History of Michigan

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For the magazine, see Michigan History (magazine).
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Main article: Michigan
History of Michigan
Seal of Michigan.svg
The Great Seal of the State of Michigan

The history of human activity in Michigan, a US state in the Midwest, began with settlement of the western Great Lakes region by Native Americans perhaps as early as 11,000 BCE.[1] The first European to explore Michigan, Étienne Brûlé, came in about 1620.[2] The area was part of French Louisiana from 1682 to 1762. In 1701, the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with fifty-one additional French-Canadians, founded a settlement called Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, now the city of Detroit. When New France was defeated in the French and Indian War, it ceded the region to Britain in 1763. After the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War, the Treaty of Paris (1783) expanded the United States’ boundaries to include nearly all land east of the Mississippi River and south of Canada. Michigan was then part of the “Old Northwest”. From 1787 to 1800, it was part of the Northwest Territory. In 1800, the Indiana Territory was created, and most of the current state Michigan lay within it, with only the easternmost parts of the state remaining in the Northwest Territory.[3] In 1802, when Ohio was admitted to the Union, the whole of Michigan was attached to the Territory of Indiana, and so remained until 1805, when the Territory of Michigan was established.[4]

The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 connected the Great Lakes with the Hudson River and New York City, and brought large numbers of people to Michigan and provided an inexpensive way to ship crops to market. In 1835 the people approved the Constitution of 1835, thereby forming a state government, although Congressional recognition was delayed pending resolution of a boundary dispute with Ohio known as the Toledo War. Congress awarded the "Toledo Strip" to Ohio. Michigan received the western part of the Upper Peninsula as a concession and formally entered the Union as a state on January 26, 1837.

When iron and copper were discovered in the Upper Peninsula, impetus was created for the construction of the Soo Locks, completed in 1855. Along with mining, agriculture and logging became important industries.[5] In 1899 Henry Ford built his first automobile factory in Highland Park, an independent city that is now surrounded by Detroit. General Motors was founded in Flint in 1908. Automobile assembly and associated manufacturing soon dominated Detroit, and the economy of Michigan.

The Great Depression of the 1930s affected Michigan more severely than many other places because of its industrial base.[5] However, the state recovered in the post World War II years. The Mackinac Bridge connecting the Upper and Lower Peninsulas was completed and opened in 1957. By the 1960s, racial tensions produced unrest through the nation, and Detroit experienced a dramatic instance with the 12th Street Riot in 1967. By the 1980s, the state saw a decline in automobile sales and unemployment climbed. Michigan continues to diversify its economy away from its dependence on the automobile industry.

Early history[edit]

Michigan in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, approximate state area highlighted.

Thousands of years before the arrival of the Europeans, eight indigenous tribes lived in what is today the state of Michigan. They included the Ojibwa, Menominee, Miami, Ottawa, and Potawatomi, who were part of the Algonquian family of Amerindians, as well as the Wyandot, who were from the Iroquoian family and lived in the area of present-day Detroit. It is estimated that the native population in 1500 was about 15,000.[6]

The first white explorer to visit Michigan was the Frenchman Étienne Brûlé in 1620, who began his expedition from Quebec City on the orders of Samuel de Champlain and traveled as far as the Upper Peninsula. Afterward, the area became part of Louisiana, one of the large colonial provinces of New France. The first permanent European settlement in Michigan was founded in 1668 at Sault Ste. Marie by Jacques Marquette, a French missionary.

The French built several trading posts, forts, and villages in Michigan during the late 17th century. Among them, the most important was Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in 1702; it became Detroit. Up until this time, French activities in the region were limited to hunting, trapping, trading with and the conversion of local Indians, and some limited subsistence farming. By 1760, the Michigan countryside had only a few hundred white inhabitants.

From 1763 to 1776[edit]

Michigan as part of the Province of Quebec 1774-1776.

Territorial disputes between French and British colonists helped start the French and Indian War as part of the larger Seven Years' War, which took place from 1754 to 1763 and resulted in the defeat of France. As part of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded all of their North American colonies east of the Mississippi River to Britain. Thus the future Michigan was handed over to the British. However, since 1761, the Indians in the area were not happy with the way the British treated them. In 1763, the Indians were furious that Great Britain had gained control of the area and war began at Fort Detroit under the leadership of Pontiac, and quickly spread throughout the region. The war was known as Pontiac's War and lasted three years. Eight British forts were taken; others, including Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt, were held by the British garrisons. In 1774, the area was made part of Quebec. During this period Detroit grew slowly; the rest of Michigan continued to be sparsely populated because the British were more interested in the fur trade and peace with the natives than in settlement of the area.[7]

From 1776 to 1837[edit]

Unfinished contemporaneous painting of the American diplomatic negotiators of the Treaty of Paris which brought official conclusion to the Revolutionary War and gave possession of Michigan and other territory to the new United States.

During the American Revolution, the local European population, who were primarily American colonists that supported independence, rebelled against Britain. The British, with the help of local tribes, continually attacked American settlements in the region starting in 1776 and conquered Detroit. In 1781, Spanish raiders led by a French Captain Eugene Poure travelled by river and overland from St Louis, liberated British-held Fort St Joseph, and handed authority over the settlement to the Americans the following day. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, and Michigan passed into the control of the newly formed United States of America. The states of New York, Virginia, Massachusetts then Connecticut ceded their territorial rights over the land. In 1787, the region became part of the Northwest Territory. The majority of Indians did not recognize the new government and instead formed the Western Confederacy. General Anthony Wayne with his Kentucky marksmen won the Battle of Fallen Timbers which led to the end of hostilities and treaties recognizing federal government sovereignty. The British, however, continued to occupy Detroit and other fortifications. Under terms negotiated in the 1794 Jay Treaty, Britain withdrew from Detroit and Michilimackinac in 1796. Questions remained over the boundary for many years, and the United States did not have uncontested control of the Upper Peninsula and Drummond Island until 1818 and 1847, respectively.

The land which is now Michigan was made part of Indiana Territory in 1800. Most was declared as Michigan Territory in 1805, including all of the Lower Peninsula. During the War of 1812, British forces from Canada captured Detroit and Fort Mackinac early on, giving them a strategic advantage and encouraging native revolt against the United States. American troops retook Detroit in 1813 and Fort Mackinac was returned to the Americans at the end of the war in 1815.

Over the 1810s, the indigenous Ojibwa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi tribes increasingly decided to oppose white settlement and sided with the British against the U.S. government.

Map of the original 13 colonies and their territories, note that Michigan was the object of multiple claims

After their defeat in the War of 1812, the tribes were forced to sell all of their land claims to the U.S. federal government by the Treaty of Saginaw and the Treaty of Chicago. After the war, the government built forts in some of the northwest territory, such as at Sault Ste. Marie. In the 1820s, the U.S. government assigned Indian agents to work with the tribes, including arranging land cessions and relocation. They forced most of the Native Americans to relocate from Michigan to Indian reservations further west.

During the 1820s, the population of Michigan Territory grew rapidly, largely because of the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825. Its connection of the navigable waters of the middle Great Lakes to those of the Atlantic Ocean dramatically sped up transportation between the eastern states and the less-inhabited western territories. The canal created new possibilities for transport of produce and goods to market, as well as eased passage of migrants to the west.

Michigan's oldest university, the University of Michigan was founded in Detroit in 1817 and was later moved to its present location in Ann Arbor. The state's oldest cultural instititon, the Historical Society of Michigan, was established by territorial governor Lewis Cass and explorer Henry Schoolcraft in 1828.

Rising settlement prompted the elevation of Michigan Territory to that of the present-day state. In 1835, the federal government enacted a law that would have created a State of Michigan. A territorial dispute with Ohio over the Toledo Strip, a stretch of land including the city of Toledo, delayed the final accession of statehood. The disputed zone became part of Ohio by the order of a revised bill passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Andrew Jackson which also gave compensation to Michigan in the form of control of the Upper Peninsula. On January 26, 1837, Michigan became the 26th state of the Union.

From 1837 to 1860[edit]

Detroit, c. 1837, after a sketch by Frederick Grain

Agriculture remained the main economic activity before 1860. During the early 1840s, large deposits of copper and iron ores were discovered on the Upper Peninsula. Michigan became the leading U.S. source of the these ores by the end of the century, thanks to the influx of experienced Cornish miners (from England) to supervise operations.

Politics[edit]

During the Second Party System (1830-1854), Michigan saw highly developed political parties mobilize the great mass of adult men. The Democratic Party dominated politics before the Civil War. It comprised numerous competing factions, including the federal officeholders who tried to control party affairs, local political organizations with their state legislators and postmasters who managed affairs locally; young anti-slavery activists, typically energized by pietistic ministers in the Baptist and Methodist churches—they fueled the Free Soil Party in 1848-52; Jacksonian Democrats who opposed taxes and government spending; Catholics, Episcopalians and liturgical Germans annoyed at the moralistic pietists; and residents in the newer western districts who resented the elitism and power of Detroiters. The outstanding Democratic leader was Lewis Cass, (1782-1866) who held numerous high offices and was the Democratic party's losing candidate for president in 1848. Cass was best known for his moderation and support for democracy through popular sovereignty.[8] Nativism falred up briefly when the Democrats proposed to allow recent immigrants to vote before they became citizens, and the Whigs opposed.[9][10]

The minority Whig party relied on conservative merchants, bankers and prosperous farmers, and especially on pietistic, moralistic Protestants from evangelical churches. Nationally, the Whig party collapsed in the 1850s as compromise proved impossible between the anti-slavery Northerners, and the pro-slavery Southerners. For a few years in the mid-1850s, nativist fears of foreign immigrants, especially Catholic Irishmen and Germans, motivated the Know-Nothing movement. It had little success beyond a brief control of city government in Marshall, Pontiac, Battle Creek, Mt. Clemens, Kalamazoo, and Grand Rapids.

The collapse of the old political system led to the realignment of voters and parties in the formation of the Third Party System, which formed in the mid-1850s and lasted until the mid-1890s. Michigan was dominated for 80 years by the new Republican Party, later nicknamed the GOP. First established in Jackson and other cities in 1854. It gathered together anti-slavery elements from the Whig, Know-Nothing and Democratic parties, and was a majority in Michigan by the end of the decade. The Democrats had always used equalitarianism as a way to attack the rich elitist Whigs. Now the Republicans turned the tables by charging that Michigan's Democrats were in bed with the South's "slave power aristocrats." The Republicans encouraged the moralistic spirit of the pietists by turning it against slavery and the liquor traffic.[11]

1860 to 1900[edit]

Civil War[edit]

Michigan actively participated in the American Civil War sending thousands of volunteers.[12] A study of the cities of Grand Rapids and Niles shows an overwhelming surge of nationalism in 1861, whipping up enthusiasm for the war in all segments of society, and all political, religious, ethnic, and occupational groups. However by 1862 the casualties were mounting and the war was increasingly focused on freeing the slaves in addition to preserving the Union. Copperhead Democrats called the war a failure, and it became more and more a partisan Republican effort.[13] Michigan voters remained evenly split between the parties in the presidential election of 1864.[14]

Gilded Age[edit]

After the war, the local economy became more varied and began to prosper. During the 1870s, the lumbering, railroads, dairy farming and diversified industry grew rapidly in the state. The population doubled between 1870 and 1890.

Toward the end of the century, the state government established a state school system on the German model, with public schools, high schools, normal schools or colleges for training teachers of lower grades, and colleges for classical academic studies and professors. It dedicated more funds to public education than did any other state in the nation. Within a few years, it established four-year curricula at its normal colleges for teachers, and was the first state to establish a full college program for them.

Railroads have been vital in the history of the population and trade of rough and finished goods in the state of Michigan. While some coastal settlements had previously existed supplied by sailing ships and steamers on the Great Lakes, the population, commercial, and industrial growth of the state further bloomed with the establishment of the railroad.

Pingree[edit]

In 1896, Detroit Mayor Hazen Pingree, a Yankee Republican, was elected governor. He was a social reformer who battled corporations and was an early leader of the Progressive Movement. During his four-year term, he promoted the regulation of railroad rates, equal taxation, and municipal ownership of public utilities. He also supported the direct election of U.S. senators; an eight-hour workday; an income tax; primary elections; the referendum, the abolition of child labor, and compulsory arbitration of labor disputes. Opposition from Democrats and business-oriented Republicans blocked most of his proposals. Pingree expressed the Progressive fear of corporate power, saying, "I do not condemn corporations and rich men," he said, "but I would keep them within their proper spheres. It is not safe to entrust the government of the country to the influence of Wall Street."[15]

1900 to 1941[edit]

Urban Michigan grew rapidly in the early 20th century, pulled along by the automobile industry in Detroit and vicinity. The breakfast cereal industry was based in Battle Creek where two Kelloggs and a Post built on the local Seventh Day Adventist heritage and put the city on the map. Less flamboyantly, thousands of machine shops opened in medium and small cities across the state.

Automobiles[edit]

During the early 20th century, manufacturing industries became the main source of revenue for Michigan – in large part, because of the automobile. In 1897, the Olds Motor Vehicle Company opened a factory in Lansing. In 1903, Ford Motor Company was also founded nearby in Detroit. In 1904 William Durant of the Flint, Michigan Durant Coach Works, a maker of horse carriages, set his sights on Buick Motor Cars which he soon acquired. With the mass production of the Ford Model T, Detroit became the world capital of the auto industry. General Motors was formed a few years later as William Durant along with Alfred Sloan purchased Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Oakland and other car companies. They soon moved their headquarters from Flint, Michigan to Detroit, Michigan. [16] General Motors is based in Detroit, Chrysler is located in Auburn Hills, and Ford is headquartered in nearby Dearborn. Both corporations constructed large industrial complexes in the Detroit metropolitan area, exemplified by the River Rouge Plant, which have made Michigan a national leader in manufacturing since the 1910s. This industrial base produced greatly during World War I, filling a huge demand for military vehicles.

Jackson was home to one of the first car industry developments. Even before Detroit began building cars on assembly lines, Jackson was busy making parts for cars and putting them together in 1901. By 1910, the auto industry became Jackson's main industry. Over twenty different cars were once made in Jackson. Including: Reeves, Jaxon, Jackson, CarterCar, Orlo, Whiting, Butcher and Gage, Buick, Janney, Globe, Steel Swallow, C.V.I., Imperial, Ames-Dean, Cutting, Standard Electric, Duck, Briscoe, Argo, Hollier, Hackett, Marion-Handly, Gem, Earl, Wolverine, and Kaiser-Darrin. Today the auto industry remains one of the largest employers of skilled machine operators in Jackson County.

Immigrants[edit]

With the expansion of industry, hundreds of thousands of migrants from the South and immigrants from eastern and southern Europe were attracted to Detroit. In a short time, it became the fourth largest city in the country - housing shortages persisted for years even as new housing was developed throughout the city. Ethnic immigrant enclaves rapidly developed where churches, groceries, clubs and businesses supported unique communities. The WPA guide to the city in 1939 noted that there were students speaking more than 35 languages in the public schools. Ethnic festivals were a regular part of the city's culture. At the same time, fear of Catholics was strong, and fueled the nativism of the second Ku Klux Klan recruited widely in the state. The Klan peaked in 1925, but membership fell quickly after its internal scandals were exposed. Reinhold Niebuhr, a German-American Protestant minister trained at Yale Divinity School became nationally famous as a Detroit minister who attacked the KKK, which was strong among white Protestants in the city.[17]

Progressivism[edit]

The cities of Michigan were centers of municipal reform during the Progressive Era. Using Kalamazoo as her base, Caroline Bartlett Crane (1858–1935) became a nationally famous expert on municipal sanitation. She was nonpolitical, but scientific in her methods, and energetic in her approach. She made 60 surveys and studies in 14 states that dealt with housing conditions in tenements, of schools, jails, water and sewer systems. She identified and found solutions for air pollution. Crane had a sharp eye for inefficiency, waste, and mismanagement, and was always ready to point out improvements and explain what the best practices were in the nation.[18]

A representative politician was George E. Ellis, mayor of Grand Rapids (1906–16). He is remembered as the most dynamic and innovative mayor in the city's history, as well as a powerful political boss who built a coalition of working-class ethnic voters, combined with middle-class reform elements. He broadened the base of political participation, and was on the left or liberal side of the political spectrum.[19] Somewhat more conservative, and much better known, was Mayor Hazen Pingree of Detroit (1889–1896), who brought progressivism to the governor's mansion with his election in 1896. Pingree was elected mayor in 1889 by promising to expose and end corruption in city paving contracts, sewer contracts, and the school board. He fought privately owned utility monopolies, and set up competing companies owned by the city. He fought the street railway interest, demanding fares be lowered to three cents. When the depression of 1893 caused large-scale unemployment, Pingree expanded welfare programs, initiated public works programs for the unemployed, built new schools, parks, and public baths, and set aside plots of vacant city land for workers to plant their own vegetable gardens. As the Republican governor, he promoted higher railroad taxes to pay for his reforms.[20] After Pingree left Detroit in 1897, the local Democratic ward leaders rebuilt their machine, using an ethnic base. This changed after 1910 as the old-stock Yankee Protestant business leaders, especially from the automobile industry, led a Progressive Era crusade for efficiency. They elected their own men to office, typified by automaker James J. Couzens, who was mayor of Detroit 1919–22, and a powerful US Senator, 1922–36. The critical change took place in 1918 when the voters 1918 changed the Common Council from a 42-man body elected on a partisan basis from 21 wards, to a nine-man unit, elected on a non-partisan basis from the city at-large. The ethnics (especially the Germans) and the Democrats lost their political base.[21]

Women[edit]

Most young women took jobs before marriage, then quit. Before the growth of high schools after 1900, most women left school after the 8th grade at about age 15. Ciani (2005) shows that type of work they did reflected their ethnicity and marital status. African American mothers often chose day labor, usually as domestic servants, because of the flexibility it afforded. Most mothers receiving pensions were white and sought work only when necessary.[22]

Across the state middle class homemakers shaped numerous new and expanded charitable and professional associations, and promoted mothers' pensions, and expanded forms of social welfare. Many of the Protestant homemakers were active in the temperance and suffrage movements as well. The Detroit Federation of Women's Clubs (DFWC) promoted a very wide range of activities for civic minded middle-class women who conformed to traditional gender roles. The Federation argued that safety and health issues were of greatest concern to mothers and could only be solved by improving municipal conditions outside the home. The Federation pressured Detroit officials to upgrade schools, water supplies and sanitation facilities, and to require safe food handling, and traffic safety. However, the membership was divided on going beyond these issues or collaborating with ethnic or groups or labor unions; it refused to stretch traditional gender boundaries, giving it a conservative reputation.[23]

Depression[edit]

The Great Depression caused severe economic hardship in Michigan. Thousands of auto industry workers were dismissed along with other workers from several sectors of the state economy. The financial suffering was aggravated by the fact that remaining copper reserves in the state lay deep underground. With the discovery of copper finds in other states located in less deep rock layers, local mining fell sharply and most miners left the region or resigned themselves to short hours and long unemployment. After decades of GOP dominance, the Democrats came back to power, as the business-oriented Republican economic policies had failed, the Democrats were energized, prohibition was discredited, and Franklin D. Roosevelt offered a New Deal. Washington spent heavily on relief, recovery, and reform, relieved cities of the burden of relief, and buttressed a political realignment that gave the Democratic Coalition parity with the Republican Party in Michigan. By 1936 the realignment was secure, as powerful new industrial labor unions, especially the United Auto Workers turned the factories from Republican bastions to Democratic strongholds, and the ethnic and black population had shifter to the Democrats.[24]

Young men from relief families signed up for six-month tours in one of the state's 50 Civilian Conservation Corps camps in rural areas. They were paid five dollars a month, plus room, board, clothing and medical care, while their families received $25 a month. The Works Progress Administration was the largest federal agency. It hired more than 500,000 unemployed people (80% men) in Michigan alone to construct major public works such as roads, public buildings, and sewer systems—it was a larger labor force that the state's entire auto industry.

Unions[edit]

Union members occupying a General Motors body factory during the Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1937 which spurred the organization of militant CIO unions in auto industry

Thanks to new federal laws, labor unions grew rapidly after 1935, and for the first time became a major presence in large factories. The Flint Sit-Down Strike of 1936-37 was the decisive event in the formation of the United Auto Workers Union (UAW). Strikers occupied several General Motors plants for more than forty days, and repelled (in nonviolent fashion) the efforts of the state courts, local police and National Guard to remove them. GM signed a contract that legitimized the UAW, and its membership in the next year grew from 30,000 to 500,000 members.[25][26]

During World War II Walter Reuther took control of the UAW, and soon led major strikes in 1946. He ousted the Communists from the positions of power, especially at the Ford local 600. He was one of the most articulate and energetic leaders of the CIO, and of the merged AFL-CIO. Using brilliant negotiating tactics he leveraged high profits for the Big Three automakers into higher wages and superior benefits for UAW members.

After 1941[edit]

Gerald Ford, a politician from Grand Rapids who was elected to the House of Representatives thirteen times and also served as House Minority Leader and then Vice President, became the 38th President of the United States after the resignation of Richard Nixon.

The entry of the United States into World War II in 1941 the same year ended the economic contraction in Michigan. Wartime required the large-scale production of weapons and military vehicles, leading to a massive number of new jobs being filled. After the end of the war, both the automotive and copper mining industries recovered.[27]

Starting during WWI, the Great Migration fueled the movement of hundreds of thousands of African-Americans from the South to industrial jobs in Michigan especially in Detroit. Migration of white southerners from Appalachia to the city increased the volatility of change. Population increases continued with industrial expansion during WWII and afterward. African Americans contributed to a new vibrant urban culture, with expansion of new music, food and culture.

The postwar years were initially a prosperous time for industrial workers, who achieved middle-class livelihoods, fostered the Baby Boom, and sought better, more spacious housing in safer neighborhoods. These were the years of the creation and popularity of Motown Records. By late mid-century, however, deindustrialization and restructuring cost many jobs. The economy suffered and the city postponed needed changes. Neglect of social problems and urban decline fed racial conflicts. In 1967 the a major black riot burned out the inner city ghettoes, and in eight days caused tens of millions of dollars in damages, and resulting in 43 deaths. The U.S. Army had to be called in to stop it. The violence was the trigger for a mass migration to the suburbs.

The 1973 Oil Crisis caused economic recession in the United States and greatly affected the Michigan economy. Afterward, automobile companies in the United States faced greater multinational competition, especially from Japan. As a consequence, domestic auto makers enacted cost-cutting measures to remain competitive at home and abroad. Unemployment rates rose dramatically in the state.

Throughout the 1970s, Michigan possessed the highest unemployment rate of any U.S. state. Large spending cuts to education and public health were repeatedly made in an attempt to reduce growing state budget deficits. A strengthening of the auto industry and an increase in tax revenue stabilized government and household finances in the 1980s. Increasing competition by Japanese and South Korean auto companies continues to challenge the state economy, which depends heavily on the automobile industry. Since the late 1980s, the government of Michigan has actively sought to attract new industries, thus reducing economic reliance on a single sector.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Quimby, George Irving (1970). Indian Culture and European Trade Goods: The Archeology of the Historic Period in the Western Great Lakes Region, p. 15. University of Wisconsin Press.
  2. ^ Dunbar, Willis F. & May, George F. (3rd rev. ed. 1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State, p. 19. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
  3. ^ Dunbar (1995), pp. 106-07.
  4. ^ Utley, Henry M. & Cutcheon, Byron M. (1906). Michigan as a Province, Territory and State: Michigan as a Territory, from Its Incorporation as Part of the Northwest Territory to Its Organization as a State, p. 138.
  5. ^ a b Daly, Matthew L., et al. (eds.) (2008). Michigan Encyclopedia, pp. 56-62. Somerset Publishers, Inc.
  6. ^ Charles E. Cleland, Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan's Native Americans (1992)
  7. ^ Richard White, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (1991)
  8. ^ Willard Carl Klunder, Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation (1996)
  9. ^ Ronald P. Formisano, The Birth of Mass Political Parties in Michigan, 1827-1861 (1971)
  10. ^ Bruce A. Rubenstein and Lawrence E. Ziewacz, Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State (2002) p 100
  11. ^ Rubenstein and Ziewacz, Michigan: A History of the Great Lakes State (2002) p 100-103
  12. ^ Robert E., Mitchell, “Civil War Recruiting and Recruits from Ever-Changing Labor Pools: Midland County, Michigan, as a Case Study,” Michigan Historical Review, 35 (Spring 2009), 29–60.
  13. ^ Martin J. Hershock, "Copperheads and Radicals: Michigan Partisan Politics during the Civil War Era, 1860-1865," Michigan Historical Review (1992) 18#1 pp 28-69
  14. ^ Peter Bratt, "A Great Revolution in Feeling: The American Civil War in Niles and Grand Rapids, Michigan," Michigan Historical Review (2005) 31#2 pp 43-66.
  15. ^ Russel B. Nye, Midwestern Progressive Politics: A Historical Study of Its Origins and Development, 1870-1950 (1951) p 205
  16. ^ Sloan Museum exhibits, Flint, MI
  17. ^ Craig Fox, Everyday Klansfolk: White Protestant Life and the KKK in 1920s Michigan (2011)
  18. ^ Alan S. Brown, "Caroline Bartlett Crane and Urban Reform," Michigan History, July 1972, Vol. 56 Issue 4, pp 287-301
  19. ^ Anthony R. Travis, "Mayor George Ellis: Grand Rapids Political Boss And Progressive Reformer," Michigan History, March 1974, Vol. 58 Issue 2, pp 101-130
  20. ^ Melvin G. Holli, Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics (Oxford U.P., (1969)
  21. ^ Harry Barnard, Independent Man: The Life of Senator James Couzens (1958)
  22. ^ Kyle E. Ciani, "Hidden Laborers: Female Day Workers In Detroit, 1870-1920," Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era, Jan 2005, Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp 23-51
  23. ^ Jayne Morris-Crowther, "Municipal Housekeeping: The Political Activities of the Detroit Federation of Women's Clubs in the 1920s," Michigan Historical Review, March 2004, Vol. 30 Issue 1, pp 31-57
  24. ^ Philip A. Grant, Jr., "The Presidential Election of 1932 in Michigan," Michigan Historical Review (1986) 12#1 pp 83-94
  25. ^ Sidney Fine, "The General Motors Sit-Down Strike: A Re-examination,"American Historical Review (1965) 70#3 pp. 691-71 in JSTOR
  26. ^ Sidney Fine, Sit-Down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 (1969)
  27. ^ Alan Clive, State of War: Michigan in World War II (1979)

Further reading[edit]

Surveys and reference[edit]

Historiography[edit]

  • Editors. "50 Essential Books on Michigan History" Michigan History Magazine (2002) 86#3 online
  • Hathaway, Richard J., ed. Michigan: Visions of Our Past (1989), articles by scholars
  • Kestenbaum, Justin L., ed. The Making of Michigan, 1820-1860: A Pioneer Anthology (1990).
  • May, George, and Herbert Brinks, eds. A Michigan Reader: 11,000 B.C. to A.D. 1865 (1974)
  • Warner, Robert M., and C. Warren Vander Hill, eds. A Michigan Reader: 1865 to the Present (1974)

Specialty studies[edit]

  • Barnard, John. Walter Reuther and the Rise of the Auto Workers (1983)
  • Berthelot, Helen W. Win Some, Lose Some: G. Mennen Williams and the New Democrats (1995), governor in 1950s
  • Boles, Frank. "Michigan Newspapers: A Two-Hundred-Year Review," Michigan Historical Review (2010) 36#12 pp 30–69 online
  • Buley, R. Carlyle. The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period; 1815-1840 (2 vol. 1951); Pulitzer Prize
  • Clive, Alan. State of War: Michigan in World War II (U of Michigan Press, 1979)
  • Dunbar, Willis F. (1969). All Aboard! A History of Railroads in Michigan. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans. OCLC 54650. 
  • Fine, Sidney. Expanding The Frontiers of Civil Rights": Michigan, 1948-1968 (2000)
  • Fine, Sidney. Frank Murphy (3 vols. 1975-1984
  • Fine, Sidney. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-1937 (1969).
  • Formisano, Ronald P. The Birth of Mass Political Parties in Michigan, 1827-1861 (1971)
  • Gilpin, Alec R. The Territory of Michigan, 1805-1837 (1970)
  • Hershock, Martin J. The Paradox of Progress: Economic Change, Individual Enterprise,and Political Culture in Michigan, 1837-1878. (2003)
  • Holli, Melvin G. Reform in Detroit: Hazen S. Pingree and Urban Politics (1969), on 1890s
  • Jensen, Richard J. The winning of the Midwest: social and political conflict, 1888-1896 (1971) online
  • Karamanski, Theodore. Deep Woods Frontier: A History of Logging in Northern Michigan (1989).
  • Klunder, Willard Carl. Lewis Cass and the Politics of Moderation (1996).
  • May, George. A Most Unique Machine: The Michigan Origins of the American Automobile Industry (1975).
  • Nevins, Allan, and Frank E. Hill. Ford (3 vol 1954-1963), joint biography of Henry Ford and the Ford company
  • Nolan, Alan T. The Iron Brigade: A Military History (1994), famous Civil War combat unit
  • Rich, Wilbur. Coleman Young and Detroit Politics: From Social Activist to Power Broker (Wayne State University Press, 1988).
  • Streeter, Floyd. Political parties in Michigan, 1837-1860 (1918) online

Race, ethnicity and immigration[edit]

  • Alvarado, Rudolph V., and Sonya Yvette Alvarado. Mexicans and Mexican Americans in Michigan (2003)
  • Badaczewski, Dennis. Poles in Michigan (2002)
  • Badillo, David A. Latinos in Michigan (2003)
  • Cantor, Judith Levin. Jews in Michigan (2001)
  • Cleland, Charles E. Rates of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan's Native Americans (1992)
  • Davidson, Clifford. Norwegians in Michigan (2009)
  • Forrester, Alan T. Scots in Michigan (2003)
  • Fuller, George N. Economic and Social Beginnings of Michigan: A Study of the Settlement of the Lower Peninsula during the Territorial Period, 1805-1837 (1916) online
  • Gray, Susan E. The Yankee West: Community Life on the Michigan Frontier (U. of North Carolina Press 1996) online
  • Harmese, Larry Ten. Dutch in Michigan (2002)
  • Hassoun, Rosina J. Arab Americans in Michigan (2005)
  • Helweg, Arthur W. Asian Indians in Michigan (2002)
  • Kilar, Jeremy W. Germans in Michigan (2002)
  • Magnaghi, Russell M. Italians in Michigan (2001)
  • Metress, Seamus P. and Eileen K. Metress. Irish in Michigan (2006)
  • Mead, Rebecca J.Swedes in Michigan (2012) excerpt and text search
  • Vander Hill, C. Warren. Settling the Great Lakes Frontier: Immigration to Michigan, 1837-1924 (Lansing: Michigan Historical Commission, 1970)
  • Walker, Lewis, ed. Discovering the Peoples of Michigan Reader (2008) 115pp, short essays on 24 ethnic groups
  • White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (1991). excerpt and text search
  • Wilson, Brian C. Yankees in Michigan (2008)

Other resources[edit]

  • Bureau of Business Research, Wayne State U. Michigan Statistical Abstract (1987).
  • Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University, Bibliographies for Michigan by region, counties, etc..
  • Michigan, State of. Michigan Manual (annual), elaborate detail on state government.
  • Michigan Historical Review Central Michigan University (quarterly).
  • Public Sector Consultants. Michigan in Brief. An Issues Handbook (annual)
  • Larry J. Wagenaar and Izzi Bendall. Michigan History Directory of Historical Societies, Museums, Archives, Historic Sites, Agencies and Commissions (13th Ed. 2011)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

External links[edit]