List of GM engines

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This is a list of engines either produced by General Motors or used in its products.

Divisions[edit]

Until the mid-1970s, most General Motors brands designed and manufactured their own engines with few interchangeable parts between brands.[1] In the mid-1960s, there were 8 separate families of GM V8 engines on sale in the USA.[2]

By the 1970s, GM began to see problems with this approach. For instance, four different North American divisions (Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile and Buick) offered four completely different versions of a 350 cu in V8 engine - very few parts would interchange between the four designs despite their visual similarities, resulting in confusion for owners who (quite naturally) assumed that replacement parts would be usable across the board. In addition to these issues and the obvious overlap in production costs, the cost of certifying so many different engines for tightening worldwide emissions regulations threatened to become very costly.

Thus, by the early 1980s, GM had consolidated its powertrain engineering efforts into a few distinct lines. Generally, North American and European (Opel) engineering units remained separate, with Australia's Holden and other global divisions borrowing designs from one or the other as needed. GM also worked out sharing agreements with other manufacturers like Isuzu and Nissan to fill certain gaps in engineering. Similarly, the company also purchased other automotive firms (like Saab and Daewoo), eventually folding their engine designs into the corporate portfolio as well.

GM´s European division, Adam Opel AG, relies on a range of 3, 4 and 6 cylinder petrol and diesel engines. A survey of their range shows a reliance on petrol and diesel 4´s, though as of 2014 there is only one 3-cylinder engine and one 6 cylinder engine in service in Opel´s passenger car range.

In addition to automobile and truck engines, GM produced industrial engines, which were sold by brands such as Detroit Diesel, Allison, and Electro-Motive. Most of these engine designs were unrelated to GM's automotive engines.[citation needed]

Automotive gasoline engines[edit]

Two-cylinder[edit]

Three-cylinder[edit]

Four-cylinder[edit]

Cadillac four engine
Saab H four engine
GM Family 1 four engine

Five-cylinder[edit]

GM Atlas five engine

Six-cylinder[edit]

Chevrolet "Stovebolt" six engine
Chevrolet Corvair six engine
Buick V6 engine

Eight-cylinder[edit]

From the 1950s through the 1970s, each GM division had its own V8 engine family. Today, there are only two families of V8 engines in production for road vehicles: the Generation IV small-block and its Generation V small-block derivative.

Oldsmobile Rocket V8 engine
GM LS V8 engine
Pontiac Silver Streak eight engine

Twelve-cylinder[edit]

Cadillac Twelve engine

Sixteen-cylinder[edit]

Gasoline-electric hybrid[edit]

Automotive diesel engines[edit]

Four-cylinder[edit]

  • 1982-1988 Family II 1.6 liter (16DA/16D), and 1.7 L Opel engines
  • 1988–present Isuzu Circle L (marketed as Ecotec DTI, DI or CDTI; acquired via GMs 2003 takeover of DMAX)
  • 1996–2005 2.0 and 2.2 liter DOHC (Opel engine marketed as Ecotec DTI, Ecotec DI)
  • 2003–present 1.3 Multijet engine (marketed as Ecotec CDTI or Ecotec depending on brand; used via a sharing agreement between Fiat and Opel)
  • 2003-2010 VM Motori RA 420 (marketed as Ecotec 2.0 CDTI or 2.0 VCDi depending on brand)
  • 2004–2009 1.9 JTD engine (marketed as Ecotec 1.9 CDTI or 1.9 TiD/TTiD depending on brand; used via a sharing agreement between Fiat and Opel)
  • 2008–present GM Family B marketed as 2.0 CDTI
  • 2011–present Family Z marketed as 2.0, 2.2 VCDi and 2.2 CDTI
  • 2012–present 2.5 and 2.8 liter inline 4 Duramax Diesels
  • 2013–present GM Medium diesel engine marketed as 1.6 CDTI Ecotec

Six-cylinder[edit]

  • 1980s-present Detroit Diesel 60 inline-6
  • 1982-1985 Oldsmobile V6 Diesel 4.3L in FWD and RWD versions (This is the lesser known counterpart to the infamous Oldsmobile 350 diesel.)
  • 2002–present DMAX V6 (acquired via GMs 2003 takeover of DMAX)

Eight-cylinder[edit]

Truck engines[edit]

In 1937 GM founded the GM diesel division Detroit Diesel which operated for 63 years. In the 1980s and 1990s GM produced the 6.2 L and 6.5-liter V8 Diesels for use in light trucks and in the HMMWV.

Today, GM uses Diesel engines from DMAX, originally a joint corporation between GM and Isuzu, namely the Duramax V8 engine and Isuzu 6H Engine (for trucks) but offers no domestic Diesel passenger cars. Opel is one of the leading proponents of Diesel cars in Europe, however. In the 1970s, Opel developed the first Opel Diesel engine ever. This 2.1-litre engine made some records in a car specially built for this purpose, the Opel Rekord D (2100 cc, 60 hp). Later versions were used in the Rekord E and the Ascona B. Vehicles using these engines could be identified by a little "hill" in their hoods. Without this "hill" in the hood, the space for the engine would have been too small. Kadett D, E and Ascona B and C models also used an Opel engine (1600 cc, 54 hp). Later Isuzu engines were installed, namely for the Corsa A (1500 cc, 50 hp (37 kW) and 1500, turbo, 67 hp) as well as for the Kadett E and Vectra A (Vectra A TD: 82 hp).

Opel today uses common rail direct injection engines designed and produced through cooperation with Fiat S.p.A (MultiJet). Ownership of both designs was acquired by GM in 2005, and a new GM Powertrain Europe division in Turin, Italy (home of Fiat) was founded to manage these assets. The Fiat Diesel engine has 1900 cc, but before this cooperation, Opel had already developed two of their own engines, namely 2-litre Diesels with 82 and 100 hp (70 kW); which were installed mostly in the Vectra B. GM Daewoo recently licensed two common rail designs from VM Motori.

Locomotive engines[edit]

Aircraft engines[edit]

Piston[edit]

Propfan[edit]

  • Allison 578-DX

Turboprop[edit]

Turboshaft[edit]

Turbojet[edit]

Industrial engines[edit]

Detroit Diesel Series 92 engines

GM diesels stem from the acquisition of Winton Engine Corporation in 1930. Winton was based in Cleveland, and initial production continued in that city. These were mid-sized engines. The main customer of Winton was the Electro Motive Corporation, the pioneering producer of diesel-electric locomotives. GM acquired Electro Motive at roughly the same time as Winton. These two companies were merged to become the Electro Motive Division (EMD) of GM in 1941, which was responsible for locomotive production and engine design. A further division, the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division, was responsible for submarine, marine and stationary versions of the EMD engines. Finally, in 1937 GM set up a third diesel division in Detroit, the Detroit Diesel Engine Division. The Electro Motive Division was responsible for mid- and large-displacement engines (over 150 cubic inches per cylinder) while the Detroit Diesel Division was responsible for small-displacement engines (50 through 149 cubic inches displacement). The Canadian market was served by a single company, General Motors Diesel, which produced versions of the EMD and Detroit engines.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Olds FAQ - Engines". 442.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  2. ^ "Class of 1965: When GM Had Eight V8 Engine Families". The Truth About Cars. 2010-12-18. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  3. ^ e (2007-06-05). "HowStuffWorks "How Buick Works"". Auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  4. ^ "Pontiac Buggy Company | Pontiac Spring & Wagon Works | Oakland Motor Car | Pontiac |". My1955.com. 1941-03-01. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  5. ^ a b [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "1906, Buick Goes Four-Cylinder - Generations of GM". History.gmheritagecenter.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  7. ^ "1922 Buick 22-35 specifications, information, data, photos 44759". Carfolio.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  8. ^ "1909 Oakland Model 40". Conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  9. ^ "1961 Pontiac Indy Four Engine-Gmphotostore". Gmphotostore.com. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  10. ^ "customs-n-classics.dk". customs-n-classics.dk. Retrieved 2014-02-16. 
  11. ^ http://media.gm.com/media/de/de/opel/company_opel/Werke/Kaiserslautern.html. Retrieved 23 May 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ "Holden stops Family II engine Production". Zer Customs. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  13. ^ . http://history.gmheritagecenter.com/wiki/index.php/GM_do_Brasil_Milestones:_1980_-_1989.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ "Werk Aspern Plant. Facts and Figures". Retrieved 18 July 2014.