Gay bashing

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Gay bashing and gay bullying is verbal or physical abuse against a person who is perceived by the aggressor to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender or queer, including persons who are actually heterosexual or of non-specific or unknown sexual orientation.

A "bashing" may be a specific incident, and one could also use the verb to bash (e.g. "I was gay bashed."). A verbal gay bashing might use sexual slurs, expletives, intimidation, or threats of violence. It also might take place in a political forum and include one or more common anti-gay slogans.

Gay bullying involves intentional and unprovoked actions toward the victim, repeated negative actions by one or more people against another person, and an imbalance of physical or psychological power.[1] Similar terms such as lesbian bullying, queer bullying, and queer bashing may also be formed.

Context[edit]

Gay bashing has occurred worldwide for many decades and continues today.[2] Homophobia in the United States was especially serious in the late 1940s and early 1950s, when many gay people were forced out of government by boards set up by Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower. As historian David K. Johnson explains:[3]

The Lavender Scare helped fan the flames of the Red Scare. In popular discourse, communists and homosexuals were often conflated. Both groups were perceived as hidden subcultures with their own meeting places, literature, cultural codes, and bonds of loyalty. Both groups were thought to recruit to their ranks the psychologically weak or disturbed. And both groups were considered immoral and godless. Many people believed that the two groups were working together to undermine the government.

Johnson concludes that Senator Joe McCarthy, notorious for his attacks on alleged communists in government, was often pressured by his allies to denounce homosexuals in government, but he resisted and did not do so.[3] Using rumors collected by Drew Pearson, one Nevada publisher wrote in 1952 that both McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohn, were homosexuals.[note 1] Washington Post editor Benjamin C. Bradlee said, "There was a lot of time spent investigating" these allegations, "although no one came close to proving it." No reputable McCarthy biographer has accepted it as probable.[note 2]

Queer bullying[edit]

Egale Canada conducted a survey of more than 3700 high school students in Canada between December 2007 and June 2009. The final report of the survey, “Every Class in Every School”,[4] published in 2011, found that 70% of all students participating heard “that’s so gay” daily at school, and 48% of respondents heard “faggot”, “lezbo” and “dyke” daily. 58% or about 1400 of the 2400 heterosexual students participating in EGALE’s survey found homophobic comments upsetting. Further, EGALE found that students not directly affected by homophobia, biphobia or transphobia were less aware of it. This finding relates to research done in the area of empathy gaps for social pain which suggests that those not directly experiencing social pain (in this case, bullying) consistently underestimate its’ effects and thus may not adequately respond to the needs of one experiencing social pain.[5] EGALE, along with previous research[6][7][8][9] has found teachers and school administration may be complicit in queer bullying through their silence and/or inaction. Graffiti found on school grounds and property, and its “relative permanence”,[8] is another form of queer bullying. Some researchers suggest including youth questioning their sexuality in any research on queer bullying because they may be as susceptible to its’ effects[9][10][11] as queer students. A research study of 78 11 to 14 year-old boys conducted in 12 schools in London, England between 1998 and 1999[7] revealed that respondents who used the word ‘gay’ to label another boy, intended the word as “just a joke”, “just a cuss” and not as a statement of one’s perceived sexual orientation.[8][12] American sociologist Michael Kimmel and American psychologist Gregory Herek write that masculinity is a renunciation of the feminine and that males shore up their sense of their masculinity by denigrating the feminine and ultimately the homosexual.[13][14] Building on the notion of masculinity defining itself by what it is not, some researchers suggest that in fact the renunciation of the feminine may be misogyny.[7][8] These intertwining issues were examined in 2007, when American sociologist CJ Pascoe described what she calls the “fag discourse” at an American high school in her book, Dude, You’re a Fag.

Gay and lesbian youth are more likely to report bullying.[15] In one study, boys who were bullied with taunts of being gay suffered more bullying and more negative effects compared to boys who were bullied with other categories of taunting.[16]

Effects of queer bullying[edit]

Queer bullying may make some victims feel sad and unsafe in the world.[17][18] Bullying will have an impact on a student’s experience of school. Some victims might feel paralyzed and withdraw socially as a coping mechanism.[6] Other victims of queer bullying may begin to live the effects of learned helplessness.[18] Queer or questioning students may try to pass as heterosexual in order to avoid queer bullying. Passing isolates the student from other queer or questioning students, potential allies, and support.[8] Adults who try to pass also may feel the effects emotionally and psychologically, of this effort to conceal their true identities.[14] Queer and questioning youth who experience bullying have a higher incidence of substance abuse and STI and HIV infection,[10][19][20] which may carry through to adulthood. Queer bullying may also be seen as a manifestation of what American academic Ilan Meyer calls minority stress,[21] which may affect sexual and ethno-racial minorities attempting to exist within a challenging broader society.

Statistics and examples[edit]

Teens face harassment, threats, and violence. A 1998 study in the US by Mental Health America found that students heard anti-gay slurs such as “homo”, “faggot” and “sissy” about 26 times a day on average, or once every 14 minutes.[22]

About two-thirds of gay and lesbian students in Britain’s schools have suffered from gay bullying, a survey by the Schools Health Education Unit found. Almost all that had been bullied had experienced verbal attacks, 41 percent had been physically attacked, and 17 percent had received death threats.[23]

There is a high rate of suicide among gay men and lesbian women. According to a 1979 Jay and Young study, 40 percent of gay men and 39 percent of gay women in the US had attempted or seriously thought about suicide.[24] In 1985, F. Paris estimated that suicides by gay youth may comprise up to 30 percent of all youth suicides in the US. The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention has found that gay, lesbian and bisexual youth attempt suicide at a rate three to six times that of similar-age heterosexual youth.[25]

Cases[edit]

  • In 1996, Jamie Nabozny won a landmark lawsuit against officials at his former public high school in Ashland, Wisconsin over their refusal to intervene in the "relentless antigay verbal and physical abuse by fellow students" to which he had been subjected and which had resulted in his hospitalization.[26]
  • High school student Derek Henkle faced inaction from school officials when repeatedly harassed by his peers in Reno, Nevada. His lawsuit against the school district and several administrators ended in a 2002 settlement in which the district agreed to create a series of policies to protect gay and lesbian students and to pay Henkle $451,000.[27]
  • Damilola Taylor was attacked by a local gang of youths on November 27, 2000 in Peckham, south London; he bled to death after being stabbed with a broken bottle in the thigh, which severed the femoral artery. The BBC, Telegraph, Guardian and Independent newspapers reported at the time that during the weeks between arriving in the UK from Nigeria and the attack he had been subjected to bullying and beating, which included homophobic remarks by a group of boys at his school. "The bullies told him that he was gay."[28] He "may not have understood why he was being bullied at school, or why some other children taunted him about being 'gay' – the word meant nothing to him."[29] He had to ask his mother what 'gay' meant, she said "Boys were swearing at him, saying lots of horrible words. They were calling him names."[29] His mother had spoken about this bullying, but the teachers failed to take it seriously. "She said pupils had accused her son of being gay and had beaten him last Friday."[30] Six months after the murder, his father said, "I spoke to him and he was crying that he was being bullied and being called names. He was being called 'gay'."[31] In the New Statesman two years later, when there had still been no convictions for the crime, Peter Tatchell, gay human rights campaigner, said, "In the days leading up to his murder in south London in November 2000, he was subjected to vicious homophobic abuse and assaults,"[32] and asked why the authorities had ignored this before and after his death.
  • In 2009, Carl Joseph Walker Hoover, an 11-year old boy in Springfield, Massachusetts, hanged himself with an electrical cord. His mother said his classmates at his middle school had bullied and called him "gay" on a daily basis.[33]
  • In 2010, a gay man from Cameroon, Africa was granted asylum in the United Kingdom after reporting that he had been attacked by an angry mob in Cameroon after they saw him kissing his male partner. The Communications Minister of Cameroon, Issa Tchiroma, denied the allegation of persecution of homosexuals.[34]
  • A 32-year old man in Paisley, Scotland was bullied and harassed by his employer, a Glasgow publishing firm, before he was fired. He later sued the company and won a £120,000 award.[36]
  • On October 14, 2011, Canadian teenager Jamie Hubley, the son of Ottawa city councillor Allan Hubley, committed suicide after having blogged for a month about the anti-gay bullying he was facing at school.[37] The bullying had begun as early as Grade 7, with students on Jamie's bus attempting to stuff batteries in his mouth because he preferred figure skating over hockey.[38]
  • Phillip Parker, a 14-year old openly gay student in Tennessee, was found dead in January 20, 2012. He committed suicide because of gay bullying. His father, who is also named Phillip, says that "That's my son. I love him. I miss him. He shouldn't have had to kill himself to be brought to life." Along the body was a letter, which was written: "Please help me mom".[39][40][41]
  • Jadin Bell, a 15 year old youth in La Grande, Oregon, tried to commit suicide by hanging after intense anti-gay bullying at his high school. After life support was removed, Bell died at the OHSU hospital. His father Joe Bell started a walk across America to raise awareness about gay bullying, but was killed half way through his journey.[43][44]
  • Kenneth Weishuhn, a 14 year old freshman from South O'Brien High School in Iowa, hanged himself in his family's garage after intense anti-gay bullying, cyberbullying and death threats. His suicide was covered nationally and raised questions about what culpability bullies have in suicides.[45][46]

Legislation[edit]

Some U.S. states have implemented laws to address school bullying.
  Law that prohibits discrimination against students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  Law that prohibits discrimination against students based on sexual orientation only
  Law that prohibits bullying of students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address discrimination and/or bullying of students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
  School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address discrimination and/or bullying of students based on sexual orientation only
  Law that forbids school-based instruction of LGBT issues in a positive manner
  Law that forbids local school districts from having anti-bullying policies that enumerate protected classes of students
  Law that prohibits bullying in school but lists no categories of protection
  No statewide law that specifically prohibits bullying in schools

The state of Illinois passed a law (SB3266) in June 2010 that prohibits gay bullying and other forms of bullying in schools.[47]

Support[edit]

In response to growing awareness of gay bashing and bullying, a number of support groups have been founded to help LGBT persons cope with their abuse.[citation needed] In Europe Stonewall UK,[48] and Anti-Bullying Network[49] are active in the UK, while Russia has the Russian LGBT network.[50]

Notable in the United States is the It Gets Better Project, for which celebrities and ordinary LGBT people make YouTube videos and share messages of hope for gay teens.[51][52][53] The organization works with USA, The Trevor Project[52] and the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network.[53] The Safe Schools Coalition provides resources for teachers and students where bullying is a problem. Egale Canada works with LGBT Canadian citizens.[54] In Brazil, the Gay Group of Bahia (Grupo Gay da Bahia) provides support.[55][56][57] LGBT South Africans can turn to the South African Human Rights Commission.[58][not in citation given]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ After McCarthy called him an ex-Communist, Hank Greenspun wrote: "It is common talk among homosexuals in Milwaukee who rendezvous in the White Horse Inn that Senator Joe McCarthy has often engaged in homosexual activities." Las Vegas Sun, October 25, 1952. McCarthy later explained he meant to call Greenspun an ex-convict (which was true), rather than an ex-Communist (which was false).
  2. ^ The allegations are specifically rejected in Richard Rovere, Senator Joe McCarthy (1969), p. 68; see also Robert D. Dean, Imperial Brotherhood: Gender and the Making of Cold War Foreign Policy (2001) p. 149 (includes Bradlee quote); Kyle A. Cuordileone, Manhood and American Political Culture in the Cold War (2003), p. 94; Thomas Patrick Doherty, Cold War, Cool Medium: Television, McCarthyism, and American Culture, (2003), p. 228. Geoff Schumacher, Sun, Sin & Suburbia: An Essential History of Modern Las Vegas (2004), p. 144, concludes, "Greenspun descended into mud-spewing rhetoric that would make the National Enquirer blanch."

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bullying Myths and Facts". US Dept of Education. Retrieved Oct 2, 2010. 
  2. ^ Rogers, Thomas. "Explaining American schools' gay bullying epidemic". Salon.com. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "An interview with David K. Johnson". University of Chicago Press. 
  4. ^ Every Class in Every School, Final Report on the First National Climate Survey on Homophobia, Biphobia, and Transphobia in Canadian Schools, Egale Canada
  5. ^ Nordgren, L. F. , Banas, K. & MacDonald, G. (2011). Empathy Gaps for Social Pain: Why People Underestimate the Pain of Social Suffering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(1), 120-128
  6. ^ a b Crozier, W. R. & Skliopidou, E. (2002). Adult Recollections of Name-calling at School. Educational Psychology, 22(1), 113-124
  7. ^ a b c Phoenix, A. , Frosh, S. & Pattman, R. (2003). Producing Contradictory Masculine Subject Positions: Narratives of Threat, Homophobia and Bullying in 11-14 Year Old Boys. Journal of Social Issues, 59(1), 179-195
  8. ^ a b c d e Smith, G. W. (1998). The Ideology of “Fag”: The School Experience of Gay Students. The Sociological Quarterly, 39(2), 309-335
  9. ^ a b Swearer, S. M. , Turner, R. K. , Givens, J. E. , & Pollack, W. S. (2008). “You’re So Gay!”: Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?. School Psychology Review, 37(2), 160-173
  10. ^ a b Russell, S. T. & Joyner, K. (2001). Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence From a National Study. American Journal of Public Health, 91(8), 1276-1281
  11. ^ Williams, T. , Connolly, J. , Pepler, D. & Craig, W. (2005). Peer Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Adjustment of Sexual Minority Adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(5), 471-482
  12. ^ Pascoe, C. J. (2007). Dude You’re a Fag, Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. Berkeley & Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press
  13. ^ Kimmel, M. (2010). Masculinity as Homophobia, Fear, Shame and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity. In M. S. Kimmel & A. L. Ferber (Eds.), Privilege, A Reader (pp.107-131). Boulder: Westview Press
  14. ^ a b Herek, G. M. (1986). On Heterosexual Masculinity, Some Psychical Consequences of the Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality. American Behavioral Scientist, 29(5), 563-577
  15. ^ Berlan,ED; Corliss, HL; Field, AE et al. (April 2010). "Sexual Orientation and Bullying Among Adolescents in the Growing Up Today Study". Journal of Adolescent Health 66. 
  16. ^ Swearer, SM; Turner, RT; Givens, JE (2008). ""You’re so gay!": Do different forms of bullying matter for adolescent males?". School Psychology Review 37. 
  17. ^ Glew, G. M. , Fan, M. , Katon, W. , Rivara, F. P. & Kernic, M. A. (2005) . Bullying, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Academic Performance in Elementary School. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159, 1026-1031
  18. ^ a b Roth, D. A. , Coles, M. E. & Heimberg, R. G. (2002). The relationship between memories for childhood teasing and anxiety and depression in adulthood. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 16, 149-164
  19. ^ Russell, S. T. , Ryan, C. , Toomey, R. B. , Diaz, R. M. & Sanchez J. (2011). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adolescent School Victimization: Implications for Young Adult Health and Adjustment. Journal of School Health, 81(5), 223-230
  20. ^ Rivers, I. (2004). Recollections of Bullying at School and Their Long-Term Implications for Lesbians, Gay Men and Bisexuals. Crisis, 25(4), 169-175.
  21. ^ Meyer, I. H. (1995). Minority Stress and Mental Health in Gay Men. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 36, 38-56
  22. ^ "Mental Health American, Bullying and Gay Youth". National Mental Health Association. 
  23. ^ "Gay Bullying in Schools Common". BBC News. June 26, 2007. 
  24. ^ "Gay Male and Lesbian Youth Suicide". 1989. 
  25. ^ "Statistics". American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. Retrieved Oct 2, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Nabozny v. Podlesny". Lambda Legal. Retrieved 12 December 2010. 
  27. ^ Merjian, Armen H. (Fall 2009). "Henkle v. Gregory: A Landmark Struggle against Student Gay Bashing". Cardozo Journal of Law & Gender 16 (1): 41–64. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  28. ^ "Damilola's grieving father speaks out". BBC News. 30 Nov 2000. 
  29. ^ a b Hopkins, Nick (29 Nov 2000). "Death of a schoolboy". The Guardian. 
  30. ^ Bennetto, Jason (29 Nov 2000). "His mother told teachers he was being bullied. Now she must bury him". Independent. 
  31. ^ Steele, John (19 June 2001). "Damilola's father attacks loss of values". The Telegraph. 
  32. ^ Tatchell, Peter (13 Jan 2003). "A victim of homophobia?". New Statesman. 
  33. ^ "Hoover". WCVB TV, Boston. Retrieved Oct 20, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Cameroon Denies Homosexuals Face Persecution". BBC News. July 8, 2010. 
  35. ^ Parker, Ian (February 6, 2012). "The Story of a Suicide". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 5, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Harassed gay man’s £120,000 award". BBC News. Oct 2, 2010. 
  37. ^ "15-year-old Jamie Hubley's lonely cry for acceptance". Ottawa Citizen, October 17, 2011.
  38. ^ "Mallick: Meet the boy the bullies broke". Toronto Star, October 18, 2011.
  39. ^ "'Please help me mom': Last words of gay teen who committed suicide after relentless bullying". Daily Mail Reporter. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  40. ^ "Phillip Parker, Gay Tennessee Teen, Commits Suicide After Enduring Bullying (VIDEO)". Huffigton Post. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  41. ^ "Phillip Parker Suicide: Bullied Teen's Final Words Were 'Please Help Me Mom'". International Business Times. 2012-01-23. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  42. ^ http://www.matthewshepard.org/our-story
  43. ^ Nichols, James. "Jadin Bell's Father, Joe Bell, Killed While Walking Cross Country For Tribute To Dead Gay Teen". Huffington Post. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  44. ^ "Jadin Bell's father Joe Bell of La Grande killed by truck while walking in memory of son". Oregon Live. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2014. 
  45. ^ "Kenneth Weishuhn, Gay Iowa Teen, Commits Suicide After Allegedly Receiving Death Threats". Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  46. ^ Mulvihill, Evan. "Heartbreaking Details Emerge In Suicide Of Out Iowa Teen Kenneth Weishuhn". Queerty. Retrieved 21 March 2014. 
  47. ^ "SB3266 Text". 
  48. ^ "Stonewall, Mayor of London Launch Anti-Homophobic Bullying DVD". Uk gay news. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. 
  49. ^ http://www.antibullying.net/homophobicinfo3.htm
  50. ^ "The Russian LGBT Network". Ilga. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. 
  51. ^ "CBS employees join the It Gets Better Project". CNET. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b "Adam Lambert Revamps 'Aftermath' for The Trevor Project". MTV. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. 
  53. ^ a b "Dan Savage: For Gay Teens, Life 'Gets Better'". NPR. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. 
  54. ^ "Gay Rights Organization Egale Canada Applauds Decision On Dire Straits Song". City news. Retrieved Aug 21, 2011. 
  55. ^ http://www.ggb.org.br/ggb-ingles.html
  56. ^ "Grupo Gay da Bahia "premia" Dilma como inimiga número 1 dos homossexuais". Repórter Alagoas (in portuguese). 03-9-2012. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  57. ^ "kit anti-homofobia: grupo Gay da Bahia dá troféu de "inimiga da causa" a presidente Dilma Rousseff". TV Recôncavo (in portuguese). 03-10-2012. Retrieved 2013-01-14. 
  58. ^ http://www.sahrc.org.za/home/index.php?ipkContentID=1&ipkMenuID=28

Further reading[edit]

  • Duncan, Neil (2001). Sexual Bullying: Gender Conflict and Pupil Culture in Secondary Schools. UK: Routledge. 
  • Meyer, Elizabeth (2009). Gender, Bullying, and Harassment: Strategies to End Sexism and Homophobia in Schools. USA: Teacher’s College Press. 
  • Cyberbullying and the LGBT Community. USA: Human Rights Campaign. 
  • "You Have to Be Strong to Be Gay": Bullying and Educational Attainment in LGB New Zealanders. New Zealand: Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 2008. 
  • Traversing the Margins: Intersectionalities in the Bullying of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Youth. New Zealand: Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 2008. 
  • Homophobic Bullying and Same-Sex Desire in Anglo-American Schools: An Historical Perspective. New Zealand: Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services. 2008. 
  • Boswell, John (1980). Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. ISBN 978-0-226-06711-7. 
  • Cuordileone, K. A. (2000). "'Politics in an Age of Anxiety': Cold War Political Culture and the Crisis in American Masculinity". Journal of American History 87 (2): 515–45. doi:10.2307/2568762. 
  • D'Emilio, John (1989). "The Homosexual Menace: The Politics of Sexuality in Cold War America". In Peiss, Kathy; Simmons, Christina. Passion and Power: Sexuality in History. Temple University Press. pp. 226–40. 
  • Edsall, Nicholas C. (2003). Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World. U. of Virginia Press. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8139-2543-1. 
  • D'Emilio, John; Freedman, Estelle B. (1997). Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America, Second Edition. ISBN 978-0-226-14264-7. 
  • Fone, Byrne (2001). Homophobia: A History. ISBN 978-0-312-42030-7. 
  • Hatheway, Jay (2003). The Gilded Age Construction of Modern American Homophobia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23492-8. 
  • Jenness, Valerie; Richman, Kimberly D. (2002). "Anti-Gay and Lesbian Violence and Its Discontents". In Richardson, Diane; Seidman, Steven. Handbook of Lesbian and Gay Studies. pp. 403+. 
  • Jenness, Valerie; Grattet, Ryken (2001). Making Hate a Crime: From Social Movement to Law Enforcement. ISBN 978-0-87154-409-4. 
  • Johnson, David K. (2004). The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-40190-4. 
  • Kantor, Martin (1998). Homophobia: Description, Development, and Dynamics of Gay Bashing. ISBN 978-0-275-95530-4. 
  • Minton, Henry L. (2002). Departing from Deviance: A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America. U. of Chicago Press. p. 344. ISBN 978-0-226-53044-4. 
  • Padva, Gilad (2007). Media and Popular Culture Representations of LGBT Bullying. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services 19(3-4): 105-118
  • Downs, Alan (2005). The Velvet Rage, Overcoming the Pain of Growing Up Gay in a Straight Man's World. Da Capo Press. 
  • Pascoe, CJ (2007). "Dude, You're a Fag", Masculinity and Sexuality in High School. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520271487. 
  • Olweus, Dan (1993). Bullying at School, What We Know and What We Can Do. Blackwell. ISBN 0631192395.