Timeline of Michigan history
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Natural history [ edit ]
French colonization [ edit ]
1621 or 1622
Étienne Brûlé and his companion Grenolle paddled up the St. Mary's River and entered Lake Superior 1634
Jean Nicolet guided by the Wyandot passed through the Straits of Mackinac and followed the southern shoreline of the Upper Peninsula en route to find the Ho-Chunk and the imagined passage to the Pacific. 1641
Jesuit priests Isaac Jogues and Charles Raymbault ventured the same route as Brûlé finding many Ojibwa at the St. Mary's River rapids and named it Sault Ste. Marie. 1653 The
Iroquois Wars virtually emptied the lower peninsula of Native Americans and cut off the Ottawa River route and the St. Lawrence River route into Michigan. 1659
Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers ventured to western Lake Superior with an envoy of fur trading Native Americans returning from Montreal. 1661 Father
René Menard retraced the route of Radisson and Groseilliers to find the Wyandot, wintered in L'Anse, and then disappeared traveling inland from Chequamegon Bay. 1665
Claude-Jean Allouez and six Voyageurs retraced Menard's route to find him and the Wyandot, they reported copper deposits in the Keweenaw Peninsula area. 1668 Père (Father)
Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, the first European settlement in Michigan. 1669
Jean Talon sent Adrien Jolliet and Jean Peré on a mission to investigate the Allouez copper reports. Peré appears to have abandoned the explore in favor of fur trading. An Iroquois warrior guided Jolliet's return trip along eastern shoreline of the Lower Peninsula and down the St. Clair River and Detroit River. This may have been the first visit of a European to the Lower Peninsula. 1671 June 14 - "The Pageant of the Sault" at
Sault Ste. Marie, four Jesuit priests led by Father Claude-Jean Allouez representing the Roman Catholic Church, and Simon Francois Daumont St. Lusson held aloft a sword and a symbolic tuft of sod, and declared to the Native Americans that all of the Great Lakes country was henceforth a possession of King Louis XIV of France. 1671 Father
Claude Dablon took over the mission at the Sault and Marquette moved to establish a mission at St. Ignace 1679
René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle sailes Le Griffon to St. Ignace and on to an island at the inlet of Green Bay, departs with 14 men from there via canoe south on Lake Michigan and establishes Fort Miami 1680 La Salle abandons
Fort Miami and makes an overland trip across the Lower Peninsula 1683
Louis de la Porte, Sieur de Louvigny and 150 French soldiers established Fort de Buade at St. Ignace 1684 The mission of St. Joseph was established in
Niles by Claude-Jean Allouez 1686
Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut established Fort St. Joseph in what is now Port Huron 1691
Marquis de Denonville sent Augustin le Gardeur de Courtemanche to establish another Fort St. Joseph at the Jesuit mission that had been formed around 1684 at modern Niles, Michigan 1701
Antoine de Lamothe Cadillac, with his lieutenant Alphonse de Tonty, established a trading post on the Detroit River which they name , today the city of Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit Detroit. Their wives join them and are claimed to be 'the first European women in Michigan'. 1710 Cadillac is removed from
Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit and replaced by Charles Regnault, Sieur Dubuisson. Before leaving, Cadillac invites the Fox to live around the fort. 1712 The
Fox are not welcomed by the tribes living around Detroit and Dubuisson orders them to leave, they refuse and a fight breaks out for 19 days, leading to the Fox Wars. 1715
Fort de Buade is abandoned and Fort Michilimackinac is constructed in what is now Mackinaw City, Michigan 1720 to 1744 A period of peace,
fur trading and little expansion in the part of New France that would become Michigan 1758 During the
French and Indian War, Fort Frontenac was captured by British forces cutting off New France's St. Lawrence River supply and communication conduits into Michigan. 1760
Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit was peacefully turned over to the British after Quebec was defeated
British colonization [ edit ]
U.S. territory [ edit ]
Michigan Territory was created, with Detroit designated as the seat of government. William Hull appointed as governor. Detroit was destroyed by fire. 1812 Detroit and Mackinac are captured by the British in the
War of 1812 1813 Detroit recovered from the British by future-President
William Henry Harrison 1813
Lewis Cass became Territorial Governor. 1817 The
University of Michigan is established in Detroit, the first public university in the state. 1818 The British cede control of the Upper Peninsula and the St. Clair River islands to the U.S. after the
Treaty of Ghent and border negotiations are concluded. 1819 In the
Treaty of Saginaw, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded more than six million acres (24,000 km²), in the central portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan to the United States. 1821 With the
Treaty of Chicago, the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi ceded all the lands south of the Grand River to the United States. 1823 Congress transferred legislative powers previously exercised by the Territorial Governor and Judges to a nine-member Legislative Council, appointed by the U.S. President who selected them from eighteen persons chosen by the people. The Council was expanded to thirteen members in 1825 and made an elected body in 1827.
Chicago Road is surveyed between Fort Dearborn in Chicago and Detroit. It will become a major avenue for settlement and trade besides its original military purpose. 1828 The British turn over their fort on Drummond Island to the United States
1832 Territorial Capitol built in
Detroit at a cost of $24,500. 1833
Detroit Arsenal constructed in Dearborn, Michigan to serve the territorial militia and the regular army 1835 First Constitutional Convention.
Stevens T. Mason inaugurated as the first Governor. A minor conflict with Ohio, known as the Toledo War, over an area including the city of Toledo, Ohio, delayed Michigan statehood as the State of Ohio objected. In 1836, Michigan accepted Ohio's claim to Toledo and the Toledo Strip and received, as compensation, the eastern three-fourths of the Upper Peninsula. 1836
Treaty of Washington representatives of the Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Native Americans cede an area of approximately 13,837,207 acres (55,997 km²) in the northwest portion of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern portion of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. This area represents approximately 37% of the current land area of the state of Michigan. 1837 Admitted as a
free state into the union (the 26th state), it was admitted a few months after the slave state of Arkansas.
As a U.S. state [ edit ]
Panic of 1837 was a severe setback to the nascent state bank and to several ambitious programs of public improvements, including the Clinton-Kalamazoo Canal 1838 The
Patriot War saw Irish nationalists invade Canada from southeast Michigan. 1840
Douglass Houghton reported finding copper deposits on the Keweenaw Peninsula. 1842
Treaty of La Pointe is the last Native American land cession in Michigan 1846
Marji-Gesick, an Ojibwa Indian, pointed out a large deposit of iron ore to prospector Philo Everett near the present-day city of Negaunee. 1847 Under the leadership of Dr.
Albertus van Raalte, Dutch Calvinist separatists founded Holland, Michigan in southwest Michigan. 1847 A law was passed by the State Legislature to re-locate the state capital from Detroit to a site "in the township of
Lansing, in the county of Ingham." 1854 The first official meeting of the group that called itself the "
Republican Party" was held in Jackson. 1855
Michigan State University is founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, becoming the first land grant university in the United States. 1861-1865 Michigan sends 90,000 men, nearly a quarter of the state's male population to fight in
state regiments for American Civil War 1871 Fires burn
Manistee and Holland 1879 New
State Capitol dedicated in Lansing. The structure cost $1,510,130. 1890s and 1900s (decade)
Ford, Chrysler and General Motors were among many automotive companies founded in southeastern Michigan. 1919 the
State Trunkline Highway System was created as an act of the state legislature took effect on May 13. 1928 Construction of the Ford
River Rouge Plant is completed; the largest integrated factory complex in the world employs 100,000 people 1929 The
Ambassador Bridge opens between Detroit and Windsor, Ontario. It is the longest bridge in the world when built. The Detroit-Windsor Tunnel would open the next year. 1937
Flint Sit-Down Strike ended with official recognition of the United Auto Workers by General Motors. 1941-1945 During
World War II, Detroit is called the "Arsenal of Democracy" for its wartime industry; Fort Wayne is the largest motor vehicle and parts depot in the world.  1943 Riot broke out pitting whites against blacks during wartime.
1950 Detroit is the 4th largest city in the U.S., with 1.8 million people
1957 Five-mile long
Mackinac Bridge opens on November 1. 1959
Motown music begins recording in Detroit. 1960 Census results reveal a 1.45 million increase in state population, the largest in state history.
Race riots struck the city of Detroit. After 5 days of rioting, 43 people lay dead, 1,189 injured and over 7,000 people had been arrested. The riot had lasting effects on the entire metro region and is usually cited as one of the reasons the Detroit area is among the most segregated areas in the United States. 1974
Gerald R. Ford of Grand Rapids became the 38th President of the United States. 1987 Michigan celebrated 150 years of statehood.
2001 The emigration rate for Michigan began to exceed the immigration rate.
2002 Michigan elects its first female governor,
Jennifer Granholm (D). 2006 - mid-2010 Michigan has the worst unemployment rate of any state, peaking at over 15%, due to the
Auto industry crisis and the general financial crisis. 2010 Michigan lost 0.6% of its population since the previous census, the first decline in its population recorded by the Census Bureau.
See also [ edit ]
References and further reading [ edit ]
Dunbar, Willis F. and George S. May (1995). Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State. WM. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-7055-4.
Poremba, David Lee (2003). Detroit: A Motor City History. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-7385-2435-2.
Poremba, David Lee (2001). Detroit in Its World Setting (timeline). Wayne State University. ISBN 0-8143-2870-9.
Woodford, Arthur M. (2001). This is Detroit 1701-2001. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2914-4.
External links [ edit ]