History of manga
The history of manga is said to originate from scrolls dating back to the 12th century; however, whether these scrolls are actually manga is still disputed, though it's believed they represent the basis for the right-to-left reading style. Other authors report origins closer to the 18th century. Manga is a Japanese term that can be translated as "whimsical sketches"; it generally means "comics" or "cartoon". Historians and writers on manga history have described two broad and complementary processes shaping modern manga. Their views differ in the relative importance they attribute to the role of cultural and historical events following World War II versus the role of pre-War, Meiji, and pre-Meiji Japanese culture and art.
The first view emphasizes events occurring during and after the U.S. Occupation of Japan (1945–1952), and stresses that manga was strongly shaped by United States cultural influences, including U.S. comics brought to Japan by the GIs and by images and themes from U.S. television, film, and cartoons (especially Disney). According to Sharon Kinsella, the booming Japanese publishing industry helped create a consumer-oriented society in which publishing giants like Kodansha could shape popular taste.
Before World War II
Writers such as Takashi Murakami have stressed events after WWII, but Murakami sees Japan's defeat and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as having created long-lasting scars on the Japanese artistic psyche, which, in this view, lost its previously virile confidence in itself and sought solace in harmless and cute (kawaii) images. However, Takayumi Tatsumi sees a special role for a transpacific economic and cultural transnationalism that created a postmodern and shared international youth culture of cartooning, film, television, music, and related popular arts, which was, for Tatsumi the crucible in which modern manga have developed.
For Murakami and Tatsumi, trans-nationalism (or globalization) refers specifically to the flow of cultural and subcultural material from one nation to another. In their usage, the term does not refer to international corporate expansion, nor to international tourism, nor to cross-border international personal friendships, but to ways in which artistic, aesthetic, and intellectual traditions influence each other across national boundaries. An example of cultural trans-nationalism is the creation of Star Wars films in the United States, their transformation into manga by Japanese artists, and the marketing of Star Wars manga to the United States. Another example is the transfer of hip-hop culture from the United States to Japan. Wong also sees a major role for trans-nationalism in the recent history of manga.
However, other writers stress continuity of Japanese cultural and aesthetic traditions as central to the history of manga. They include Frederik L. Schodt, Kinko Ito, and Adam L. Kern. Schodt points to the existence in the 13th century of illustrated picture scrolls like Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga that told stories in sequential images with humor and wit. Schodt also stresses continuities of aesthetic style and vision between ukiyo-e and shunga woodblock prints and modern manga (all three fulfill Eisner's criteria for sequential art). While there are disputes over whether Chōjū-jinbutsu-giga or Shigisan-engi was the first manga, both scrolls date back to about the same time period. However others like Isao Takahata, Studio Ghibli co-founder and director, contends there in no linkage with the scrolls and modern manga.
Schodt also sees a particularly significant role for kamishibai, a form of street theater where itinerant artists displayed pictures in a light box while narrating the story to audiences in the street. Torrance has pointed to similarities between modern manga and the Osaka popular novel between the 1890s and 1940, and argues that the development of widespread literacy in Meiji and post-Meiji Japan helped create audiences for stories told in words and pictures. Kinko Ito also roots manga historically in aesthetic continuity with pre-Meiji art, but she sees its post-World War II history as driven in part by consumer enthusiasm for the rich imagery and narrative of the newly developing manga tradition. Ito describes how this tradition has steadily produced new genres and markets, e.g., for girls' (shōjo) manga in the late 1960s and for Ladies Comics (redisu) in the 1980s.
Kern has suggested that kibyoshi, picture books from the late 18th century, may have been the world's first comic books. These graphical narratives share with modern manga humorous, satirical, and romantic themes. Although Kern does not believe that kibyoshi were a direct forerunner of manga, for Kern the existence of kibyoshi nonetheless points to a Japanese willingness to mix words and pictures in a popular story-telling medium. The first recorded use of the term "manga" to mean "whimsical or impromptu pictures" comes from this tradition in 1798, which, Kern points out, predates Katsushika Hokusai's better known Hokusai Manga usage by several decades.
Similarly, Inoue sees manga as being a mixture of image- and word-centered elements, each pre-dating the U.S.A. occupation of Japan. In his view, Japanese image-centered or "pictocentric" art ultimately derives from Japan's long history of engagement with Chinese graphic art, whereas word-centered or "logocentric" art, like the novel, was stimulated by social and economic needs of Meiji and pre-War Japanese nationalism for a populace unified by a common written language. Both fuse in what Inoue sees as a symbiosis in manga.
Thus, these scholars see the history of manga as involving historical continuities and discontinuities between the aesthetic and cultural past as it interacts with post-World War II innovation and trans-nationalism.
After World War II
Modern manga originates in the Occupation (1945–1952) and post-Occupation years (1952-early 1960s), when a previously militaristic and ultranationalist Japan was rebuilding its political and economic infrastructure. Although U.S. Occupation censorship policies specifically prohibited art and writing that glorified war and Japanese militarism, those policies did not prevent the publication of other kinds of material, including manga. Furthermore, the 1947 Japanese Constitution (Article 21) prohibited all forms of censorship. One result was the growth of artistic creativity in this period.
In the forefront of this period are two manga series and characters that influenced much of the future history of manga. These are Osamu Tezuka's Mighty Atom (Astro Boy in the United States; begun in 1951) and Machiko Hasegawa's Sazae-san (begun in 1946).
Astro Boy was both a superpowered robot and a naive little boy. Tezuka never explained why Astro Boy had such a highly developed social conscience nor what kind of robot programming could make him so deeply affiliative. Both seem innate to Astro Boy, and represent a Japanese sociality and community-oriented masculinity differing very much from the Emperor-worship and militaristic obedience enforced during the previous period of Japanese imperialism. Astro Boy quickly became (and remains) immensely popular in Japan and elsewhere as an icon and hero of a new world of peace and the renunciation of war, as also seen in Article 9 of the Japanese constitution. Similar themes occur in Tezuka's New World and Metropolis.
By contrast, Sazae-san (meaning "Ms. Sazae") was drawn starting in 1946 by Machiko Hasegawa, a young woman artist who made her heroine a stand-in for millions of Japanese men and especially women rendered homeless by the war. Sazae-san does not face an easy or simple life, but, like Astro Boy, she too is highly affiliative and is deeply involved with her immediate and extended family. She is also a very strong character, in striking contrast to the officially sanctioned Neo-Confucianist principles of feminine meekness and obedience to the "good wife, wise mother" (ryōsai kenbo, りょうさいけんぼ; 良妻賢母) ideal taught by the previous military regime. Sazae-san faces the world with cheerful resilience, what Hayao Kawai calls a "woman of endurance." Sazae-san sold more than 62 million copies over the next half century.
Tezuka and Hasegawa were also both stylistic innovators. In Tezuka's "cinematographic" technique, the panels are like a motion picture that reveals details of action bordering on slow motion as well as rapid zooms from distance to close-up shots. More critically, Tezuka synchronised the placement of panel with the reader's viewing speed to simulate moving pictures. Hence in manga production as in film production, the person who decide the allocation of panels (Komawari) is credited as the author while most drawing are done by assistants. This kind of visual dynamism was widely adopted by later manga artists. Hasegawa's focus on daily life and on women's experience also came to characterize later shōjo manga.
Between 1950 and 1969, increasingly large audiences for manga emerged in Japan with the solidification of its two main marketing genres, shōnen manga aimed at boys and shōjo manga aimed at girls. Up to 1969, shōjo manga was drawn primarily by adult men for young female readers.
Two very popular and influential male-authored manga for girls from this period were Tezuka's 1953-1956 Ribon no Kishi (Princess Knight or Knight in Ribbons) and Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1966 Mahōtsukai Sarii (Little Witch Sally). Ribon no Kishi dealt with the adventures of Princess Sapphire of a fantasy kingdom who had been born with male and female souls, and whose sword-swinging battles and romances blurred the boundaries of otherwise rigid gender roles. Sarii, the pre-teen princess heroine of Mahōtsukai Sarii, came from her home in the magical lands to live on Earth, go to school, and perform a variety of magical good deeds for her friends and schoolmates. Yokoyama's Mahōtsukai Sarii was influenced by the U.S. TV sitcom Bewitched, but unlike Samantha, the main character of Bewitched, a married woman with her own daughter, Sarii is a pre-teenager who faces the problems of growing up and mastering the responsibilities of forthcoming adulthood. Mahōtsukai Sarii helped create the now very popular mahō shōjo or "magical girl" sub-genre of later manga. Both series were and still are very popular.
In 1969, a group of women manga artists later called the Year 24 Group (also known as Magnificent 24s) made their shōjo manga debut (year 24 comes from the Japanese name for 1949, when many of these artists were born). The group included Hagio Moto, Riyoko Ikeda, Yumiko Oshima, Keiko Takemiya, and Ryoko Yamagishi and they marked the first major entry of women artists into manga. Thereafter, shōjo manga would be drawn primarily by women artists for an audience of girls and young women.
In 1971, Ikeda began her immensely popular shōjo manga Berusaiyu no Bara (The Rose of Versailles), a story of Oscar François de Jarjayes, a cross-dressing woman who was a Captain in Marie Antoinette's Palace Guards in pre-Revolutionary France. In the end, Oscar dies as a revolutionary leading a charge of her troops against the Bastille. Likewise, Hagio Moto's work challenged Neo-Confucianist limits on women's roles and activities  as in her 1975 They Were Eleven, a shōjo science fiction story about a young woman cadet in a future space academy.
These women artists also created considerable stylistic innovations. In its focus on the heroine's inner experiences and feelings, shōjo manga are "picture poems" with delicate and complex designs that often eliminate panel borders completely to create prolonged, non-narrative extensions of time. All of these innovations – strong and independent female characters, intense emotionality, and complex design – remain characteristic of shōjo manga up to the present day.
Shōjo manga and Ladies' Comics from 1975 to today
In the following decades (1975–present), shōjo manga continued to develop stylistically while simultaneously evolving different but overlapping subgenres. Major subgenres have included romance, superheroines, and "Ladies Comics" (in Japanese, redisu レディース, redikomi レヂィーコミ, and josei 女性 じょせい), whose boundaries are sometimes indistinguishable from each other and from shōnen manga.
In modern shōjo manga romance, love is a major theme set into emotionally intense narratives of self-realization. Japanese manga/anime critic Eri Izawa defines romance as symbolizing "the emotional, the grand, the epic; the taste of heroism, fantastic adventure, and the melancholy; passionate love, personal struggle, and eternal longing" set into imaginative, individualistic, and passionate narrative frameworks. These romances are sometimes long narratives that can deal with distinguishing between false and true love, coping with sexual intercourse, and growing up in a complex world, themes inherited by subsequent animated versions of the story. These "coming of age" or bildungsroman themes occur in both shōjo and shōnen manga.
In the bildungsroman, the protagonist must deal with adversity and conflict, and examples in shōjo manga of romantic conflict are common. They include Miwa Ueda's Peach Girl, Fuyumi Soryo's Mars, and, for mature readers, Moyoco Anno's Happy Mania, Yayoi Ogawa's Tramps Like Us, and Ai Yazawa's Nana. In another shōjo manga bildungsroman narrative device, the young heroine is transported to an alien place or time where she meets strangers and must survive on her own (including Hagio Moto's They Were Eleven, Kyoko Hikawa's From Far Away, Yû Watase's Fushigi Yûgi: The Mysterious Play, and Chiho Saito's The World Exists For Me).
Yet another such device involves meeting unusual or strange people and beings, for example, Natsuki Takaya's Fruits Basket—one of the most popular shōjo manga in the United States—whose orphaned heroine Tohru must survive living in the woods in a house filled with people who can transform into the animals of the Chinese zodiac. In Harako Iida's Crescent Moon, heroine Mahiru meets a group of supernatural beings, finally to discover that she herself too has a supernatural ancestry when she and a young tengu demon fall in love.
With the superheroines, shōjo manga continued to break away from neo-Confucianist norms of female meekness and obedience. Naoko Takeuchi's Sailor Moon (Bishōjo Senshi Sēramūn: "Pretty Soldier Sailor Moon") is a sustained, 18-volume narrative about a group of young heroines simultaneously heroic and introspective, active and emotional, dutiful and ambitious. The combination proved extremely successful, and Sailor Moon became internationally popular in both manga and anime formats. Another example is CLAMP's Magic Knight Rayearth, whose three young heroines, Hikaru, Umi, and Fuu, are magically transported to the world of Cephiro to become armed magical warriors in the service of saving Cephiro from internal and external enemies.
The superheroine subgenre also extensively developed the notion of teams (sentai) of girls working together, like the Sailor Senshi in Sailor Moon, the Magic Knights in Magic Knight Rayearth, and the Mew Mew girls from Mia Ikumi's Tokyo Mew Mew. By today, the superheroine narrative template has been widely used and parodied within the shōjo manga tradition (e.g., Nao Yazawa's Wedding Peach and Hyper Rune by Tamayo Akiyama) and outside that tradition, e.g., in bishōjo comedies like Kanan's Galaxy Angel.
In the mid-1980s and thereafter, as girls who had read shōjo manga as teenagers matured and entered the job market, shōjo manga elaborated subgenres directed at women in their 20s and 30s. This "Ladies Comic" or redisu-josei subgenre has dealt with themes of young adulthood: jobs, the emotions and problems of sexual intercourse, and friendships or love among women.
Redisu manga retains many of the narrative stylistics of shōjo manga but has been drawn by and written for adult women. Redisu manga and art has been often, but not always, sexually explicit, but sexuality has characteristically been set into complex narratives of pleasure and erotic arousal combined with emotional risk. Examples include Ryō Ramiya's Luminous Girls, Masako Watanabe's Kinpeibai and the work of Shungicu Uchida Another subgenre of shōjo-redisu manga deals with emotional and sexual relationships among women (akogare and yuri), in work by Erica Sakurazawa, Ebine Yamaji, and Chiho Saito. Other subgenres of shōjo-redisu manga have also developed, e.g., fashion (oshare) manga, like Ai Yazawa's Paradise Kiss and horror-vampire-gothic manga, like Matsuri Hino's Vampire Knight, Kaori Yuki's Cain Saga, and Mitsukazu Mihara's DOLL, which interact with street fashions, costume play ("cosplay"), J-Pop music, and goth subcultures in complex ways.
By the start of the 21st century, manga for women and girls thus represented a broad spectrum of material for pre- and early teenagers to material for adult women.
Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga
Manga for male readers can be characterized in different ways. One is by the age of its intended audience: boys up to 18 years old (shōnen manga) and young men 18- to 30-years old (seinen manga). Another approach is by content, including action-adventure often involving male heroes, slapstick humor, themes of honor, and sometimes explicit sexuality. Japanese uses different kanji for two closely allied meanings of "seinen"—青年 for "youth, young man" and 成年 for "adult, majority"—the second referring to sexually overt manga aimed at grown men and also called seijin ("adult," 成人) manga. Shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga share many features in common.
Boys and young men were among the earliest readers of manga after World War II. From the 1950s on, shōnen manga focused on topics thought to interest the archetypical boy: sci-tech subjects like robots and space travel, and heroic action-adventure. Shōnen and seinen manga narratives often portray challenges to the protagonist’s abilities, skills, and maturity, stressing self-perfection, austere self-discipline, sacrifice in the cause of duty, and honorable service to society, community, family, and friends.
Manga with solitary costumed superheroes like Superman, Batman, and Spider-Man did not become popular as a shōnen genre. An exception is Kia Asamiya's Batman: Child of Dreams, released in the U.S. by DC Comics and in Japan by Kodansha. However, lone heroes occur in Takao Saito's Golgo 13 and Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub. Golgo 13 is about an assassin who puts his skills to the service of world peace and other social goals, and Ogami Itto, the swordsman-hero of Lone Wolf and Cub, is a widower caring for his son Daigoro while he seeks vengeance against his wife's murderers. However, Golgo and Itto remain men throughout and neither hero ever displays superpowers. Instead, these stories "journey into the hearts and minds of men" by remaining on the plane of human psychology and motivation.
Many shōnen manga have science fiction and technology themes. Early examples in the robot subgenre included Tezuka’s Astro Boy (see above) and Fujiko F. Fujio’s 1969 Doraemon, about a robot cat and the boy he lives with, which was aimed at younger boys. The robot theme evolved extensively, from Mitsuteru Yokoyama's 1956 Tetsujin 28-go to later, more complex stories where the protagonist must not only defeat enemies, but learn to master himself and cooperate with the mecha he controls. Thus, in Neon Genesis Evangelion by Yoshiyuki Sadamoto, Shinji struggles against the enemy and against his father, and in Vision of Escaflowne by Katsu Aki, Van not only makes war against Dornkirk’s empire but must deal with his complex feelings for Hitomi, the heroine.
Sports themes are also popular in manga for male readers. These stories stress self-discipline, depicting not only the excitement of sports competition but also character traits the hero needs to transcend his limitations and to triumph. Examples include boxing (Tetsuya Chiba’s 1968-1973 Tomorrow's Joe and Rumiko Takahashi's 1987 One-Pound Gospel) and basketball (Takehiko Inoue’s 1990 Slam Dunk).
Supernatural settings have been another source of action-adventure plots in shõnen and some shõjo manga in which the hero must master challenges. Sometimes the protagonist fails, as in Tsugumi Ohba and Takeshi Obata's Death Note, where protagonist Light Yagami receives a notebook from a Death God (shinigami) that kills anyone whose name is written in it, and, in a shōjo manga example, Hakase Mizuki's The Demon Ororon, whose protagonist abandons his demonic kingship of Hell to live and die on earth. Sometimes the protagonist himself is supernatural, like Kohta Hirano's Hellsing, whose vampire hero Alucard battles reborn Nazis hellbent on conquering England, but the hero may also be (or was) human, battling an ever-escalating series of supernatural enemies (Hiromu Arakawa's Fullmetal Alchemist, Nobuyuki Anzai's Flame of Recca, and Tite Kubo's Bleach).
Military action-adventure stories set in the modern world, for example, about World War II, remained under suspicion of glorifying Japan’s Imperial history and have not become a significant part of the shōnen manga repertoire. Nonetheless, stories about fantasy or historical military adventure were not stigmatized, and manga about heroic warriors and martial artists have been extremely popular. Some are serious dramas, like Sanpei Shirato's The Legend of Kamui and Rurouni Kenshin by Nobuhiro Watsuki, but others contain strongly humorous elements, like Akira Toriyama's Dragon Ball.
Although stories about modern war and its weapons do exist, they deal as much or more with the psychological and moral problems of war as they do with sheer shoot-'em-up adventure. Examples include Seiho Takizawa's Who Fighter, a retelling of Joseph Conrad's story Heart of Darkness about a renegade Japanese colonel set in World War II Burma, Kaiji Kawaguchi's The Silent Service, about a Japanese nuclear submarine, and Motofumi Kobayashi's Apocalypse Meow, about the Vietnam War told in talking animal format. Other battle and fight-oriented manga are complex stories of criminal and espionage conspiracies to be overcome by the protagonist, such as City Hunter by Hojo Tsukasa, Fist of the North Star by Tetsuo Hara, and in the shōjo manga From Eroica with Love by Yasuko Aoike, a long-running crime-espionage story combining adventure, action, and humor (and another example of how these themes occur across genres).
For manga critics Koji Aihara and Kentaro Takekuma, such battle stories endlessly repeat the same mindless themes of violence, which they sardonically label the "Shonen Manga Plot Shish Kebob", where fights follow fights like meat skewered on a stick. Other commentators suggest that fight sequences and violence in comics serve as a social outlet for otherwise dangerous impulses. Shōnen manga and its extreme warriorship have been parodied, for example, in Mine Yoshizaki's screwball comedy Sgt. Frog (Keroro Gunso), about a platoon of slacker alien frogs who invade the Earth and end up free-loading off the Hinata family in Tokyo.
Sex and women's roles in manga for males
In early shōnen manga, men and boys played all the major roles, with women and girls having only auxiliary places as sisters, mothers, and occasionally girlfriends. Of the nine cyborgs in Shotaro Ishinomori's 1964 Cyborg 009, only one is female, and she soon vanishes from the action. Some recent shōnen manga virtually omit women, e.g., the martial arts story Baki the Grappler by Itagaki Keisuke and the supernatural fantasy Sand Land by Akira Toriyama. However, by the 1980s, girls and women began to play increasingly important roles in shōnen manga, for example, Toriyama's 1980 Dr. Slump, whose main character is the mischievous and powerful girl robot Arale Norimaki.
The role of girls and women in manga for male readers has evolved considerably since Arale. One class is the pretty girl (bishōjo). Sometimes the woman is unattainable, but she is always an object of the hero's emotional and sexual interest, like Belldandy from Oh My Goddess! by Kōsuke Fujishima and Shao-lin from Guardian Angel Getten by Minene Sakurano. In other stories, the hero is surrounded by such girls and women, as in Negima by Ken Akamatsu and Hanaukyo Maid Team by Morishige. The male protagonist does not always succeed in forming a relationship with the woman, for example when Bright Honda and Aimi Komori fail to bond in Shadow Lady by Masakazu Katsura. In other cases, a successful couple's sexual activities are depicted or implied, like Outlanders by Johji Manabe. In still other cases, the initially naive and immature hero grows up to become a man by learning how to deal and live with women emotionally and sexually, like Yota in Video Girl Ai by Masakazu Katsura, Train Man in Train Man: Densha Otoko by Hidenori Hara, and Makoto in Futari Ecchi by Katsu Aki. In poruno- and eromanga (seijin manga), often called hentai manga in the U.S., a sexual relationship is taken for granted and depicted explicitly, as in work by Toshiki Yui  and in Were-Slut by Jiro Chiba and Slut Girl by Isutoshi. The result is a range of depictions of boys and men from naive to very experienced sexually.
Heavily armed female warriors (sentō bishōjo) represent another class of girls and women in manga for male readers. Some sentō bishōjo are battle cyborgs, like Alita from Battle Angel Alita by Yukito Kishiro, Motoko Kusanagi from Masamune Shirow's Ghost in the Shell, and Chise from Shin Takahashi's Saikano. Others are human, like Attim M-Zak from Hiroyuki Utatane's Seraphic Feather, Johji Manabe's Karula Olzen from Drakuun, and Alita Forland (Falis) from Sekihiko Inui's Murder Princess.
As of 2013 national censorship laws and local ordinances remain in Japan and the public response to the publication of manga with sexual content or the depiction of nudity has been mixed. Series have an audience and sell well but their publication also encounters opposition. In the early 1990s the opposition resulted in the creation of Harmful manga lists and a shift in the publishing industry. By this time large publishers had created a general manga demand but the corollary is that they were also susceptible to public opinion in their markets. Faced with criticism from certain segments of the population and under pressure from industry groups to self-regulate, major publishing houses discontinued series, such as Angel and 1+2=Paradise, while smaller publication companies, not as susceptible to these forces, were able to fill the void.
With the relaxation of censorship in Japan after the early 1990s, a wide variety of explicitly drawn sexual themes appeared in manga intended for male readers that correspondingly occur in English translations. These depictions range from mild partial nudity through implied and explicit sexual intercourse through bondage and sadomasochism (SM), zoophilia (bestiality), incest, and rape. In some cases, rape and lust murder themes came to the forefront, as in Urotsukidoji by Toshio Maeda and Blue Catalyst from 1994 by Kei Taniguchi, but these extreme themes are not commonplace in either untranslated or translated manga.
Gekiga literally means "drama pictures" and refers to a form of aesthetic realism in manga. Gekiga style drawing is emotionally dark, often starkly realistic, sometimes very violent, and focuses on the day-in, day-out grim realities of life, often drawn in gritty and unpretty fashions. Gekiga arose in the late 1950s and 1960s partly from left-wing student and working class political activism and partly from the aesthetic dissatisfaction of young manga artists like Yoshihiro Tatsumi with existing manga. Examples include Sampei Shirato's 1959-1962 Chronicles of a Ninja's Military Accomplishments (Ninja Bugeichō), the story of Kagemaru, the leader of a peasant rebellion in the 16th century, which dealt directly with oppression and class struggle, and Hiroshi Hirata's Satsuma Gishiden, about uprisings against the Tokugawa shogunate.
As the social protest of these early years waned, gekiga shifted in meaning towards socially conscious, mature drama and towards the avant-garde. Examples include Koike and Kojima's Lone Wolf and Cub and Akira, an apocalyptic tale of motorcycle gangs, street war, and inexplicable transformations of the children of a future Tokyo. Another example is Osamu Tezuka's 1976 manga MW, a bitter story of the aftermath of the storage and possibly deliberate release of poison gas by U.S. armed forces based in Okinawa years after World War II. Gekiga and the social consciousness it embodies remain alive in modern-day manga. An example is Ikebukuro West Gate Park from 2001 by Ira Ishida and Sena Aritou, a story of street thugs, rape, and vengeance set on the social margins of the wealthy Ikebukuro district of Tokyo.
- Kinsella, Sharon 2000. Adult Manga: Culture and Power in Contemporary Japanese Society. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2318-4.
- Schodt, Frederik L. 1986. Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Tokyo: Kodansha. ISBN 978-0-87011-752-7.
- Murakami, Takashi (2005). Little Boy: the Arts of Japan's Exploding Subculture. New York: Japan Society. ISBN 0-913304-57-3.
- Tatsumi, Takayumi (2006). Full Metal Apache: Transactions between Cyberpunk Japan and Avant-Pop America. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3774-6.
- "Phantom Goes Manga". StarWars.com. January 5, 2000. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
- Condry, Ian (2006). Hip-Hop Japan: Rap and the Path of Cultural Globalization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3892-0.
- Wong, Wendy Siuyi (2006). "Globalizing manga: From Japan to Hong Kong and beyond". Mechademia: an Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts 1: 23–45. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
- Schodt, Frederik L. 1996. Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.
- Ito, Kinko. 2004. "Growing up Japanese reading manga." International Journal of Comic Art, 6:392-401.
- Kern, Adam. 2006. Manga from the Floating World: Comicbook Culture and the Kibyoshi of Edo Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-02266-1.
- Kern, Adam. 2007. "Symposium: Kibyoshi: The World's First Comicbook?" International Journal of Comic Art, 9:1-486.
- Eisner, Will. 1985. Comics & Sequential Art. Tamarac, Fl: Poorhouse Press. ISBN 0-9614728-0-2.
- "Yomiuri Newspaper Discusses History's First Manga". Yomiuri Shimbun. Anime News Network. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2009-01-20.
- Torrance, Richard. 2005. "Literacy and literature in Osaka, 1890-1940." Journal of Japanese Studies, 31(1):27-60. Web version: http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/journal_of_japanese_studies/v031/31.1torrance.html Accessed 2007-09-16.
- Bouquillard, Jocelyn and Christophe Marquet. 2007. Hokusai: First Manga Master. New York: Abrams.
- Kern, 2006, op. cit., pp. 139-144, Figure 3.3.
- Inoue, Charles Shirō. 1996. "Pictocentrism—China as a source of Japanese modernity." In Sumie Jones, editor. 1996. Imaging/Reading Eros. Bloomington, IN: East Asian Studies Center, Indiana University. pp. 148-152. ISBN 0-9653281-0-4.
- This section draws primarily on the work of Frederik Schodt (1986, 1996, 2007) and of Paul Gravett (2004). Time-lines for manga history are available in Mechademia, Gravett, and in articles by Go Tchiei 1998.
- The Japanese constitution is in the Kodansha encyclopedia "Japan: Profile of a Nation, Revised Edition" (1999, Tokyo: Kodansha) on pp. 692-715. Article 9: page 695; article 21: page 697. ISBN 4-7700-2384-7.
- Schodt, Frederik L. (2007). The Astro Boy Essays: Osamu Tezuka, Mighty Atom, and the Manga/Anime Revolution. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-933330-54-9.
- Gravett, Paul. 2004. Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics. NY: Harper Design. ISBN 1-85669-391-0. p. 8.
- Uno, Kathleen S. 1993. "The death of 'Good Wife, Wise Mother'." In: Andrew Gordon (editor) Postwar Japan as History. Berkeley, CA: University of California. pp. 293-322. ISBN 0-520-07475-0.
- Ohinata, Masami 1995 "The mystique of motherhood: A key to understanding social change and family problems in Japan." In: Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (editors) Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp. 199-211. ISBN 978-1-55861-094-1.
- Yoshizumi, Kyoko 1995 "Marriage and family: Past and present." In: Kumiko Fujimura-Fanselow and Atsuko Kameda (editors) Japanese Women: New Feminist Perspectives on the Past, Present, and Future. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp. 183-197. ISBN 978-1-55861-094-1.
- Lee, William (2000). "From Sazae-san to Crayon Shin-Chan." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop!: Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-0-7656-0561-0.
- Kawai, Hayao. 1996. The Japanese Psyche: Major Motifs in the Fairy Tales of Japan. Woodstock, CT: Spring Publications. Chapter 7, pp. 125-142.
- Hasegawa, Machiko; Schodt, Frederik L. (1997). "Forward". The Wonderful World of Sazae-San. Tokyo: Kodansha International (JPN). ISBN 978-4-7700-2075-8.
- Sanchez, Frank (1997-2003). "Hist 102: History of Manga." http://www.animeinfo.org/animeu/hist102.html. AnimeInfo. Accessed on 2007-09-11.
- Toku, Masami, editor. 2005. "Shojo Manga: Girl Power!" Chico, CA: Flume Press/California State University Press. ISBN 1-886226-10-5. See also http://www.csuchico.edu/pub/cs/spring_06/feature_03.html. Accessed 2007-09-22.
- Thorn, Matt (July–September 2001). "Shôjo Manga—Something for the Girls". The Japan Quarterly 48 (3). Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Sarii is the Japanese spelling and pronunciation of the English-language name "Sally." The word mahōtsukai literally means "magic operator," someone who can use and control magic. It does not mean "witch" or "magical girl" (which is mahō shōjo in Japanese), because tsukai is not a gendered word in Japanese. This use of an English-language name with a Japanese descriptive word is an example of transnationalism in Tatsumi's sense.
- Yoshida, Kaori (2002). Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime. Western Washington University. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Johnson, Melissa (June 27, 2006). "Bewitched by Magical Girls". FPS Magazine. Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Gravett, 2004, op. cit., pp.78-80.
- Lent, 2001, op. cit., pp. 9-10.
- Tchiei, Goo (1998). "Shojo Manga: A Unique Genre". Retrieved 2007-09-22.
- Shamoon, Deborah. 2007. "Revolutionary romance: The Rose of Versailles and the transformation of shojo manga." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and Fan Arts. 2:3-17.
- Hagio Moto 1975/1996 "They Were Eleven." In: Matt Thorn (editor) Four Shojo Stories. San Francisco: Viz Media. ISBN 1-56931-055-6. Original story published 1975; U.S. edition 1996.
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., p 88.
- McCloud, Scott. 1993. Understanding Comics. New York: Paradox Press. pp. 77-82.
- Ōgi, Fusami 2004. "Female subjectivity and shōjo (girls) manga (Japanese comics): shōjo in Ladies' Comics and Young Ladies' Comics." Journal of Popular Culture, 36(4):780-803.
- Drazen, Patrick 2003. Anime Explosion!: the What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge.
- Izawa, Eri 2000 ."The romantic, passionate Japanese in anime: A look at the hidden Japanese soul." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 138-153. ISBN 978-0-7656-0561-0. Accessed 2007-09-23.
- Schodt, 1996, op. cit., p. 14.
- "The transformation into a superhero is in fact an allegory of becoming an adult." From Graillat, Ludovic 2006-2007 "America vs. Japan: the Influence of American Comics on Manga." Refractory: A Journal of Entertainment Media, volume 10. Accessed 2007-09-23. Literally, in German, bildungs = education and roman = novel, hence a novel about the education of the protagonist in "the ways of the world."
- Moretti, Franco 1987. The Way of the World: The Bildungsroman in European Culture. London: Verso. ISBN 1-85984-298-4.
- Beveridge, Chris (2007-05-14). "Peach Girl Vol. #1 (also w/box) (of 6)". Anime on DVD. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Peach Girl Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "MARS Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Happy Mania Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Aoki, Deb. "Nana by Ai Yazawa - Series Profile and Story Summary". About.com. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Bertschy, Zac (December 26, 2005). "NANA G.novel 1". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Randall, Bill. "Three By Moto Hagio". The Comics Journal. Archived from the original on 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- King, Patrick. "From Far Away Vol. 2". Anime Fringe. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "The World Exists for Me Volume 2". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Fruits Basket Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Top 50 Manga Properties for Spring 2007: Fruits Basket." ICv2 Guide to Manga, Number 45, pp. 6, 8.
- "Crescent Moon Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Allison, Anne 2000. "Sailor Moon: Japanese superheroes for global girls." In: Timothy J. Craig (editor) Japan Pop! Inside the World of Japanese Popular Culture. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. pp. 259-278. ISBN 978-0-7656-0561-0.
- Grigsby, Mary 1999 "The social production of gender as reflected in two Japanese culture industry products: Sailormoon and Crayon Shinchan." In: John A. Lent, editor Themes and Issues in Asian Cartooning: Cute, Cheap, Mad, and Sexy. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. pp. 183-210. ISBN 0-87972-780-2.
- Schodt, 1996, op. cit., p 92.
- "Magic Knight Rayearth I Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Poitras, Gilles 2001. Anime Essentials: Everything a Fan Needs to Know. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge. ISBN 1-880656-53-1.
- "Tokyo Mew Mew Volume 1". Tokyopop. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Wedding Peach". Viz Media. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Cooper, Liann (November 20, 2004). "RIGHT TURN ONLY!! Sugar Rush". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Galaxy Angel". Broccoli Books. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Ito, Kinko 2002. "The world of Japanese 'Ladies Comics': From romantic fantasy to lustful perversion." Journal of Popular Culture, 36(1):68-85.
- Ito, Kinko 2003. "Japanese Ladies' Comics as agents of socialization: The lessons they teach." International Journal of Comic Art, 5(2):425-436.
- Jones, Gretchen 2002. "'Ladies' Comics': Japan's not-so-underground market in pornography for women." U.S.-Japan Women's Journal (English Supplement), Number 22, pp. 3-31.
- Shamoon, Deborah. 2004. "Office slut and rebel flowers: The pleasures of Japanese pornographic comics for women." In: Linda Williams (editor) Porn Studies. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 77-103. ISBN 0-8223-3312-0.
- Schodt, 1996, op. cit., pp 124-129.
- Ryō Ramiya (no date) "Luminous Girls." Tokyo: France Shoin Comic House. ISBN 4-8296-8201-9.
- Toku, 2005, op. cit., p. 59.
- Schodt, 1996, op. cit., pp. 173-177.
- Bando, Kishiji (no date) "Shoujo Yuri Manga Guide." Accessed 2007-09-23.
- Font, Dillon. "Erica Sakurazawa's Nothing But Loving You". Anime Fringe. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- "Fan translations of Ebine Yamaji's yuri mangas [sic]". The Gay Comics List. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Perper, Timothy & Martha Cornog 2006. "In the Sound of the Bells: Freedom and Revolution in Revolutionary Girl Utena." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts, 1:183-186.
- Masanao, Amano 2004. Manga Design. Koln, Germany: Taschen GMBH. pp. 526-529. ISBN 3-8228-2591-3.
- Paradise Kiss: http://www.tokyopop.com/product/1044 Accessed 2007-09-26.
- "Vampire Knight by Matsuri Hino". Shojo Beat. Retrieved 2007-09-26.
- Cain by Kaori Yuki: http://www.shojobeat.com/manga/gc/bio.php Accessed 2007-09-26.
- DOLL: http://www.tokyopop.com/shop/1277/DollSoftcover/1.html Accessed 2007-11-14.
- Shoichi Aoki. 2001. Fruits. New York: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0-7148-4083-1.
- Winge, Theresa 2006. "Costuming the imagination: Origins of anime and manga cosplay." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts, 1:65-76.
- Macias, Patrick, Evers, Izumi, and Nonaka, Kazumi (illustrator). 2004.Japanese Schoolgirl Inferno: Tokyo Teen Fashion Subculture Handbook. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 978-0-8118-5690-4.
- Thompson, 2007, op. cit., pp. xxiii-xxiv. See also the opening sections of Un poil de culture - Une introduction à l'animation japonaise. 11/07/2007. http://www.metalchroniques.fr/guppy/articles.php?lng=fr&pg=437 Accessed 2007-12-25.
- Brenner, Robin E. 2007. Understanding Manga and Anime. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited/Greenwood. pp. 31-34.
- In another system of classification, shōnen, seinen, and seijin manga—indeed, all genres of manga—are defined by the intended audience or demographic of the magazine where the manga originally appeared, regardless of content of the specific manga. This magazine-of-origin system is used by the English-language Wikipedia in its Template:Infobox animanga when assigning demographic labels to manga. For a list of magazine demographics, see http://users.skynet.be/mangaguide/magazines.html, but note that that website does not use magazine audience or demographic for classifying manga, nor is this approach discussed by either Thompson (2007) or Brenner (2007) cited in the previous two endnotes. Accessed 2007-12-25.
- Schodt, 1996, op. cit., p. 95. The French Wikipedia manga article uses the terms seinen and seijin to denote manga for adult men: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manga. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog 2002. "Eroticism for the masses: Japanese manga comics and their assimilation into the U.S." Sexuality & Culture, volume 6, number 1, pages 3-126 (special issue).
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., chapter 3, pp. 68-87.
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., chapter 3; Gravett, 2004, op. cit., chapter. 5, pp. 52-73.
- Brenner, 2007, op. cit., p. 31.
- Golgo: http://www.viz.com/products/products.php?series_id=411. review: http://www.animenewsnetwork.com/review/golgo-13-gn-4. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- See http://www.darkhorse.com/reviews/archive.php?theid=215 for the quoted phrase. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- Schodt, 1996, op. cit., pp. 216-220.
- Schodt, Frederik L. 1988. Robots of the Imagination. In Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics, and the Coming Robotopia. Chapter 4, pp. 73-90. Tokyo:Kodansha International.
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., p. 84-85.
- Masanao Amano, editor. 2004. Manga Design. Köln:Taschen. pp. 92-95. ISBN 3-8228-2591-3. http://www.shonenjump.com/news/newsroom/dunk_sj.php; http://comipress.com/article/2006/12/15/1160. Accessed 2007-12-24.
- Aihara, Koji and Kentaro Takekuma. 1990/2002. Even a Monkey Can Draw Manga. San Francisco: Viz. pp. 53-63.
- Aihara & Takekuma, 1990/2002. op. cit., illustration on p. 59.
- Berek-Lewis, Jason. July 13, 2005. Comics in an Age of Terror. http://www.brokenfrontier.com/columns/details.php?id=308 Accessed 2007-12-25.
- Sgt. Frog: http://www.tokyopop.com/product/1214/SgtFrog/2.html ; review: http://eyeonanime.co.uk/panda.php?mi=7&p=d&reviewid2=41. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- For multiple meanings of bishōjo, see Perper & Cornog, 2002, op. cit., pp. 60-63.
- Guardian Angel Getten, by Sakurano Minene. Raijin Graphic Novels/Gutsoon! Entertainment, Vols. 1-4, 2003-2004.
- Negima, by Ken Akamatsu. Del Rey/Random House, Vols. 1-15, 2004-2007; Hanaukyo Maid Team, by Morishige. Studio Ironcat, Vols. 1-3, 2003-2004.
- Outlanders: http://www.angelfire.com/anime/mangatemple/outlanders.html.
- Train Man: Densha Otoko, Hidenori Hara. Viz, Vols. 1-3, 2006.
- Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog. 2007. "The education of desire: Futari etchi and the globalization of sexual tolerance." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and Fan Arts, 2:201-214.
- Toshiki Yui: http://lambiek.net/artists/y/yui_toshiki.htm; http://www.yui-toshiki.com/shed/. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- Slut Girl, by Isutoshi. Eros Comix, Nos. 1-6, 2000; http://www.fantagraphics.com/cart/showcat.cgi?Category=Comics+Erotica&SubCategory=Mangerotica&PageNo=10; Were-Slut, by Jiro Chiba. Eros Comix, Nos. 1-8, 2001-2002; http://www.fantagraphics.com/cart/showcat.cgi?Category=Comics+Erotica&SubCategory=Mangerotica&PageNo=12. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- For the sentō bishōjo, translated as "battling beauty," see Kotani, Mari. 2006. "Metamorphosis of the Japanese girl: The girl, the hyper-girl, and the battling beauty." Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts, 1:162-170. See also William O. Gardner. 2003. Attack of the Phallic Girls: Review of Saitô Tamaki. Sentō bishōjo no seishin bunseki (Fighting Beauties: A Psychoanalysis). Tokyo: Ôta Shuppan, 2000. at http://www.depauw.edu/sfs/review_essays/gardner88.htm. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- Drakuun: http://web.archive.org/web/20080206232322/http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Towers/9607/manabe/drakuunindex.html. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- Takeuchi, Osamu (April 5, 2002) [first published March 30, 1995]. 戦後マンガ50年史 [50 Years of Post-War Manga] (in Japanese) (5th ed.). Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo. pp. 174, 181ff. ISBN 978-4480052018. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
- Perper, Timothy and Martha Cornog 2003 "Sex, love, and women in Japanese comics." In Robert T. Francoeur and Raymond Noonan, editors. The Comprehensive International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. New York: Continuum. pages 663-671. Section 8D in http://kinseyinstitute.org/ccies/jp.php. Accessed 2007-12-28.
- Clements, Jonathan. 1998. "'Tits and Tentacles': Sex, Horror, and the Overfiend." In McCarthy, Helen & Jonathan Clements. 1998. The Erotic Anime Movie Guide. Chapter 4, pp. 58-81.
- Taniguchi, Kei. 1994. "Blue Catalyst." San Antonio, TX: Emblem (Antarctic Press), Numbers 6-8.
- Smith, Toren. 1991. "Miso Horny: Sex in Japanese Comics." The Comics Journal, No. 143, pp. 111-115.
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., pp. 68-73.
- Gravett, 2004, op. cit., pp. 38-42.
- Gravett, Paul. "Gekiga: The Flipside of Manga". Retrieved 2007-12-20.
- Isao, Shimizu (2001). "Red Comic Books: The Origins of Modern Japanese Manga". In Lent, John A. Illustrating Asia: Comics, Humor Magazines, and Picture Books. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2471-6.
- Isao, 2001, op. cit., pp. 147-149.
- Nunez, Irma (September 24, 2006). "Alternative Comics Heroes: Tracing the Genealogy of Gekiga.". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., pp. 70-71.
- Hirata: http://www.darkhorse.com/search/search.php?frompage=userinput&sstring=Hirata&x=11&y=9 Accessed 2007-12-19.
- Takeo, Udagawa (2007-10-15). "Home Manga Zombie: Manga Zombie - Preface". Comi Press. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
- Schodt, 1986, op. cit., p. 72.
- Flinn, Tom (2008). "MW". ICv2 (50). pp. 17–18.
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