High-speed rail in Brazil
TAV Brasil map. Stretch Rio/São Paulo/Campinas
|Service type||Inter-city tilting train|
|Current operator(s)||TAV Brasil|
|Ridership||33 million (estimate)|
|End||Rio de Janeiro|
|Distance travelled||510.8 km (317.4 mi)|
|Average journey time||2 hours and 33 minutes|
|Train number(s)||42 (2014) – 84 (2024)|
|Class(es)||Business and first class|
|Disabled access||Fully accessible|
|Seating arrangements||Airline-style coach seating|
|Catering facilities||On-board café, and at-seat meals in first class|
|Baggage facilities||Checked baggage available at selected stations|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Operating speed||350 km/h (220 mph) maximum
300 km/h (190 mph) average
The TAV (Portuguese: Trem de Alta Velocidade, meaning high-speed train) is Brazil's first planned high-speed rail service. The first line will run between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It will cover the 403 km (250 mi) between Barão de Mauá station, in Rio de Janeiro, and Campo de Marte, in São Paulo in 1 hour and 25 minutes travelling at a maximum speed of 350 km/h (217 mi/h)
The project is budgeted at US$15 billion and will be supported by private and international investors without public money. Originally planned for 2010, the government now plans the auction to choose the train operator in late 2014.
A feasibility study revealed a demand of almost 33 million passengers by 2015. There are plans to link the São Paulo International Airport, in Guarulhos, Greater São Paulo, the Viracopos International Airport, in Campinas, and the Galeão International Airport, in Rio de Janeiro. The trip will take 134 km (85 mi) passing through 105 tunnels and viaducts. In Guarulhos, São Paulo, there is a tunnel of 15 km (9.3 mi).
Besides the Inter-American Development Bank, five other institutions around the world have already waived the possibility of investing in the Brazilian supertrain. BNDES has offered financing. About 21,000 jobs are expected to be generated by the project.
The winning bidder will join the government as venture partner through a public company, called ETAV. In July 2010, the CND (National Council for Privatization), following the determinations of the TCU (Court of Audit) authorized the release of the feasibility study for the project.
The consortium that won the bidding for the bullet train will have six years to complete the stretch between Rio and Campinas. But according to ANTT (National Agency of Land Transport), the winner could deliver passages for operation of the work beforehand. It was hoped that the complete linkage between the Brazilian megalopolis covering Campinas to Rio, via São Paulo, would be complete and in operation for the 2016 Summer Olympic Games, held in the Brazil for first time, but due to delays the project is expected to complete by 2020.
The ETAV, headquartered in Brasília, aims to plan and promote the development of high-speed rail, integrated with other modes of transportation in the country. Assignments of the ETAC include: Feasibility studies, technical-economic engineering, research, innovation and technology, absorb and transfer technology, supporting capacity development of national industry, overseeing the execution of the works of infrastructure and superstructure and the deployment of the operation of transport High-speed railway. The new company will be organized in the form of a privately held corporation and has its capital represented by common shares, of which at least 50% will be owned by Union.
For planning basic services of TAV Brasil, the times of highest flow of passengers daily, weekly and annual basis were considered.
- For Express Service (Direct operation between São Paulo and Rio): 35% of daily traffic is concentrated in three hours of the morning peak (6:00 am to 9:00 am) and 35% in three hours of the afternoon peak hours (5:00 pm to 8:00 pm);
- For Regional services(Operation between Campinas and São José dos Campos, with a stop in São Paulo – short distance. And Campinas-Rio de Janeiro, with a stop in São Paulo, São José dos Campos, Volta Redonda, and Barra Mansa – long distance): 25% of daily traffic is concentrated at the peak of the morning (6:00 am to 9:00 am), 25% in the afternoon peak hours (5:00 pm to 8:00 pm) and 20% in peak hours of lunch (noon to 2:00 pm).
The distribution of traffic is 16.3% for each day, Monday through Friday, 7.7% on Saturday, and 10.8% on Sunday. The total annual traffic was based on the weekly total, assuming 52 weeks per year.
In 2014, the total number of high-speed trains will be 14 Express trains, 25 Regional trains, and 3 Reserve trains. In 2024, the total number of high-speed trains will be 28 Express trains, 50 Regional trains, and 6 Reserve trains.
The TAV Brazil favors the reduction of distance between the cities of São Paulo and Rio, reduced to less than half in minutes for vehicles, 93 minutes by TAV, 300 minutes by car, and 375 minutes by bus. And up to twenty minutes less between the cities of São Paulo and Rio compared to the airplane, 93 minutes by TAV, and 110 minutes by airplane.
The high speed train is divided into two classes, economic class and executive class, benefiting workers moving every day in this area. The reason for passengers who fly between São Paulo-Rio is 77% work-related, and only 23% non-work related. The axis formed by the cities of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Campinas, in the face of population and economic expression of its area of influence, define the most important transport corridor in the country, which concentrates 33% of Gross Domestic Product and 20% of the population of Brazil.
The parameters of the railroad, are: Gauge: 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in); Maximum speed project: 350 km/h; Maximum gradient (gradient) of project: 3.5%; Minimum horizontal radius: 7228 m; Minimum Vertical Radius: 42.875 m; Axle load train: 17 t; Crossing loop/Platform minimum station: 500 m/400 m (for compositions up to 16 cars). The extension and their paths are divided by 90.9 km or 56.4 mi (18%) of Tunnel, 107.8 km or 66.9 mi (21%) of Bridges and Viaducts, and 312.1 km or 193.9 mi (61%) of Surface.
TAV by route
TAV Campinas/São Paulo/Rio
|Rio-São Paulo High-speed Rail|
The first planned line will link the Brazilian global cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. There will be seven stations on the path, including the cities of Campinas, Jundiaí, São José dos Campos, and Aparecida in the State of São Paulo, and the cities of Resende, Barra Mansa, in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The project includes the main airports of Campinas, São Paulo, and Rio.
Tickets will cost US$60, or R$114.36. A one-way ticket to Rio presently ranges from R$52.50 (conventional bus) to R$72. Travel in executive coaches are estimated to cost R$60.
In 2009, construction of the TAV High-speed railway between Brasília/Anápolis/Goiânia was announced. In February, 2010, to be launched the construction of the railway to the High-speed train, linking Brasília, the capital of Brazil, to Goiânia. In three years the two cities will be linked by railroad. The construction of the line will be paid for by federal funds in partnership with the governments of Goiás and the Federal District. The goal is to develop the area between the two capitals. The president of Valec wishes to quote that the name Expresso Pequi, as is being called the line, will not be modified, since it emerged informally but has become a reference.
TAV Belo Horizonte/Curitiba
In 2008, when the federal government announced plans for implementing high-speed trains connecting the megalopolis of the country, the government of Brazil included by Provisional Measure, the rail link for passengers between the cities of Belo Horizonte and Curitiba, in the National Transportation Plan. The plan lists the investments that may be made by the government in the transportation sector. After completion of the auction of Rio-São Paulo, the Brazilian government will begin studying the connection of the capital of Minas Gerais, and the capital of Paraná. This railway line would, in the State of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Divinópolis, Varginha and Poços de Caldas; in the State of São Paulo for Campinas, São Paulo, Sorocaba and Itapetininga; in the State of Paraná, in Curitiba and Apiaí.
TAV Ribeirão Preto/Uberlândia
This is a planned high-speed railway between Uberlândia and Ribeirão Preto. Money will be funded by the federal government.
- TAV Brazil Information
- "BNDES offers loan for Brazilian HSL - International Railway Journal". 2010-11-14. Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- Rio-São Paulo Supertrain facts
- "Railway Gazette: Rio – São Paulo high speed rail bidding ready to start". Retrieved 2010-07-20.
- TAV Brazil and the FIFA 2014 World Cup
- ETAV headquartered in Brasília, Federal District
- TAV Brasil – Operation
- TAV Brasil – Distances
- TAV Brasil – Demand
- TAV Brasil – Tracing
- TAV Brazil Information
- TAV Brasília-Goiânia
- Belo Horizonte-Curitiba High-speed rail
- TAV – Trem de Alta Velocidade (Portuguese)