them domestic transport services and international transport services for Bricostore, Arctic, Danone, Unilever or Contitech, the growth of FM Logistic in Romania and in Dudești through its 1st own warehouse in Romania (Dudeștii Noi gives FM the opportunity). Nestlé produces waffles here. Among the chain restaurants present are Mcdonald's, KFC, Pizza Hut, Subway and Starbucks.

The USA company Flextronics maintains a workplace in the west of the city for the production of mobile telephony and government inspection department devices. In 2009, the company laid off 640 workers.[14] The American company Procter & Gamble manufactures washing and cleaning agents in Timișoara. Smithfield Foods - the world's largest pork processor and hog producer - has two subsidiaries in Timișoara and Timiș County: Smithfield Ferme and Smithfield Prod.

Like most of Romania, Timișoara experienced economic slowdown in 2009, due to the global economic downturn.[15] Timişoara is today a city with many international restaurants like: Mcdonald's, Kfc, Pizza Hut, Subway and Starbucks.

According to a Net Index report from the end of the first half of 2013, Timișoara is the city with the highest download speed in the world— 89.91 Mbit/s.[16]

Transport[edit]

Tramway and trolleybus routes

Timișoara's public transport network consists of 10 tram lines, 8 trolleybus lines and 20 bus lines, of which 5 are metropolitan lines and 6 are express lines. It is operated by Regia Autonomă de Transport Timișoara (RATT), an autonomous corporation of the City Hall. The city is served by Romania's third busiest airport, Traian Vuia International Airport, which is the hub of the Romania's second-largest airline, Carpatair. The city is connected to a series of major European and domestic destinations. Timișoara is a major railway centre and is connected to all other major Romanian cities, as well as local destinations, through the national CFR network.

Cityscape[edit]

The tallest building, when completed, will be the Tender Financial Center, at 180 meters tall. Currently, the tallest building is the Timișoara Orthodox Cathedral, at 96 meters and the tallest office building is the Fructus Tower, at 65 meters. Other tall buildings, over 50 meters, include: Asirom Financial Center and the Continental Hotel. Another proposed building, the Timișoara High Tower, when completed, will have a height of 138 meters.

Climate[edit]

Climate in this area has mild dfferences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[17]

Climate data for Timișoara, Romania
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
20.5
(68.9)
28.2
(82.8)
33.0
(91.4)
34.5
(94.1)
38.4
(101.1)
41.1
(106)
41.0
(105.8)
39.7
(103.5)
33.8
(92.8)
27.1
(80.8)
20.2
(68.4)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 2
(36)
5
(41)
11
(52)
18
(64)
23
(73)
26
(79)
28
(82)
28
(82)
25
(77)
18
(64)
11
(52)
4
(39)
17
(63)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1
(30)
1
(34)
5
(41)
11
(52)
16
(61)
19
(66)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
12
(54)
6
(43)
1
(34)
11
(52)
Average low °C (°F) −5
(23)
−3
(27)
0
(32)
5
(41)
10
(50)
13
(55)
15
(59)
14
(57)
11
(52)
6
(43)
2
(36)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
Record low °C (°F) −35.3
(−31.5)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−20.0
(−4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−5.0
(23)
2.2
(36)
5.9
(42.6)
5.0
(41)
−1.9
(28.6)
−6.8
(19.8)
−15.4
(4.3)
−24.8
(−12.6)
−35.3
(−31.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.85)
44
(1.73)
46
(1.81)
56
(2.2)
71
(2.8)
91
(3.58)
67
(2.64)
53
(2.09)
51
(2.01)
46
(1.81)
57
(2.24)
59
(2.32)
688
(27.09)
Avg. precipitation days 12 10 8 10 13 16 12 11 10 9 11 11 145
Avg. rainy days 2 3 7 10 13 16 12 11 10 9 7 4 104
Avg. snowy days 10 8.5 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 3 7.3 32
 % humidity 91 87 81 80 77 79 74 75 76 85 92 89 82
Mean monthly sunshine hours 62 85 142 180 210 240 280 279 210 155 60 49 1,952
Source #1: Weatherbase [18]
Source #2: http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/pdf/ro/cap1.pdf
  • Highest Recorded Temperature: 41.1 °C (106 °F) - 24 July 2007
  • Lowest Recorded Temperature: −35.3 °C (−32 °F) - 24 January 1963
  • Snow stays on the grounds 30 days a year on average
  • Warmest Month: July
  • Coolest Month: January
  • Highest Precipitation: June: 91.0 mm(3.589 in)
  • Lowest Precipitation: February: 44.5 mm(1.737 in)

The climate which defines Timișoara city is the temperate-oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) and can be regarded as humid continental (Dfb) when using an isotherm of 0 °C (32 °F). The city characterizes the Southern-Eastern part of The Pannonian Basin.

Climatic general features consist of various and irregular weather conditions. The dominating temperate air masses during spring and summer are of oceanic origin and come with great precipitations. Frequently, even during winter period, the Atlantic humid air masses bring rainy and snowy weather, rarely cold weather.

From September until February, frequent continental polar air masses coming from East invade the area. In spite of all that, the Banat climate is also influenced by the presence of cyclones and warm air masses which come from the Adriatic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Their characteristic feature is that of complete snow thaw during the winter period and stifling heat during the summer period.

Freak measurable snowfalls have occurred as early as late October and as late as early April, but snow in those months is rare, and significant falls do not usually occur until late November. The median date for the first freeze is October 22, while that of the last freeze is April 15.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Listed alphabetically
  • Aradului vest
  • Badea Cârțan
  • Banat I
  • Blașcovici
  • Braytim
  • Bucovina
  • Calea Aradului
  • Calea Girocului
  • Calea Lipovei
  • Calea Șagului
  • Cetate
  • Chișoda
  • Ciarda Roșie
  • Circumvalațiunii I, II, III, IV
  • Complex studențesc
  • Complex
  • Crisan
  • Dacia
  • Dâmbovița
  • Elisabetin
  • Fabric
  • Fratelia
  • Freidorf
  • Ghiroda
  • Ion Ionescu de la Brad
  • Iosefin
  • Kuncz
  • Lunei
  • Matei Basarab
  • Mehala I, II
  • Mircea cel Batran
  • Modern
  • Noua Timișoară
  • Olimpia
  • Padurea Verde
  • Plăvăț
  • Plopi
  • Ronaț
  • Soarelui
  • Stadion
  • Steaua
  • Tipografilor
  • Torontalului
  • Traian
  • Zona Odobescu

Culture[edit]

The city center largely consists of buildings from the Austrian Empire era. The old city consists of several historic areas. These are: Cetate (Belváros in Hungarian, Innere Stadt in German), Iosefin (Józsefváros, Josephstadt), Elisabetin (Erzsébetváros, Elisabethstadt), Fabric (Gyárváros, Fabrikstadt). Numerous bars, clubs and restaurants have opened in the old Baroque square (Unirii Square).

Landmarks include:

Performing arts[edit]

  • Banatul Philharmonic of Timișoara (Filarmonica Banatul Timișoara)
  • Romanian Opera House (Opera Română Timișoara)[19]
  • National Theatre (Teatrul Național)
  • German State Theatre (Teatrul German de Stat)
  • Hungarian State Theatre (Teatrul Maghiar de Stat)
  • Puppet Theatre (Teatrul pentru copii și tineret "Merlin")
  • Festivalul Plai, a world music and jazz festival

Festivals and Conferences[edit]

[26]

  • PLAI— Plai is a festival that celebrates multiculturality with worldmusic, jazz, diverse music, workshops and joy, arts and exuberance.[27]

Education[edit]

Timișoara has four public universities and four private universities:

Public

Private

Sport[edit]

Rugby union[edit]

Association football[edit]

Historic

Basketball[edit]

Handball[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Timișoara has 15 twin towns and sister cities, as listed below:

Consulates[edit]

Natives[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References/Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Timis County at the 2011 census" (in Romanian). INSSE. February 2, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012. 
  2. ^ Ilieșiu 2006, op. cit. p. 330
  3. ^ "Ethno-demographic Structure of Romania". The Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Timișoara, mina de aur pentru investitorii italieni". 9am.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  5. ^ QCT Connect (1992-08-19). ""Timișoara este floarea de la butonieră a relațiilor româno-italiene" | Primaria Timișoara | Secțiuni suplimentare | Cooperare internațională și dezvoltare economică". Primariatimisoara.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  6. ^ "Centrul de resurse pentru diversitate etnoculturală". Edrc.ro. 2010-05-30. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  7. ^ "Timișoara, monografie Istorică", dr.Nicolae Ilieșu
  8. ^ "Agenda". Agenda.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  9. ^ "Agenda". Agenda.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  10. ^ "La Timișoara, e vremea boom-ului economic". Wall-street.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  11. ^ Scris de Lucian Paulescu. "Timișoara, desemnat al patrulea oraș din România ca standard de viață - Ziua de Vest". Ziuadevest.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  12. ^ "Timișoara Romania's economic showcase". Lexpansion.com. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  13. ^ http://www.conti-online.com/generator/www/uk/en/continental/automobile/themes/about_continental/history/1997_2006_en.html
  14. ^ http://www.evertiq.com/news/14398
  15. ^ "Economie: Economia timiseana a traversat un an destul de greu in 2009". Timisoreni.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  16. ^ "Romanian city comes out first in the world in Internet download speed ranking". Net Index. 3 July 2013. 
  17. ^ Climate Summary for Timișoara, Romania
  18. ^ "Weatherbase: Weather for Timișoara, Romania". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 22, 2011.
  19. ^ "Romanian Opera House". ort.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  20. ^ "StudentFest". 
  21. ^ "Article about StudentFest in TION". 
  22. ^ "International Students Week in Timișoara". 
  23. ^ "TEDxTimisoara". 
  24. ^ "TEDxTimisoara events on TED.com". 
  25. ^ "Article about TEDxTimisoara in Ziua de Vest". 
  26. ^ Nani, Corina. "Festivalul International Graffiti Timişoara 2011". Street Art Album. ArtPress Timişoara. 
  27. ^ "PLAI Festival". 
  28. ^ "The West University of Timișoara". Uvt.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  29. ^ "The Politehnica University of Timișoara". Upt.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  30. ^ "Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timișoara". Umft.ro. 2009-08-29. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  31. ^ "The Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences in Timișoara". Usab-tm.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  32. ^ "The Dimitrie Cantemir University of Timișoara". Ucdctm.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  33. ^ "The Tibiscus University of Timișoara". Tibiscus.ro. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  34. ^ "Mihai Eminescu University of Timișoara". Umet.ro. Retrieved 2011-03-10. 
  35. ^ "Ioan Slavici University of Timișoara". Islavici.ro. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 
  36. ^ 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 2008-03-22. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  37. ^ 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 2011-01-20. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  38. ^ 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 2011-09-13. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  39. ^ "Städte­partnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-12-16. Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  40. ^ "European networks and city partnerships". Nottingham City Council. 11 March. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  41. ^ [1]
  42. ^ [2]
  43. ^ [3]
  44. ^ [4]
  45. ^ [5]
  46. ^ [6]
  47. ^ [7]
  48. ^ [8]
  49. ^ [9]
  50. ^ [10]
  51. ^ [11]
  52. ^ [12]
  53. ^ [13]
  54. ^ [14]

External links[edit]