|Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire|
|-||Declaration of the Republic of Turkey||1923|
The vilayet of Erzurum shared borders with the Persian and Russian empires in the east and north-east, in the north with the Trebizond Vilayet, in the west with the vilayet of Sebastia, and in the south with the vilayets of Bitlis, Mamuret-ül Aziz and Van.
At the beginning of the 20th century it reportedly had an area of 29,614 square miles (76,700 km2), while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 (published in 1908) gave the population as 645,702. The accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered. It was one of the six Armenian vilayets in the eastern part of Anatolia, and, prior to World War I, had a large number of Armenians living there as well as Georgians, Pontic Greeks and Caucasus Greeks, and other ethnic groups, both Muslim and Christian [mainly Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox/Gregorian)].
In 1875 it was divided in six vilayets: Erzurum, Van, Hakkari, Bitlis, Hozat (Dersim) and Kars-Çildir. In 1888 by an imperial order Hakkari was joined to the vilayet of Van, and Hozat to Mamuret ul-Aziz.
Sanjaks of the vilayet:
- Sanjak of Erzurum (Erzurum, Pasinler, Bayburt, İspir, Tercan, Tortum, Yusufeli, Kiğı, Narman, Hınıs)
- Sanjak of Erzincan (Erzincan, Pülümür, Refahiye, İliç, Kemah)
- Sanjak of Bayezid (Doğubeyazıt, Eleşkirt, Diyadin, Tutak, Ağrı)
In 1893, there were in total 19 Kaza (districts). In all kaza's Muslims (Sunni and Alevi) were the majority. Lowest percentage of Muslims (64%) was in the kaza of Hınıs. Most of the Protestants and Catholics were Armenian.
|Population of the Sanjaks, in thousands, according to the Ottoman census of 1893|
- "1914 Census Statistics". Turkish General Staff. pp. 605–606. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kars, Transcaucasia". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Hathi Trust Digital Library - Holdings: Salname-yi Vilâyet-i Erzurum
- Asia by A. H. Keane, page 460
- Almanach de Gotha: annuaire généalogique, diplomatique et statistique. J. Perthes. 1867. pp. 827–829. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- Mesrob K Krikorian (1977). Armenians in the Service of the Ottoman Empire: 1860-1908. Routledge. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7100-8564-1. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- Vahakn N. Dadrian (2003). Warrant for Genocide: Key Elements of Turko-Armenian Conflict. Transaction Publishers. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-4128-4119-1. Retrieved 2013-05-24.
- Ottoman Population, 1830-1914: Demographic and Social Characteristics, Kemal H. Karpat, page 124, 1985
- "Erzerum". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.
- Media related to Vilayet of Erzurum at Wikimedia Commons