List of World War II puppet states

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Animated map of the European theater of war during World War II

During World War II a number of countries were conquered and controlled. These countries were then given new names, and assigned new governmental positions, and are given the name of puppet state. Germany and Japan were the two countries with the most puppet states. Italy also had several puppet states. Most of the allies (with the exception of the Soviet Union) did not have many puppet.

Allies[edit]

Soviet Union[edit]

The Soviet Union had only one puppet state prior to World War II, the The Tuvinian People's Republic, but it acquired many more during or as a result of the war.

Light green means pre-World War II

Yellow means post World War II

Created Disestablished Puppet State Country/territory Notes
1921-08-14 1944-10-11 Tannu Uriankhai, part of China Also known as "Tuva," Russia had been sending people (mainly farmers and fishermen) in to Tuva since 1860. In 1921, Russian-backed Bolsheviks stormed Tuva, after recently having declared its independence during the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. It was later annexed into the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast, per request of the "Little Khural," the executive committee of the Great Khural.[1]
1939-12-01 1940-03-12 Finland Encompassing the Hanko Peninsula, Suursaari, Seiskarim Lavansaari, Tytärsaari, and "Great and Little Koivisto", the Finnish Democratic Republic (sometimes also called the "Terijoki Government," because Terjoki was the first town to be captured by the Soviets) was created during the Winter War, and later merged with the Karelian ASSR to make the Karelo-Finnish SSR[2]
(1940-07-21)-(1941-07-25) (1944-09-26)-(1991-08-20) Estonia In 1918, Estonia began its war of independence. Using troops that had been assembled by the Germans after their invasion and subsequent occupation of Germany, Johan Laidoner lead the Estonian War of Independence. The Soviet Union and Estonia then signed the Treaty of Tartu, making Estonia independent. The Soviet Union invaded Estonia a second time, twenty years later, on 17 June 1940. A puppet state was set up four says later. Almost a year later, Germany invaded during Operation Barbarossa, and incorporated Estonia into Ostland. Initially, Estonians welcomed the Germans, but quickly began to dislike them. During the Soviet invasion, Estonia was liberated from German occupation, and again became a Soviet puppet state. It remained under Soviet control until its declaration of independence, the Estonian Sovereignty Declaration.[3]
(1940-07-21)-(1940-08-05) (1945-05-10)-(1991-08-21) Latvia In 1920, the Latvian War of Independence was over, and Latvia gained its independence from Russia. Latvia, along with Estonia and Lithuania, signed the Baltic Entente in 1934, a plan for the countries to politically support each other. On 5 October 1939, Latvia signed the Soviet–Latvian Mutual Assistance Treaty, allowing the Soviet Union to build military bases on Latvian soil. On 17 July 1940, the Soviet Union invaded. Four days later, Kārlis Ulmanis, then-president of Latvia, stepped down, and gave the pro-Soviet Augusts Kirhenšteins the seat. Kirhenšteins requested the incorporation of Latvia into the Soviet Union, as the Latvian SSR on 5 August 1940. After being taken by the Germans 10 July 1941, it remained part of Ostland until the Soviet counterattack, when the last German forces in Latvia (Army Group Courland in the Courland Pocket) were defeated.[4][5] It remained under Russian control until the 10 March 1990, when the Latvian Declaration of Sovereignty was adopted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Latvia. Its independence was fully restored after the failed 1991 Soviet coup.[4]:167
(1940-07-21)-(1941-06-22) (1945-01-28)-(1990-03-11) Lithuania
See also: People's Seimas

Following the 1926 Lithuanian coup d'état, Lithuania was led by what was known as the "Smetona regime," named after the leader of the coup, Antanas Smetona.[6] It was only in Soviet hands just under a year when German forces captured the Lithuanian SSR, and incorporated it into the Reichskommissariat Ostland. The Soviets retook the LSSR during the Baltic Operation. The LSSR gained its independence before any of the other Baltic states taken over by Russia, with the Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania in 1990, though the Soviet Union refused to recognized its independence until 6 September 1991.[7]

1944-11-12 1949-10-20 The Ili, Tarbagatay, and Altay districts of China In 1944, the Soviet-backed Ili Rebellion helped rebel forces take control of the area.[8] In the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, the Soviet Union agreed that it would no longer support the ETR, in return for China letting the Soviet Union keep the Mongolian People's Republic.[9] In 1949, several of the ETR's leaders died in a plane crash while on their way to the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. China, who had been eyeing the area since its 1944 rebellion, seized the moment and took control of the area, where most of the remaining leadership accepted the area's incorporation into China.[10]
1945-11-20 1946-06-13 Iranian Azerbaijan During World War II, the Soviet Union, aided by Armenian and Azeri forces, managed to keep German forces out of Azerbaijan. Despite this, the Soviet Union invaded Iranian Azerbaijan in mid-1941, during the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. This occupation helped lead to nationalism among the people of the Iranian Azerbaijan, which was encouraged by the Soviets. After World War II, the Soviets were forced by the other allies to withdraw.[11] The Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, led by Ja'far Pishevari, declared Azerbaijan as an autonomous government. While the people's discontent was growing, Iran appealed to the UN for help with a Soviet removal from their territory. The Soviets left in May 1946.[12]
1949-10-07 1990-12-03 East Prussia, Farther Pomerania, Neumark, and Lower Silesia, Germany In 1945, after the defeat of Germany, control of Germany was split up between the Soviet Union, and the other main allies. The Soviet Union got the east, and the west was mainly split between the United Kingdom, the United States, and France, with a small section known as the Saar Protectorate. After the victory, distrust between the US and the Soviet Union began to grow. As the United States began enacting the Marshall Plan, Soviet military authorities began cutting off the city from the rest of western Europe. The Allied Control Council was created in Berlin, and Berlin divided among powers, but disagreements prevented any agreements from being made over the control of Germany. By June 1948, the Soviets had cut off all land and water traffic with Berlin, leaving air as the only means of entry. After this, General Lucius D. Clay commanded US army planes to drop food and other supplies on Berlin. In 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was created. This created the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviet Union created the German Democratic Republic as a response.[13] On 9 November 1989, the East German borders were opened, and the Berlin wall was destroyed quickly thereafter. The two states were formally reunited on 3 December 1990.[5]:813

United Kingdom[edit]

The United Kingdom only had two puppet states during World War II, both of which were in the Middle East; one in Iraq, and one in Iran.

Created Disestablished Puppet State Country/territory Notes
1941-05-31 1958-02-14 Iraq The United Kingdom had shown interest in Iraq since 1921, when the Cairo Conference had created the British-backed "Kingdom of Iraq." After Iraq's 1932 admittance into the United Nations, British mandate of the area was ended. By March 1940, Iraqis had elected a government with strong Arab sentiments, with Rashid Ali al-Gaylani as the leader. In April 1941, al-Gaylani began a revolt, led by the Golden Square, a group of colonels. The rebels believed that they would get support from Germany, however, Germany was preoccupied fighting Russia. After the rebellion, the British lost their main source of oil, and invaded in May 1941.[14] In February 1958, Iraq joined the short-lived Arab Federation. Shortly after, the 14 July Revolution ended the Arab Federation, and Iraq was again its own country, the Republic of Iraq.[15]
1941-09-17 1953-08-19 Southern Iran Though Iran was invaded by Great Britain and the Soviet Union, neither of the countries had any immediate interests in Iran. The reasons they invaded were simple; keep the Germans out, maintain the flow of oil, and assist the Soviets with transportation across the Trans-Iranian Railway. Because of this, British control over Iran was fairly light, save internal security. After the invasion, Rezā Shāh was dethroned, and his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was put on the throne.[16] After the Soviet's northern Iran became the Second East Turkestan Republic, there became increasing civil unrest in the country. In 1953, Mohammad Mosaddegh and his supporters staged the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, also known as the 28 Mordad coup. The Shah was reinstated two days later.[17]

Axis[edit]

Japan[edit]

Japan had been creating puppet states in China since the 1931 Mukden Incident. It established a puppet state in 1932.

Light green means pre-World War II

Created Disestablished Puppet State Country/territory Notes
1932-03-01 1945-08-20 Manchuria, China Manchuria had long been a location of unrest, and the Mukden Incident was the perfect excuse for a Japanese occupation. The Mukden Incident, in essence, was when the Kwantung Army set off a bomb along the South Manchuria Railway, and used the explosion as an excuse to occupy Manchuria, blaming Chinese forces.[18] Manchukuo was created in March 1932. Despite the Japanese control of the area, they couldn't annex Manchuria into Japan due to their signing of the Nine-Power Treaty. After creating Manchukuo, Japan and Manchukuo signed several treaties allowing Japan to mobolize Manchuria's people and resources as it liked.[19] It was disestablished after the Soviet invasion of Manchuria.[19] :90
1936-05-12 1945-08-20 Inner Mongolia On 22 December 1935, part of Inner Mongolia split from China, and became an independent state. The Mongol Military Government was formed in May 1936. The military government operated under Chinese sovereignty, but Japanese control.[20] In 1937, its name was changed to the Mongol United Autonomous Government. In 1939, the United Mongolian Autonomous Government, the Northern Shanxi Autonomous Government, and the Southern Chahar Autonomous Government merged to become known as Mengjiang. Mengjiang was later merged with other puppet states to create the Provisional Government of the Republic of China.[21]
1937-12-05 1938-05-03 Pudong, China The Great Way Municipal Government (GWMG) was created to help administer the occupied suburbs of Shanghai in December 1937.[22] The GWMG was very small, consisting of nothing more than an office building in Pudong. Because of its association with the Japanese government, the GWMG had difficulty attracting any politicians of reputation. It had difficulty creating an administration for Shanghai, and was - after just under five months - merged with a new occupation regime in Nanjing.[23]
1938-03-28 1940-03-30 Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Nanjing, and Shanghai, China The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (RGRC) was created in Nanking, after the Battle of Nanking on 28 March 1938.[24] The RGRC was made to have the appearance to legitimacy, and had Wang Jingwei as the first Chairman of the RGRC.[25] Despite this, the government was filled with "nonentities who posed no threat to the Japanese exercise of real power." It was merged into the Reorganized National Government of China in 1940.[26]
1937-12-14 1940-03-30 Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Honan, and Jiangsu, China Many parts of China were invaded after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, and the Provisional Government was set up just over six months later, on the day after the fall of Nanking. Before the country was even created, in October 1937, Japan created the North China Developement Company to exploit China's resource-rich North.[27] On 30 March 1940, the Provisional Government was merged into the Nanjing Nationalist Government.[20]:379
1940-03-30 1945-08-15 Reformed Government of the Republic of China, Provisional Government of the Republic of China, and Mengjiang Japan wanted to make Wang Jingwei, the former leader of the Provisional Government of China, the leader of a new puppet government. But, contrary to what was expected, Wang set up a new Nationalist government, based on the reunified Nationalist government of 1927. He requested that the Three Principles be reinstated, among other things. The Japanese initially this request, viewing the Three Principles as "Western ideas," but eventually accepted, with some exceptions: removal of the requested 5-branch system, and replacing it with a one-party system. The Nationalist Government retained independence as far as financial matters and economy were concerned, but Japan controlled its politics.[28] Despite this, the country had no real power, and was mainly used as a propaganda tool. The country was ended in August 1945.[20]:383
1943-08-01 1945-03-27 British Burma Initially, Burma was invaded with the sole objectives of cutting off the Burma Road, a route through which the United States and Great Britain supplied Chiang Kai-shek, and gaining the resources of Burma, mainly rice and gas. After Japan's successful conquest of Burma, which was completed in May 1942, they began driving the British out, using the Burmese Independence Army. Once the British were entirely out of Burma, Burma was granted nominal independence, which essentially meant that Burma was called independent, but was really under Japanese control, as part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. After several years, growing dissent in the country led to growing popularity of Thakins and other anti-government groups like it. By 1944, they had organized an underground Anti-Fascist Organization, and on 27 March 1945, Aung San led these and other forces to rise up against the Japanese. The uprising is remembered as a struggle against "imperialist British" and "fascist Japanese."[29]
1943-10-14 1945-08-17 Philippines Following Japan's invasion of the Philippines in 1941, the Japanese tried to present themselves as liberators from their "colonial repression." In 1942, a group of influential Filipino politicians tried to negotiate with the Japanese for the creation of a new national government, but this led to nothing more than the creation of the puppet state. A second factor in the creation of the puppet state was the turning tide of the war: the Japanese believed that the creation of a government that appeared free would boost civilian morale. On 20 October 1944, US forces began the re-invasion of the Philippines. The Philippines were effectively under United States control by July 1945, and a new government set up in August.[30]
1943-10-21 1945-08-18 British India The Provisional Government of India, sometimes also called the Provisional Government of Azad Hind, was created by Indian nationalists-in-exile in October 1943.[20] :411 According to Subhas Chandra Bose in a proclamation issued on 4 April 1944, the government was formed in Syonan (formerly Singapore) after an invasion of Singapore. This invasion was wanted "by the unanimous will of the three million Indians in East Asia." Additionally, he stated that the Provisional Government had but one mission: "to expel the Anglo-American armies from the sacred soil of India by armed force and then to bring about the establishment of a Permanent Government of Azad Hind, in accordance with the will of the Indian people." He also claimed that "the Indian people will co-operate wholeheartedly with our Ally, the Nippon Army, who are giving us unstinted and unconditional assistance in defeating our enemies." Bose was also "fully convinced [of] Nippon's sincerity towards India." He also claimed that, given the Government's rapid advance in to India, "the circumstances have...rendered it necessary...to borrow from the Nipponese Government the currency...already in its possession and to use that money as a temporary measure."[31] The Provisional Government was ended shortly after Subhas Rose died in a plane crash on the way to Taiwan, in August 1945. With his death, much of the Indian National Army surrendered.[32] Despite Japan's strong influence in the area, some historians consider the Azad Hind a free and independent government.[33]
1945-03-09 1945-08-23 Cochinchina and Vietnam On 10 May 1940, Germany began its invasion of France. Following victory over France on 22 June 1940, Philippe Pétain was given control of Vichy France. Japan had been placing pressure for facilities and bases in Vietnam before France had fallen, and the fall of France made Japan even more eager.[34] Japan occupied Vietnam for much of World War II, and this set up a climate favorable to more radical ideas and revolutionary nationalism. Starting in the spring of 1945, the Viet Minh began carving out a small "liberated zone" along the borderlands of Vietnam. In an effort to save downed American pilots lost in Vietnam, the US agreed to aid the Viet Minh army, and train their technicians. After the first revolution, on 9 March 1945, the French governor of Indochina Jean Decoux was arrested, and replaced (by the Japanese government) with Bảo Đại.[35] Despite its local backing, the government had no military power of its own. Bảo Đại later wrote that, while working there, he "felt isolated in a dead capital city."[35]:358 In August 1945, the August Revolution brought freedom to Vietnam, just days before the Japanese surrendered.[36]
1945-03-09 1945-08-15 Cambodia In October 1940, the Franco-Thai War broke out between Vichy France and Thailand. The Japanese, using their power in the area (gained after the Japanese invasion of French Indochina), mediated the ceasefire, and got Vichy France to cede disputed territories to Thailand. On 8 December 1941, Japanese forces invaded Thailand, using bases in Cambodia.[37] By July 1942, nationalists were growing more upset with the French rule in the area, and were planning a march against the French, when, on 17 July, their leader, Hem Chieu, was arrested after mentioning his ideas of a march to a Cambodian militiaman. This outraged the nationalists, and they staged a Japanese-backed rally on 20 July. The French reacted harshly, tracking down as many people as possible who attended the protest, and then trying them. After the allied invasion of France, Japan began to grow fearful that the Free French Forces would align Cambodia with the allied cause. On 9 March 1945, Japan seized control of Cambodia in a coup d'état in French Indochina. On 13 March, Norodom Sihanouk agreed with Japanese wished, and declared that Cambodia was now the independent Kingdom of Kampuchea, and nullified all Franco-Cambodian agreements. Within a day of the surrender of Japan, Cambodia was returned to French hands.[38]

Germany[edit]

Germany had a large number of puppet states after the start of World War II. Some were countries that once supported it, but fell to the Allies. Others were countries that Germany invaded.

Light green means pre-World War II

Light blue means taken from Italy after the Capitulation of Italy

Created Disestablished Puppet State Country/territory Notes
1939-03-14 1945-05-08 Slovak Republic Slovakia, Czechoslovakia Hitler had been having meetings with the Czechoslovakians for years, and had long had plans of making Slovakia a puppet state. In early March, rumors (planted by Germans) began reaching Slovakian leaders that Germany would give Slovakia economic support if Slovakia gained independence. German troops began moving in on Slovakia. On 10 March, diplomatic talks between the Czech Republic and Slovakia had broken down, and Hitler was growing nervous about his plans of a Slovakian puppet state. He threatened that Slovakia should either declare its independence, or be abandoned. Later, Germany received a telegram stating Slovakia's independence, along with a request for German assistance.[39] Shortly after Slovakia's "independence," Hungary (looking to gain land from militarily-weak Slovakia) attacked Slovakia, in what became known as the Slovak–Hungarian War. During the war, which lasted from 23 March[40] to 4 April 1939, Germany failed to protect Slovakia (in direct violation of their treaty), forcing Slovakia cede 400 square miles (1,036 square kilometers) of land to Hungary.[40] :51–52 Despite this, there was at least one plus to German rule: it improved the Czech business sector.[40] :111 Some historians date the end of the Slovak Republic as 11 April 1945, when the Slovak National Council was instated after the Slovak National Uprising. Others date it at 8 May 1945, when the Slovak government signed the surrender document.[41]
1939-03-15 1945-05-11 Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Bohemia and Moravia, Czechoslovakia Incorporated into Reich after Munich Agreement, Hitler Czechoslovakian President called Emil Hácha to Germany and intimidated him into accepting German reorganization. The capital of Prague was liberated by Allied forces in 1945.[42]
1940-07-10 1945-04-22 French State France and its colonial empire Established shortly after the German victory over France following the armistice of 22 June 1940 in the non-occupied zone libre. The "free zone" in southern France was occupied on 11 November 1942. The Vichy regime went into exile to Sigmaringen in Germany after the liberation of France in the summer of 1944. The Sigmaringen enclave was captured on 22 April 1945 by the Free French 1st Armoured Division.[43]
1941-04-30 1944-10-12 The Hellenic State Greece Unable to take Greece by itself, Italy got the backing of Germany on 6 April 1941. Though originally jointly owned, Germany took control after Armistice of Cassibile. In 1943, Italy's Principality of the Pindus added to the country. Germany withdrew on 12 October 1944, after a British invasion. Germany also had plans to make Macedonia an independent puppet state, but it was never carried out.[44]
1941-04-30 1941-08-29 Commissioner Government Part of Serbia Taken during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. Later merged into Government of National Salvation[45]
1941-08-29 1944-10-20 Government of National Salvation Yugoslavia Formed shortly after Germany's Invasion of Yugoslavia. Head officials were evacuated during the Soviet Union's Belgrade Offensive.[45] :73
1942-02-01 1945-05-09 Quisling's Norwegian National government Reichskommissariat Norwegen, previously Norway Reichskommissariat Norwegen formed on 24 April 1940, after the invasion of Norway. In 1942, Germany appointed Vidkun Quisling as the government's leader, though Reichskommissariat operation was continued de facto until 1945. Officially disestablished on 9 May after Quisling was arrested.[46]
1941-11-15 1943-08-26 The Lokot Autonomy The Oryol Oblast and Kursk Oblast of the Soviet Union Created after the German invasion of the Soviet Union. It was mainly used as a supplier of food, and an area to transport goods. Disestablished towards the end of 1943.[47]
1943-03-01 1942-07-02 The Belarusian Central Rada Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Soviet Union Set up inside Germany's Reichskommissariat Reichskommissariat Ostland after the German invasion of the Soviet Union. The short-term goal of this country was to create a pro-German attitude in the area. It was disestablished on 2 July 1944, after German authorities were withdrawn. The Belarusian Central Rada is not considered a Reichskommissariat because it had a collaborationist government.[48]
1943-09-14 1944-11-28 Kingdom of Albania Italian Albania Gained control after capitulation of Italy on 9 August 1943. After much persuasion from Germany, Albania set up its own government. Albania was liberated by the Allies in 1944.[49]
1943-09-08 1945-05-08 Independent State of Croatia Italian Croatia Germany gained control after the capitulation of Italy. It remained a puppet state of Germany's until the end of World War Two in Europe, on 8 May 1945.[50]
1943-09-08 1944-09-06 German Monaco Monaco Taken after the capitulation of Italy. Allied troops liberated Monaco in 1944.[51]
1943-09-23 1945-04-25 Italian Social Republic parts of the Kingdom of Italy Taken after the Capitulation of Italy, slowly freed during the Italian Campaign.[52]
1943-09-08 1944-12-15 Independent State of Montenegro Italian governorate of Montenegro Invaded by Germany after Italian capitulation. It was liberated on 15 December 1944.[53]
1944-10-17 1945-05-07 Kingdom of Hungary Hungary Sometimes also called the Arrow Cross Government, after the Arrow Cross Party. Formed as a result of Operation Panzerfaust, Germany's attempt to keep Hungary on their side of the war. Though German occupation ended on 12 April 1945, the Kingdom of Hungary was not disestablished until 7 May 1945.[54]

Reichskommissariats[edit]

Germany created a number of Reichskommissariats during World War II. This term is used to refer to quasi-colonial states of Nazi Germany, which were planned to be repopulated with Germans.

Orange means it was never established.

Created Disestablished Reichskommissariat Country/territory Notes
1940-04-24 1945-05-09 Reichskommissariat Norwegen Norway Set up after Germany's invasion of Norway and Denmark, the state was made de facto after the creation of Quisling's Norwegian National government in 1942. It continued in operation until Germany's capitulation.[55]
1940-05-29 1945-05-09 Reichskommissariat Niederlande Netherlands Set up after the Battle of the Netherlands, which lasted only 7 days. Germany remained in control of the Reichskommissariat until 9 May 1945.[56]
1941-07-25 1945-05-08 Reichskommissariat Ostland Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Lithuanian SSR, Soviet Union Conglomeration of the former Soviet Baltic States. Captured during Operation Barbarossa, reclaimed after the surrender of the Courland Pocket[57]
1941-07-16 1944-11-10 Reichskommissariat Ukraine Ukraine and parts of the Soviet Union Originally part of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, separated in 1941. After the Soviet counteroffensive, all of Ukraine was back in Soviet hands.[58]
1944-07-12 1944-12-15 the Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France France occupied since 1940 (see Vichy France). Puppet state created in 1944, later became the Reichsgaus of Reichsgau Wallonien and Reichsgau Flandern, and the Gau of Brussels[59]
Planned mid-1941 Not established Reichskommissariat Moskowien Between the Ural mountains (as well as some districts east of it, including the city of Sverdlovsk) and its boundaries with Finland, the Baltic states, Belarus, and Ukraine To be invaded during Battle of Moscow, but Germany failed to meet its goals.[60]
Planned 1942 Not established Reichskommissariat Kaukasus Transcaucasia and Ciscaucasia, parts of Southern Russia as far as the Volga river Planned to be experiments conducted for various forms of autonomy for "indigenous groups".[61]
Planned 1941 Not established Reichskommissariat Turkestan Soviet Central Asia Idea created by Alfred Rosenberg, but Hitler quickly rejected the idea[62]
Planned 1941 Not established Reichskommissariat Don-Wolga From the Sea of Azov to the Volga German Republic Dropped because it did not carry a specific political objective, and because the German authorities had decided by the second half of May 1941 to limit the number of administrative units that were to be established in the east to four.[63]
Planned 1941 Not established Reichskommissariat Ural Presumed to be most of the Ural Mountains Not much is known about this Reichskommissariat.[64]

Italy[edit]

Though Italy did not have as many puppet states as the Soviet Union, Imperial Japan, or Nazi Germany, Italy did have a few. All of Italy's puppet states were captured by Germany after the fall of Italy.

Light green means pre-World War II

Created Disestablished Puppet State Country/territory Notes
1939-04-12 1943-09-08 Kingdom of Albania Albanian Kingdom Mussolini viewed Albania as strategically important, began Italian invasion of Albania in 1939. Lost to the Germans after Italy surrendered[65]
1941-04-30 1943-09-08 The Hellenic State Greece Italy invaded Greece on 28 October 1940. After failing to conquer Greece for around five months, Germany invaded Greece, and completed the invasion in under twenty five days. This led to both Germany and Italy controlling the Greek government. Germany gained full control after the Italians surrendered.[66]
1942-11-?? 1943-09-08 Italian Monaco Monaco Italy invaded Monaco and set up a Fascist government. After the capitulation of Italy, Germany took over Monaco.[67]
1941-05-05 1943-09-08 Italian governorate of Montenegro Yugoslavia Italy invaded Montenegro to expand its borders on the Adriatic Sea, as it had done with Albania. After the capitulation of Italy in 1943, Germany took over Montenegro.[68]
1941-04-30 1943-09-08 Principality of the Pindus Epirus, Thessaly, and West Macedonia, Greece Never able to assert itself over the local population, merged with the Hellenic State after the capitulation of Italy[69]

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