Discus throw

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Discus)
Jump to: navigation, search
"Discus thrower" and "Discus" redirect here. For the statue, see Discobolus. For other uses, see Discus (disambiguation).
Athletics
Discus throw
Robert Harting (2008).jpg
The Olympic champion Robert Harting.
Men's records
World  Jürgen Schult (GDR) 74.08 m (1986)
Olympic  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) 69.89 m (2004)
Women's records
World  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) 76.80 m (1988)
Olympic  Martina Hellmann (GDR) 72.30 m (1988)

The discus throw (About this sound pronunciation) is a track and field event in which an athlete throws a heavy disc—called a discus—in an attempt to mark a farther distance than his or her competitors. It is an ancient sport, as evidenced by the fifth-century-B.C. Myron statue, Discobolus. Although not part of the modern pentathlon, it was one of the events of the ancient Greek pentathlon, which can be dated at least to 708 BC.[1]

History[edit]

Modern copy of the Diskophoros, attributed to Alkamenes

The discus throw is a routine part of most modern track-and-field meets at all levels and is a sport which is particularly iconic of the Olympic Games. The men's competition has been a part of the modern Summer Olympic Games since the first Olympiad in 1896. Images of discus throwers figured prominently in advertising for early modern Games, such as fundraising stamps for the 1896 games and the main posters for the 1920 and 1948 Summer Olympics.

The women's competition was added to the Olympic program in the 1928 games, although they had been competing at some national and regional levels previously.

Description[edit]

Discus-thrower, tondo of a kylix by the Kleomelos Painter, Louvre Museum

The discus, the object to be thrown, is a heavy lenticular disc with a weight of 2 kilograms (4.4 lb) and diameter of .219 m (0 ft 812 in) for the men's event, and a weight of 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) and diameter of .180 m (0 ft 7 in) for the women's program.

Under IAAF (international) rules, Youth boys (16–17 years) throw the 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus, the Junior men (18–19 years) throw the unique 1.75 kilograms (3.9 lb) discus, and the girls/women of those ages throw the 1 kg discus.

In international competition, men throw the 2 kg discus through age 49. The 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb) discus is thrown by ages 50–59, and men age 60 and beyond throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus. Women throw the 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) discus through age 74. Starting with age 75, women throw the .75 kilograms (1.7 lb) discus.

The typical discus has sides made of plastic, wood, fiberglass, carbon fiber or metal with a metal rim and a metal core to attain the weight. The rim must be smooth, with no roughness or finger holds. A discus with more weight in the rim produces greater angular momentum for any given spin rate, and thus more stability, although it is more difficult to throw. However, a higher rim weight, if thrown correctly, can lead to a farther throw. a solid rubber discus is sometimes used (see in the United States).

To make a throw, the competitor starts in a circle of 2.5 m (8 ft 214 in) diameter, which is recessed in a concrete pad by 20 mm. The thrower typically takes an initial stance facing away from the direction of the throw. He then spins counter-clockwise (for right-handers) around one and a half times through the circle to build momentum, then releases his throw. The discus must land within a 34.92-degree sector. The rules of competition for discus are virtually identical to those of shot put, except that the circle is larger, a stop board is not used and there are no form rules concerning how the discus is to be thrown.

The distance from the front edge of the circle to where the discus has landed is measured, and distances are rounded down to the nearest centimetre. The competitor's best throw from the allocated number of throws, typically three to six, is recorded, and the competitor who legally throws the discus the farthest is declared the winner. Ties are broken by determining which thrower has the longer second-best throw.

The basic motion is a forehanded sidearm movement. The discus is spun off the index finger or the middle finger of the throwing hand. In flight the disc spins clockwise when viewed from above for a right-handed thrower, and counter-clockwise for a lefty. As well as achieving maximum momentum in the discus on throwing, the discus' distance is also determined by the trajectory the thrower imparts, as well as the aerodynamic behavior of the discus. Generally, throws into a moderate headwind achieve the maximum distance. Also, a faster-spinning discus imparts greater gyroscopic stability. The technique of discus throwing is quite difficult to master and needs lots of experience to get right, thus most top throwers are 30 years old or more.

Phases[edit]

There are six key movements of the discus throw: wind up, move in rhythm, balance, right leg engine, orbit, and delivery. The wind up is one of the most important aspects of the throw because it sets the tone for the entire throw. The wind up is both mental and technical. It is mental because the wind up sets the thrower up for the rest of the throw.

Rutger Smith in phases of the discus throw

The following are the technical aspects: flat right foot, on the ball of your left foot, keep your weight evenly distributed between your feet, and not being overly active, which results in the waste of energy. Although the wind up sets the tone for the entire throw, the rhythm of the throw is the most important aspect. It is necessary to move in rhythm throughout the entire throw.

The best throwers contain the same amount of time in each phase while completing a great throw. Focusing on rhythm can bring about the consistency to get in the right positions that many throwers lack. Executing a sound discus throw with solid technique requires perfect balance. This is due to the throw being a linear movement combined with a one and a half rotation and an implement at the end of one arm. Thus, a good discus thrower needs to maintain balance within the circle.[citation needed]

It is also important that the discus thrower keeps their shoulders at the same level during the throw until the end, where the thrower must extend their shoulders upward to get good lift under the discus. If extension is executed properly the discus will be at the right angle to ride on the air current and thus be taken a farther distance.

Culture[edit]

The discus throw is the subject of a number of well-known ancient Greek statues and Roman copies such as the Discobolus and Discophoros.

Discus throwers have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Discus commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics. On the obverse of the coin a modern athlete is seen in the foreground in a half-turned position, while in the background an ancient discus thrower has been captured in a lively bending motion, with the discus high above his head, creating a vivid representation of the sport.

United States[edit]

In U.S. high school track and field, boys typically throw a discus weighing 1.6 kg (3 lb 9 oz) and the girls throw the 1 kg (2.2 lb) women's discus. Under USATF Youth rules, boys throw the 1 kg discus between the ages of 11-14, and transition to the 1.6 kg discus as 15-18 year olds. Girls throw the 1 kg discus as 11-18 year olds.

Under US high school rules, if a discus hits the surrounding safety cage and is deflected into the sector, it is ruled a foul. In contrast, under IAAF, WMA, NCAA and USATF rules, it is ruled a legal throw. Additionally, under US high school rules, distances thrown are rounded down to the nearest whole inch, rather than the nearest centimetre.

US high school rules allow the use of a solid rubber discus; it is cheaper and easier to learn to throw (due to its more equal distribution of weight, as opposed to the heavy rim weight of the metal rim/core discus), but less durable.

Top ten performers[edit]

Gerd Kanter in Osaka

Accurate as of June 2013.[2][3]

Men[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date
1 74.08 m (243 ft 012 in)  Jürgen Schult (GDR) Neubrandenburg 6 June 1986
2 73.88 m (242 ft 412 in)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU) Kaunas 3 August 2000
3 73.38 m (240 ft 834 in)  Gerd Kanter (EST) Helsingborg 4 September 2006
4 71.86 m (235 ft 9 in)  Yuriy Dumchev (URS) Moscow 29 May 1983
5 71.84 m (235 ft 814 in)  Piotr Małachowski (POL) Hengelo 8 June 2013
6 71.70 m (235 ft 234 in)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN) Szombathely 14 July 2002
7 71.50 m (234 ft 634 in)  Lars Riedel (GER) Wiesbaden 3 May 1997
8 71.32 m (233 ft 1134 in)  Ben Plucknett (USA) Eugene 4 June 1983
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in)  John Powell (USA) San Jose 9 June 1984
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in)  Rickard Bruch (SWE) Malmö 15 November 1984
9= 71.26 m (233 ft 912 in)  Imrich Bugár (TCH) San Jose, CA 25 May 1985

Women[edit]

Rank Mark Athlete Venue Date
1 76.80 m (251 ft 1112 in)  Gabriele Reinsch (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 9, 1988
2 74.56 m (244 ft 714 in)  Zdenka Šilhavá (TCH) Nitra August 26, 1984
3 74.56 m (244 ft 714 in)  Ilke Wyludda (GDR) Neubrandenburg July 23, 1989
4 74.08 m (243 ft 012 in)  Diana Sachse-Gansky (GDR) Karl-Marx-Stadt June 20, 1987
5 73.84 m (242 ft 3 in)  Daniela Costian (ROU) Bucharest April 30, 1988
6 73.36 m (240 ft 8 in)  Irina Meszynski (GDR) Prague August 17, 1984
7 73.28 m (240 ft 5 in)  Galina Savinkova (URS) Donetsk September 8, 1984
8 73.23 m (240 ft 3 in)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL) Kazanlak April 19, 1987
9 73.10 m (239 ft 934 in)  Gisela Beyer (GDR) Berlin July 20, 1984
10 72.92 m (239 ft 234 in)  Martina Hellmann (GDR) Potsdam August 20, 1987

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
 Robert Garrett (USA)  Panagiotis Paraskevopoulos (GRE)  Sotirios Versis (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
 Rudolf Bauer (HUN)  František Janda-Suk (BOH)  Richard Sheldon (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Martin Sheridan (USA)  Ralph Rose (USA)  Nikolaos Georgantas (GRE)
1908 London
details
 Martin Sheridan (USA)  Merritt Giffin (USA)  Bill Horr (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Armas Taipale (FIN)  Richard Byrd (USA)  James Duncan (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Elmer Niklander (FIN)  Armas Taipale (FIN)  Gus Pope (USA)
1924 Paris
details
 Bud Houser (USA)  Vilho Niittymaa (FIN)  Thomas Lieb (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Bud Houser (USA)  Antero Kivi (FIN)  James Corson (USA)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 John Anderson (USA)  Henri LaBorde (USA)  Paul Winter (FRA)
1936 Berlin
details
 Ken Carpenter (USA)  Gordon Dunn (USA)  Giorgio Oberweger (ITA)
1948 London
details
 Adolfo Consolini (ITA)  Giuseppe Tosi (ITA)  Fortune Gordien (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Sim Iness (USA)  Adolfo Consolini (ITA)  James Dillion (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Fortune Gordien (USA)  Des Koch (USA)
1960 Rome
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Rink Babka (USA)  Dick Cochran (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Ludvík Daněk (TCH)  Dave Weill (USA)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Al Oerter (USA)  Lothar Milde (GDR)  Ludvík Daněk (TCH)
1972 Munich
details
 Ludvík Daněk (TCH)  Jay Silvester (USA)  Ricky Bruch (SWE)
1976 Montreal
details
 Mac Wilkins (USA)  Wolfgang Schmidt (GDR)  John Powell (USA)
1980 Moscow
details
 Viktor Rashchupkin (URS)  Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Rolf Danneberg (FRG)  Mac Wilkins (USA)  John Powell (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Jürgen Schult (GDR)  Romas Ubartas (URS)  Rolf Danneberg (FRG)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Romas Ubartas (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Roberto Moya (CUB)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Lars Riedel (GER)  Frantz Kruger (RSA)
2004 Athens
details
 Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Zoltán Kővágó (HUN)  Aleksander Tammert (EST)
2008 Beijing
details
 Gerd Kanter (EST)  Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)
2012 London
details
 Robert Harting (GER)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)  Gerd Kanter (EST)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1928 Amsterdam
details
 Halina Konopacka (POL)  Lillian Copeland (USA)  Ruth Svedberg (SWE)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Lillian Copeland (USA)  Ruth Osburn (USA)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL)
1936 Berlin
details
 Gisela Mauermayer (GER)  Jadwiga Wajs (POL)  Paula Mollenhauer (GER)
1948 London
details
 Micheline Ostermeyer (FRA)  Edera Gentile (ITA)  Jacqueline Mazéas (FRA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Nina Romashkova (URS)  Yelisaveta Bagriantseva (URS)  Nina Dumbadze (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Olga Fikotová (TCH)  Irina Beglyakova (URS)  Nina Romashkova (URS)
1960 Rome
details
 Nina Romashkova (URS)  Tamara Press (URS)  Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Tamara Press (URS)  Ingrid Lotz (EUA)  Lia Manoliu (ROU)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Lia Manoliu (ROU)  Liesel Westermann (FRG)  Jolán Kleiber-Kontsek (HUN)
1972 Munich
details
 Faina Melnyk (URS)  Argentina Menis (ROU)  Vasilka Stoeva (BUL)
1976 Montreal
details
 Evelin Schlaak (GDR)  Mariya Vergova (BUL)  Gabriele Hinzmann (GDR)
1980 Moscow
details
 Evelin Jahl (GDR)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)  Tatyana Lesovaya (URS)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Ria Stalman (NED)  Leslie Deniz (USA)  Florenţa Crăciunescu (ROU)
1988 Seoul
details
 Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Maritza Martén (CUB)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Daniela Costian (AUS)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Iryna Yatchenko (BLR)
2004 Athens
details
 Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Vera Pospisilova-Cechlova (CZE)[4]
2008 Beijing
details
 Stephanie Brown Trafton (USA)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Olena Antonova (UKR)
2012 London
details
 Sandra Perković (CRO)  Darya Pishchalnikova (RUS)  Li Yanfeng (CHN)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Imrich Bugár (TCH)  Luis Delís (CUB)  Gejza Valent (TCH)
1987 Rome  Jürgen Schult (GDR)  John Powell (USA)  Luis Delís (CUB)
1991 Tokyo  Lars Riedel (GER)  Erik de Bruin (NED)  Attila Horváth (HUN)
1993 Stuttgart  Lars Riedel (GER)  Dmitriy Shevchenko (RUS)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1995 Gothenburg  Lars Riedel (GER)  Vladimir Dubrovshchik (BLR)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
1997 Athens  Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Jürgen Schult (GER)
1999 Seville  Anthony Washington (USA)  Jürgen Schult (GER)  Lars Riedel (GER)
2001 Edmonton  Lars Riedel (GER)  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2003 Saint-Denis  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Róbert Fazekas (HUN)  Vasiliy Kaptyukh (BLR)
2005 Helsinki  Virgilijus Alekna (LTU)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Michael Möllenbeck (GER)
2007 Osaka  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Robert Harting (GER)  Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin  Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Małachowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)
2011 Daegu  Robert Harting (GER)  Gerd Kanter (EST)  Ehsan Haddadi (IRI)
2013 Moscow  Robert Harting (GER)  Piotr Malachowski (POL)  Gerd Kanter (EST)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki  Martina Opitz (GDR)  Galina Murasova (URS)  Mariya Petkova (BUL)
1987 Rome  Martina Hellmann (GDR)  Diana Gansky (GDR)  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)
1991 Tokyo  Tsvetanka Khristova (BUL)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Larisa Mikhalchenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart  Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)  Daniela Costian (AUS)  Min Chunfeng (CHN)
1995 Gothenburg  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Ilke Wyludda (GER)  Olga Chernyavskaya (RUS)
1997 Athens  Beatrice Faumuina (NZL)  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)
1999 Seville  Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2001 Edmonton  Ellina Zvereva (BLR)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)
2003 Saint-Denis  Irina Yatchenko (BLR)  Anastasia Kelesidou (GRE)  Ekaterini Voggoli (GRE)
2005 Helsinki  Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Natalya Sadova (RUS)  Věra Pospíšilová-Cechlová (CZE)
2007 Osaka  Franka Dietzsch (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2009 Berlin  Dani Samuels (AUS)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)  Nicoleta Grasu (ROU)
2011 Daegu  Li Yanfeng (CHN)  Nadine Müller (GER)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)
2013 Moscow  Sandra Perkovic (CRO)  Mélina Robert-Michon (FRA)  Yarelis Barrios (CUB)

Season's bests[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]