Dukedoms of the British Isles by reign

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This page lists extant dukedoms in the Peerages of the British Isles, listed by the monarch who created them—see also List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland.

Contents

Peerage of England[edit]

Monarch Dukedom and Year Recipient Reason Other titles Present holder
Henry V
special case
Duke of Cornwall (1421) Prince Henry of Lancaster eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch later King of England HRH Charles, Prince of Wales
Richard III Duke of Norfolk (1483) John Howard, Lord Howard Yorkist supporter Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey, Earl of Norfolk, Baron Beaumont, Baron Maltravers, Baron FitzAlan, Baron Clun, Baron Oswaldestre, Baron Howard of Glossop;
Earl Marshal
Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk
Edward VI Duke of Somerset (1547) Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford Uncle of the monarch and Lord Protector of the realm Lord Protector of England;
Earl of Hertford, Viscount Beauchamp (at creation); Baron Seymour (present)
John Seymour, 19th Duke of Somerset
Charles II Duke of Richmond (1675) Charles Lennox Illegitimate son of the monarch Earl of March, Baron Settrington (England); Duke of Lennox, Earl of Darnley, Lord Torbolton (Scotland); Duke of Gordon, Earl of Kinrara (United Kingdom) Charles Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Richmond, 10th Duke of Lennox, 5th Duke of Gordon
Duke of Grafton (1675) Henry FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Euston Earl of Euston, Viscount Ipswich, Baron Sudbury Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton
Duke of Beaufort (1682) Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcestor in recognition of his "having been eminently serviceable for the king since his most happy restoration, in consideration thereof and of his most noble descent from King Edward III by John de Beaufort, eldest son of John of Gaunt by Katherine Swynford." Marquess of Worcester (1642), Earl of Worcester (1514) David Somerset, 11th Duke of Beaufort
Duke of St Albans (1684) Charles Beauclerk, 1st Earl of Burford Illegitimate son of the monarch Earl of Burford (1686), Baron Heddington (1686), Baron Vere (1750) Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans
William III and Mary II Duke of Bedford (1694) William Russell, 5th Earl of Bedford as a supporter of the Glorious Revolution Marquess of Tavistock (1694), Earl of Bedford (1550), Viscount Petersborough (1526), Baron Russell (of Cheneys) (1539), Baron Russell of Thornhaugh (1603), Baron Howland of Streatham (1695) Andrew Russell, 15th Duke of Bedford
Duke of Devonshire (1694) William Cavendish, 4th Earl of Devonshire Marquess of Hartingdon (1694), Earl of Devonshire (1618), Earl of Burlington (1831), Baron Cavendish of Hardwicke (1605) Peregrine Cavendish, 12th Duke of Devonshire
Anne Duke of Marlborough (1703) John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough successful general Marquess of Blandford (1702), Earl of Sunderland (1643), Earl of Marlborough (1689), Baron Spencer of Wormleighton (1603), Baron Churchill of Eyemouth (1682), Baron Churchill of Sandridge (1685) John Spencer-Churchill, 11th Duke of Marlborough
Duke of Rutland (1703) John Manners, 9th Earl of Rutland for his long support of the Whig government (as an MP and as a peer) Marquess of Granby (1703), Earl of Rutland (1525), Baron Manners of Haddon (1679), Baron Roos of Belvoir (1896) David Manners, 11th Duke of Rutland
Monarch Dukedom and Year Recipient Reason Other titles Present holder

Heir to the throne (special case)[edit]

Duke of Cornwall (1421)[edit]

King Edward III first created the title Duke of Cornwall, the first dukedom in the British Isles, for his son and heir Edward, called the Black Prince. Since 1421 the title has automatically been held by the eldest son of and heir apparent to the sovereign. Since his mother's taking the throne in 1952 the title has been held by Prince Charles, who like many Dukes of Cornwall also holds the title Prince of Wales. See also Duke of Rothesay.

Created by Richard III (1483-1485)[edit]

Duke of Norfolk (1483)[edit]

This title was granted in its third creation to John Howard, Lord Howard, who supported the king in battling the Lancastrian Earl of Richmond, Henry Tudor. . The title has been forfeit and subsequently restored three times, and is now held by the Fitzalan-Howard family. The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the British realm, as well as its premier earl as Earl of Arundel, and Earl Marshal.

Created by Edward VI (1547-1553)[edit]

Duke of Somerset (1547)[edit]

Lord Protector Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford created this title for himself in the name of his nine-year-old nephew King Edward VI when he came to power. The title is still in the possession of the Seymour family.

Created by Charles II (1660-1685)[edit]

Duke of Richmond (1675)[edit]

This title was created for Charles Lennox, an illegitimate son of the king. It still exists, and is now held by the Gordon-Lennox family.

Duke of Grafton (1675)[edit]

Created in the same year and also for an illegitimate son of the king, Henry FitzRoy, this is still in existence today.

Duke of Beaufort (1682)[edit]

In recognition of his "having been eminently serviceable for the king since his most happy restoration, in consideration thereof and of his most noble descent from King Edward III by John de Beaufort, eldest son of John of Gaunt by Katherine Swynford", Charles II created Henry Somerset, then Marquess of Worcester, Duke of Beaufort. Still in existence.

Duke of St Albans (1684)[edit]

Created for yet another illegitimate son of the king, Charles Beauclerk (for a full list, click here). Still in existence.

Created by William III (1689-1702) and Mary II (1688-1694)[edit]

Duke of Bedford (1694)[edit]

Following the Glorious Revolution, William III's prominent supporter William Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford was created 1st Duke of Bedford. Still in existence.

Duke of Devonshire (1694)[edit]

William Cavendish, 4th Earl of Devonshire (pictured below) was another loyal supporter of William III, and he, like Bedford, was elevated to ducal rank as Duke of Devonshire.

The first Duke of Devonshire

Created by Anne (1702-1714) (until 1707)[edit]

Duke of Marlborough (1703)[edit]

The famous English general, John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

John Churchill, 1st Earl of Churchill, the excellent English general of Queen Anne's reign, won many a victory over the France of Louis XIV. He was rewarded with a dukedom, which by a special Act of Parliament passed to his daughters and their descendents when he died without surviving male issue.

Duke of Rutland (1703)[edit]

Created for politician John Manners, 9th Earl of Rutland. He was noted for being one of the first people in England to obtain a divorce, done by special act of Parliament.

Peerage of Scotland[edit]

Monarch Dukedom and Year Recipient Reason Other titles Present holder
James III
special case
Duke of Rothesay (1473)[1] James Stuart eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, High Steward of Scotland
later King of Scotland
HRH The Prince Charles
Charles I Duke of Hamilton (1643) James Hamilton, 3rd Marquess of Hamilton service as a general and Lord High Steward of the Household Duke of Brandon (1711), Marquess of Douglas (1633), Marquess of Clydesdale (1643), Earl of Angus (1389), Earl of Arran (1503), Earl of Cambridge (1643), Earl of Lanark (1643), Lord Abernethy (1397), Baron Innerdale (1599), Lord Jedburgh Forest (1633), Lord Polmont (1639), Lord Machanshire (1639), Lord Aven (1643), Baron Innerdale (1643), Baron Dutton (1711) Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, 16th Duke of Hamilton, 13th Duke of Brandon
Charles II Duke of Buccleuch (1663) James Crofts illegitimate son of the monarch Duke of Queensberry (1684), Marquess of Dumfriesshire (1683), Earl of Buccleuch (1619), Earl of Dalkeith (1663), Earl of Doncaster (1663), Earl of Drumlanrig and Sanquhar (1682), Viscount of Nith, Tortholwald and Ross(1682), Lord Scott of Buccleuch (1606), Lord Scott of Whitchester and Eskdaill (1619), Baron Scott of Tindale (1663), Lord Douglas of Kilmount, Middlebie and Dornock (1682) Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch, 12th Duke of Queensberry
Duke of Lennox (1675) Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond see Duke of Richmond Charles Gordon-Lennox, 10th Duke of Richmond, 10th Duke of Lennox, 5th Duke of Gordon
Duke of Queensberry (1684) William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Queensberry for service as Lord Justice General and Lord High Treasurer of Scotland see Duke of Buccleuch Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch, 12th Duke of Queensberry
William II Duke of Argyll (1701) Archibald Campbell, 10th Earl of Argyll as a supporter of the Glorious Revolution Duke of Argyll (1892), Marquess of Kintyre and Lorne (1701), Earl of Argyll (1457), Earl Campbell and Cowall (1701), Viscount Lochow and Glenyla (1701), Lord Campbell (1445), Lord Lorne (1470), Lord Kintyre (1626), Lord Inveraray, Mull, Mover and Tiry (1701), Baron Sundridge (1766) and Baron Hamilton of Hameldon (1776) Torquhil Campbell, 13th & 6th Duke of Argyll
Anne Duke of Atholl (1603) John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl for his service as Secretary of State, Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland and Keeper of the Privy Seal of Scotland Marquess of Atholl (1676), Marquess of Tullibardine (1703), Earl of Atholl (1629), Earl of Tullibardine (1629 and 1676), Earl of Strathtay and Strathardle (1703), Viscount of Balquhidder (1676), Lord Murray of Tullibardine (1604), Lord Murray, Balvenie and Gask (1676) Bruce Murray, 12th Duke of Atholl
Duke of Montrose (1707) James Graham, 4th Marquess of Montrose in reward for his support of the Act of Union 1707 Marquess of Montrose (1644), Marquess of Graham and Buchanan (1707), Earl of Montrose (1505), Earl of Kincardine (1707), Earl Graham of Belford (1722), Viscount Dundaff (1707), Lord Graham (1415), Lord Aberruthven, Mugdock and Fintrie (1707), Baron Graham of Belford (1722) James Graham, 8th Duke of Montrose
Duke of Roxburghe (1707) John Ker, 5th Earl of Roxburghe Marquess of Bowmont and Cessford (1707), Earl of Roxburghe (1616), Earl of Kelso (1707), Earl Innes (1837), Viscount Broxmouth (1707), Lord Roxburghe (1600), Lord Ker of Cessford and Cavertoun (1616) Guy Innes-Ker, 10th Duke of Roxburghe
Monarch Dukedom and Year Recipient Reason Other titles Present holder

Heir to the throne (special case)[edit]

Duke of Rothesay (1469)[edit]

Like the Dukedom of Cornwall in England, Rothesay is automatically held by the eldest son of the Scottish monarch; since the union of the kingdoms in 1707 the two dukedoms have been inherently united. HRH The Prince of Wales, who has held the title since his mother came to the throne in 1952, is known as HRH The Duke of Rothesay within Scotland.

Created by Charles I (1625-1649)[edit]

Duke of Hamilton (1643)[edit]

Created for general James Hamilton, 3rd Marquess of Hamilton in 1643, it is now held by the Douglas-Hamilton family.

Created by Charles II (1660-1685)[edit]

Duke of Buccleuch (1663)[edit]

Created in the peerage of Scotland for Anne Scott, Countess of Buccleuch in her own right, wife of an illegitimate son of King Charles II, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, also 1st Duke of Buccleuch. Both Dukedoms were stripped from him in 1685, but the Dukedom created in name of his wife remains.

Duke of Lennox (1675)[edit]

This is in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created as an extra dukedom for the Duke of Richmond, and still exists. Now held by the Gordon-Lennox family.

Duke of Queensberry (1684)[edit]

Created in 1684 for politician William Douglas, also 1st Marquess of Queensberry. The 2nd Duke was created 1st Duke of Dover in 1708, but this became extinct when the 3rd duke died seventy years later. In 1810, the title was inherited by the 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, in whose family it remains.

Arms of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Dukes of Queensberry.

Created by William III (1689-1702) and Mary II (1688-1694)[edit]

Duke of Argyll (1701)[edit]

This title was created in 1701 for the noted general Archibald Campbell, 10th Earl of Argyll, effective ruler of Scotland on behalf of William III. In 1719 the 2nd duke became 1st Duke of Greenwhich, but this became extinct upon his death in 1743.

Created by Queen Anne (1702-1714) (until 1707)[edit]

Duke of Atholl (1703)[edit]

In 1703, the politician John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl was promoted to being Duke of Atholl.

Duke of Montrose (1707)[edit]

When the Act of Union was being passed as a matter of urgency in 1707, James Graham was integral to its support in Scotland. He was rewarded by being styled 1st Duke of Montrose from 1707 (he was previously the 4th Marquess).

Duke of Roxburghe (1707)[edit]

John Ker also played an important part in the affairs surrounding the Union, so he, too, like Montrose, was gazetted in 1707—the last in the Peerage of Scotland.

Peerage of Ireland[edit]

This is the ancient peerage abolished in 1801 after Great Britain was united with Ireland. However, a title was created in it in 1868 for various reasons.

Created by George III (1760-1820) (until 1801)[edit]

Duke of Leinster (1766)[edit]

An Irish nobleman, James FitzGerald, was 20th Earl of Kildare before he became 1st Duke of Leinster in 1766. Strangely, this pillar of British colonialism was the father of the Irish revolutionary Lord Edward FitzGerald.

Created by Queen Victoria (1837-1901) (specially revived)[edit]

Duke of Abercorn (1868)[edit]

Named for Abercorn in Lothian, this was somewhat bizarrely created in the Peerage of Ireland, formally abolished in 1801. This was because James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Abercorn was the Viceroy of Ireland, and so wanted to be remembered there.

Peerage of Great Britain[edit]

After the 1707 Union of Scotland and England, the new Peerage of Great Britain came into being. It existed until 1801.

Creations by Queen Anne (1702-1714) (from 1707)[edit]

Duke of Brandon (1711)[edit]

In 1711, the title Duke of Brandon was created for the 4th Duke of Hamilton, so that he would be wooed to accepting the union (he was a powerful opponent). However, he died the next year in a duel.

Arms of the Duke of Brandon

Creations by George I (1714-1727)[edit]

Duke of Manchester (1719)[edit]

Created in 1719 for Charles Montagu, 4th Earl of Montagu, a politician.

Kimbolton Castle in 1880. It was the former seat of the Dukes of Manchester.

Creations by George III (1760-1820) (until 1801)[edit]

Duke of Northumberland (1766)[edit]

.

The first duke was an Earl who was elevated to the status of Duke in 1766. His illegitimate son founded the Smithsonian Institution. The Percys, who hold this title, own some of the most beautiful properties in England.

Peerage of the United Kingdom[edit]

Since Great Britain and Ireland were united in 1801, the United Kingdom came into existence and with it the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Although the greater part of Ireland became independent in 1922 and the Republic of Ireland was proclaimed in 1949, the peerage of Ireland still exists.

Created by George III (1760-1820) (from 1801)[edit]

Duke of Wellington (1814)[edit]

In 1814, George, Prince Regent, gave Arthur Wellesley, then Marquess of Wellington the title of Duke of Wellington. Wellington was a military commander who gained great fame fighting Napoleon and eventually became Prime Minister twice.

Arms of Dukes of Wellington

Created by William IV (1830-1837)[edit]

Duke of Sutherland (1833)[edit]

George Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Marquess of Stafford, was instrumental in the Highland Clearances. William IV created him Duke of Sutherland on 28 January 1833.

Created by Victoria (1837-1901)[edit]

Duke of Westminster (1874)[edit]

Hugh Grosvenor was one of the richest men in the Empire and already the Marquess of Westminster. In 1874 he was made a Duke. His descendant, the 6th and current Duke, was the richest man in Britain for many years.

Duke of Gordon (1876)[edit]

In 1876, the title Duke of Gordon was created. This was so that Charles Gordon-Lennox, who was 6th Duke of Richmond in the Peerage of England and 6th Duke of Lennox in the Peerage of Scotland, could have a rank in the peerage of the United Kingdom.

Duke of Argyll (1892)[edit]

As George Campbell's son was married to Queen Victoria's daughter, Princess Louise, and seeing as he was 8th Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of Scotland, in 1892 he became 1st Duke of Argyll in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.

Duke of Fife (1900)[edit]

In 1889, Alexander Duff, 6th Earl Fife married Princess Louise of Wales, a daughter of the future Edward VII, and was duly made Duke of Fife, with the usual restrictions on the female line, meaning that only males could inherit. When it became apparent that Fife would not father a son, a second dukedom of the same name was created so that his daughters Princesses Alexandra and Maud could inherit. In the absence of a male heir, the first dukedom became extinct on the first Duke's death.

Created by George V (1910-1936)[edit]

Duke of Gloucester (1928)[edit]

Created in 1928 for Prince Henry, just before he married Lady Alice Montagu-Douglas-Scott. This dukedom currently ranks above the dukedom of Kent and all other dukedoms created before it. However, once the present Duke, Prince Richard, dies, it will rank lowest.

Duke of Kent (1934)[edit]

George V's son, Prince George, was created Duke of Kent prior to his marriage to Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark. The title is held by his son, but when he dies the dukedom will rank below the Duke of Fife. It currently ranks after the dukedom of Gloucester.

Created by George VI (1936-1952)[edit]

Duke of Windsor (1937)[edit]

Title created for the king's elder brother, Edward VIII, in 1937, following his abdication in December 1936. The duke was also granted the style of His Royal Highness. The title became extinct on his death in 1972.

Duke of Edinburgh (1947)[edit]

This title is still held by the first duke. It was created for Philip Mountbatten, the former Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, who was engaged to King George's daughter, Princess Elizabeth. The subsidiary titles are Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich.

Created by Elizabeth II (Since 1952)[edit]

Duke of York (1986)[edit]

This title was initiated by The Queen for her second son, Prince Andrew. He has held it since his marriage in 1986. The subsidiary titles are Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh.

Duke of Cambridge (2011)[edit]

This title was created by The Queen for her royal grandson, Prince William, on the occasion of his marriage on 29 April 2011. The subsidiary titles are Earl of Strathearn and Baron Carrickfergus.

Queen Elizabeth II has created the titles Duke of York for her son Andrew and Duke of Cambridge for her grandson William.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The title had been created before, but it was in 1469 that it was fixed to belong automatically to the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch; the creation for the future Prince James Stuart was the first after that motion.