List of mammals of Florida

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Dolphin, State Saltwater Mammal;[1] Florida panther, State Animal[2] and manatee, State Marine Mammal[1]

This is a list of mammal species found in the wild on the American State of Florida. In total, 98 species of mammals are known to inhabit, or recently to have inhabited, the state and its surrounding waters. This includes a few species, such as the black-tailed jackrabbit and red deer, that were introduced after the European colonization of the Americas. It also includes the extinct Caribbean monk seal. Rodents account for roughly one quarter of all species, followed closely by mammals from the Cetacea and Carnivora families.

The species included in this list are drawn from the work of The American Society of Mammalogists, which compiled information from five different publications.[3] Information on the international status of species has been drawn from the IUCN Red List.


Florida mammals by order[edit]

Order Members Species Threatened species
Artiodactyla even-toed ungulates 4
Carnivora carnivorans 19 1
Cetacea whales, dolphins and porpoises 21 5
Chiroptera bats 18 2
Cingulata armadillos 1
Didelphimorphia common opossums 1
Lagomorpha hares, rabbits and pikas 4
Primates lemurs, monkeys, and apes 1
Rodentia rodents 23 1
Sirenia aquatic herbivorous mammals 1 1
Soricomorpha shrews, moles and solenodons 5
Total 98 10

How to read international conservation status data[edit]

Main article: IUCN Red List

Species are classified in nine groups, set through criteria such as rate of decline, population size, area of geographic distribution, degree of population and distribution fragmentation. The tables below reclassified results before 1994 to reflect the current rating system.

Low Vulnerability Threatened Extinct Insufficient Data
Fl mammals lc.svg
Least Concern
Fl mammals nt.svg
Near Threatened
Fl mammals vu.svg
Vulnerable
Fl mammals en.svg
Endangered
Fl mammals cr.svg
Critically Endangered
Fl mammals ew.svg
Extinct in the Wild
Fl mammals ex.svg
Extinct
Fl mammals dd.svg
Data Deficient
Fl mammals nd.svg
Not Evaluated

Florida terrestrial mammals[edit]

Carnivora[edit]

Florida panther

The coyote arrived in northern Florida in the 1970s as its natural range expanded. Illegal releases were another factor in its occupation of the state. Coyotes are extremely adaptable, living in all types of forests and farms.[4]

Florida has two types of foxes. The native gray fox can be found in the United States almost anywhere, except northern plains and Rockies. It is sometimes confounded with the red fox due to having patches of red hair.[5] The red fox was introduced to Florida by hunting clubs, although it may have been native in the northern panhandle. Its preferred habitats are open areas, while the gray fox prefers woods.[6]

Red wolves were once common throughout the southeastern US, including Florida. Extinct in the wild in 1980, it has been progressively introduced to select nature preserves. The present population was introduced as part of this recovery program in 1997 to the Saint Vincent National Refuge;[7] once red wolf pups reach 18 months, they are relocated to the North Carolina portion of the program.[8]

Bobcats are well adapted to urban development and are not a conservation concern. They make their home in hammocks, forests or swamps.[9]

The Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) is one of the subspecies of cougar. Its main differences from other subspecies are longer legs, smaller size and a shorter darker coat. The skull of the Florida panther is broader and flatter with highly arched nasal bones.[10] Reportedly only seventy adult animals are alive,[11] and a 1992 study estimated that the subspecies would become extinct between 2016 and 2055.[12] It was chosen in 1982 as the Florida State Animal by the state's schoolchildren.[13]

It is believed that some Jaguarundis were unintentionally released in the wild in the 1940s.[14] There is no evidence besides witness accounts, and the existence of Jaguarandis in the state is dubious.[15]

Two of the eleven species of skunks live in Florida. Both the eastern spotted skunk and the striped skunk can be found statewide (except for the Keys).

Small populations of the Everglades mink (Mustela vison evergladensis), a subspecies of American mink, are encountered near Lake Okeechobee, and in the Big Cypress Swamp-Everglades National Park area.[16]

Northern river otters are a common sight close to freshwater streams across Florida. The population is increasing.[17]

Raccoons are prevalent in the lower 48 states, including Florida. Adaptable to almost all kinds of habitats, the animals are among the few who actually benefit from human development, since food becomes more available. Attacks by predators like the bobcat cause minimum mortality, and the main reason for raccoon deaths is considered to be car accidents.[18] They are regarded as predators of sea turtles nests.[19]

All bears in Florida are part of the subspecies Ursus americanus floridanus. Differences between subspecies are very small; the Florida black bear differs from other subspecies by its highly arched forehead and its long and narrow braincase.[20] Estimates for 2002 indicated the number of bears statewide to be between 2,000 and 3,200 individuals, indicating an increase from the previous census in 1998. The biggest cause of concern is roadkill, although the rates of mortality are equivalent to other areas in the country.[21]

Name Species/Authority Order Family ASM state status and native range[3] Red List
Coyote
Canis latrans latrans Pennington County SD.jpg
Canis latrans
Say, 1823
Carnivora Canidae uncommon or locally common statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[22]
Feral dog
Feral Dog.jpg
Canis familiaris
Linnaeus, 1758
Carnivora Canidae locally common; escaped or released statewide
0
Fl mammals nd.svg
Gray fox
GrayFoxApr04NFla.jpg
Urocyon cinereoargenteus
(Schreber, 1775)
Carnivora Canidae uncommon or locally common statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[23]
Red fox
Red Fox Lateral.JPG
Vulpes vulpes
Linnaeus, 1758
Carnivora Canidae uncommon or locally common statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[24]
Red wolf
Red wolf (4531335218).jpg
Canis rufus
Audubon & Bachman, 1851
Carnivora Canidae rare, introduced on Saint Vincent Island
3
Fl mammals cr.svg
[25]
Bobcat
Florida Bobcat.jpg
Lynx rufus
(Schreber, 1777)
Carnivora Felidae common; Peninsula and Northern Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[26]
Florida Pather
Puma concolor coryi.jpg
Puma concolor
(Linnaeus, 1771)
Carnivora Felidae rare, restricted to Green Swamp and Big Cypress areas in SW peninsula
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[27]
Feral cat
Feral barn cat.jpg
Felis catus
Schreber, 1775
Carnivora Felidae abundant; escaped or released statewide
0
Fl mammals nd.svg
Jaguarundi
Jaguarondi 2.jpg
Herpailurus yaguarondi
(Lacépède, 1809)
Carnivora Felidae possibly introduced to the northern two thirds of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[28]
Eastern spotted skunk
Spilogale putorius (2).jpg
Spilogale putorius
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Carnivora Mephitidae common; statewide except northeast corner and Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[29]
Striped skunk
Striped skunk Florida.jpg
Mephitis mephitis
(Schreber, 1776)
Carnivora Mephitidae common; statewide except Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[30]
Long-tailed weasel
Mustela frenata.jpg
Mustela frenata
Lichtenstein, 1831
Carnivora Mustelidae rare; statewide except Everglades and Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[31]
Mink
MustelaVison001.JPG
Mustela vison
Schreber, 1777
Carnivora Mustelidae rare; coastal marshes in west Panhandle, Big Bend area, northeast area, and Everglades
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[32]
Northern river otter
Brevard Zoo, Viera FL - Flickr - Rusty Clark (150).jpg
Lontra canadensis
(Schreber, 1777)
Carnivora Mustelidae locally common, mostly freshwater habitats, primarily rivers and streams, statewide except Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[33]
Common raccoon
Procyon lotor (Common raccoon).jpg
Procyon lotor
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Carnivora Procyonidae abundant, statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[34]
White-nosed coati
Nasua narica -Costa Rica-8.jpg
Nasua narica
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Carnivora Procyonidae introduced species, with reports over a wide area of southern Florida
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[35]
American black bear
A Florida Black Bear.jpg
Ursus americanus
Pallas, 1780
Carnivora Ursidae rare or uncommon; localized populations statewide except Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[36]

Chiroptera[edit]

Of the species listed below, 13 are confirmed to be resident species; all of them are insectivorous. Five species had very low numbers reported and can be classified as accidental species: Indiana Bat, Jamaican fruit bat, little brown bat, northern long-eared myotis and the silver-haired bat. Some bats not in this list, but with reported sightings in the Lower Keys, are the buffy flower bat, Cuban flower bat and Cuban fig-eating bat.[37]

Bats can be classified in two groups by their roosting habits: solitary and colony-roosting bats.

Solitary bats prefer to live in leaves, palm fronds and Spanish moss. Resident bats in this category are the Eastern red bat, the northern yellow bat and the Seminole bat. Hoary bats are not considered residents because they migrate to Mexico and South America to spend the winter.[38]

The remaining species are considered to be colony-roosting bats. Darker than their solitary counterparts and less furry, these bats prefer to live under bridges, in tree holes or caves. Only 3 Florida species live in caves: the eastern pipistrelle, the gray bat and the southeastern myotis. Florida has the highest concentration of southeastern myotis in the world.[38]

The greatest threat to bats in Florida is the disturbance or destruction of roost sites, due to vandalism or urban development.[38]

Name Species/Authority Order Family ASM state status and native range[3] Red List
Velvety free-tailed bat
Molossus molossus molossus 1847.jpg
Molossus molossus
(Pallas, 1766)
Chiroptera Molossidae rare; Lower Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[39]
Mexican Free-tailed Bat
Tadarida brasiliensis.gif
Tadarida brasiliensis
(I. Geoffroy, 1824)
Chiroptera Molossidae common, statewide except for Keys
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[40]
Wagner's bonneted bat Eumops glaucinus
(Wagner, 1843)
Chiroptera Molossidae rare, found only in the Miami and Coral Gables area
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[41]
Jamaican fruit bat
Artibeus jamaicensis los tuxtlas 2008.jpg
Artibeus jamaicensis
Leach, 1821
Chiroptera Phyllostomidae rare, Lower Keys only
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[42]
Big brown bat
Big brown bat.jpg
Eptesicus fuscus
(Beauvois, 1796)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae common statewide except for Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[43]
Eastern pipistrelle
Littlebrownbat.JPG
Pipistrellus subflavus
(F. Cuvier, 1832)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae uncommon; panhandle and northern half of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[44]
Eastern red bat
Lasiurus borealis 2.jpg
Lasiurus borealis
(Müller, 1776)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae uncommon; panhandle and northern quarter of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[45]
Evening bat
Nycticeius humeralis Evening bat.JPG
Nycticeius humeralis
(Rafinesque, 1818)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae common; statewide except for Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[46]
Gray bat
Gray Bat USACE.jpg
Myotis grisescens
A.H. Howell, 1909
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae rare, known only from panhandle, Marianna area
4
Fl mammals en.svg
[47]
Hoary bat
Lasurius cinereus.jpg
Lasiurus cinereus
(Beauvois, 1796)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae uncommon, panhandle and northern half of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[48]
Indiana bat
Indiana Bat FWS.jpg
Myotis sodalis
Miller & Allen, 1928
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae rare, known only from panhandle, Marianna and Jackson counties
4
Fl mammals en.svg
[49]
Little brown bat
Little Brown Bat FWS.jpg
Myotis lucifugus
(La Conte, 1831)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae rare, known only from panhandle and Okaloosa County
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[50]
Northern long-eared myotis
Myotis septentrionalis 1870.jpg
Myotis septentrionalis
(Trouessart, 1897)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae rare, known only from panhandle, Marianna and Jackson counties
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[51]
Northern yellow bat Lasiurus intermedius
H. Allen, 1862
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae common statewide except southern tip of peninsula and Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[52]
Rafinesque's big-eared bat
Corynorhinus rafinesquii.JPG
Plecotus rafinesquii
Lesson, 1827
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae rare, statewide except southern tip of peninsula and Keys
5
Fl mammals lc.svg
[53]
Seminole bat
Seminole Bat (7351768292).jpg
Lasiurus seminolus
(Rhoads, 1895)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae common, statewide except southern tip of peninsula and Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[54]
Silver-haired bat
Lasionycteris noctivagans1.jpg
Lasionycteris noctivagans
(La Conte, 1831)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae rare; known only from north Santa Rosa County and possibly north Nassau County
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[55]
Southeastern myotis
Myotis austroriparius.jpg
Myotis austroriparius
(Rhoads, 1897)
Chiroptera Vespertilionidae common; cave habitats in panhandle and, disjunct, northeastern and northcentral peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[56]

Rodentia[edit]

Eastern gray squirrel in Tampa

Of the several species of rodents in Florida, the subspecies of Oldfield Mouse are the biggest conservation concern, along with the Florida mouse. Six of eight subspecies of the Oldfield mouse (commonly named beach mice) are in endangered status, and one is extinct. Given causes for their demise is predators like cats and red foxes and destruction of their natural habitats.[57] The Florida mouse is on the endangered species list because of destruction of their habitat. The mouse is the only mammal that is endemic to Florida. The rodent depends on the gopher tortoise (also endangered) for its survival, because it makes its burrows from tortoise burrows, or in the absence of those, Oldfield mouse burrows.[58]

Non-native species brought in boats by colonizers are the black rat, brown rat and house mouse. Other non-natives are the capybara, the nutria and the Mexican gray squirrel.[59]

Not listed below, but with reported sightings, are the biggest rat in the world, the Gambian pouched rat, which arrived in 2002; and the prairie dog. Both are wild releases of animals kept as pets.[59]

Name Species Authority Order Family ASM state status and native range[3] Red List
American beaver
Castor canadensis.jpg
Castor canadensis
Kuhl, 1820
Rodentia Castoridae common; panhandle and northern third of peninsula, except coastal areas.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[60]
Southeastern pocket gopher Geomys pinetis
Rafinesque, 1817
Rodentia Geomyidae common; panhandle and northern half of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[61]
Capybara
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris.jpg
Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Rodentia Hydrochaeridae introduced; probably several small populations north of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[62]
Oldfield mouse
Peromyscus polionotus trissyllepsis.jpg
Peromyscus polionotus
(Wagner, 1843)
Rodentia Muridae rare; coastal dunes and dunes on some barrier islands; uncommon on panhandle and northern two thirds of peniinsula in dry, sandy, oldfields and grasslands
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[63]
Cotton mouse
Peromyscus gossypinus.jpg
Peromyscus gossypinus
(Le Conte, 1850)
Rodentia Muridae common; statewide in forests and mixed forest/grasslands
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[64]
Eastern harvest mouse
Reithrodontomys humulis 2.jpg
Reithrodontomys humilis
(Audubon & Bachman, 1941)
Rodentia Muridae common; panhandle and northern two thirds of peninsula in oldfields, grasslands, and fields
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[65]
Florida woodrat
Neotoma Floridana.gif
Neotoma floridana
(Ord, 1818)
Rodentia Muridae uncommon; panhandle, northern two thirds of peninsula and rare; Key Largo
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[66]
Florida mouse Podomys floridanus
(Chapman, 1889)
Rodentia Muridae rare; central peninsula, mostly in habitats along central ridges.
5
Fl mammals vu.svg
[67]
Meadow vole
Microtus pennsylvanicus.jpg
Microtus pennsylvanicus
(Ord, 1815)
Rodentia Muridae rare; salt marsh in Cedar Key area of Gulf coast
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[68]
Golden mouse Ochrotomys nuttalli
(Harlan, 183)2
Rodentia Muridae rare; panhandle and northern half of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[69]
Hispid cotton rat
Sigmodon hispidus1.jpg
Sigmodon hispidus
Say & Ord, 1825
Rodentia Muridae common; statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[70]
House mouse
House mouse.jpg
Mus musculus
Linnaeus, 1758
Rodentia Muridae common; statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[71]
Marsh rice rat
Oryzomys palustris.jpg
Oryzomys palustris
(Harlan, 1837)
Rodentia Muridae common; statewide in saltmarsh and associated habitats
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[72]
Brown rat
London Scruffy Rat.jpg
Rattus norvegicus
(Berkenhout, 1769)
Rodentia Muridae common; statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[73]
Woodland vole
Woodland Vole Microtus Pinetorum.jpg
Microtus pinetorum
(Le Conte, 1830)
Rodentia Muridae uncommon; central portion of northern third of peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[74]
Black rat
Rattus rattus04.jpg
Rattus rattus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Rodentia Muridae common statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[75]
Round-tailed muskrat
Round-tailed Muskrat Neofiber alleni.png
Neofiber alleni
True, 1884
Rodentia Muridae common; peninsula and isolated populations in Apalachicola and Okefenokee areas
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[76]
Coypu
Myocastor coypus.jpg
Myocastor coypus
(Molina, 1782)
Rodentia Myocastoridae introduced; Duval County and panhandle populations; possibly established statewide except Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[77]
Eastern chipmunk
Eastern Chipmunk 1745.jpg
Tamias striatus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Rodentia Sciuridae uncommon; northern half of western panhandle in mesic forest areas
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[78]
Eastern gray squirrel
Sciurus carolinensis.jpg
Sciurus carolinensis
Gmelin, 1788
Rodentia Sciuridae common; statewide except lower Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[79]
Fox squirrel
Sciurus niger (on fence).jpg
Sciurus niger
Linnaeus, 1758
Rodentia Sciuridae rare; statewide except Keys; possibly extinct in southeastern peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[80]
Mexican gray squirrel
Mexicanredbelliedsquirrel3.jpg
Sciurus aureogaster
F. Cuvier, 1829
Rodentia Sciuridae introduced; established on Elliott Key
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[81]
Southern flying squirrel
Glaucomys volans.jpg
Glaucomys volans
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Rodentia Sciuridae common; statewide except Keys and possibly southwest peninsula
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[82]

Other orders[edit]

Key deer

The only native even-toed ungulate is the white-tailed deer. It is the most economically important hunting mammal in all of North America, and is one of the major prey animals of the Florida panther. There were only about 20,000 deer in Florida during the late 1930s, and the species was almost extinct in South Florida due to a campaign to eliminate tick-borne diseases. Hunt restraining measures and purchases from other states were very successful bringing the population to more than 700,000 deer statewide. The smaller subspecies, Key deer, lives only in the Keys and numbers around 800 animals.[83] Sambar Deers were introduced in 1908 as alternative game for hunters on Saint Vincent Island. The population is between 700 and 1,000 deers; 130 hunters are licensed per year, and each can kill up to two animals.[84] Some Red Deers were released from a hunting ranch around 1967 and may still exist as a small herd.[85]

Hogs found their way to Florida in 1539 with Spanish colonist Hernando de Soto. Florida has 12% of the three million hogs that roam in the US.[86] They are a popular hunting prey, but are regarded as a pest due to the damage they inflict to agriculture and environment. More than 21,000 hogs were killed in 1980 alone.[87]

All the confirmed Soricomorpha in Florida are nocturnal; the black-tailed jackrabbit—introduced as a training tool for racing greyhounds from 1930 to 1950; the native eastern cottontail, which can be found anywhere but in forests and coastal marshes; and the marsh rabbit, who prefers freshwater and brackish marshes. The subspecies Lower Keys marsh rabbit has the scientific name Sylvilagus palustris hefneri after Hugh Hefner—because research on the subspecies was financed in part by the Playboy Foundation.[88]

Three species of shrews are found across Florida. Two known subspecies are the Homosassa Shrew (Sorex longirostris eionis) and Sherman's Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina carolinensis shermanii.[89] One of their main predators is the cat. Completing the Soricomorpha are two species of moles.

The Rhesus Macaque was introduced to Florida in 1933, as props for Tarzan movies, and have established colonies after escaping from the set.[90] Charles River Laboratories, the world's biggest producer of lab animals, maintained a free-range colony until 1999, when they were forced to remove the animals after they destroyed parts of the mangrove forests in Key Haven.[91] Other primates with reported sightings not included in this list are Vervet Monkeys[92] and Squirrel Monkeys.[93]

Cingulata are represented by the Nine-banded Armadillo, released in 1922 by a Marine who kept them as pets, but other accounts place them as having migrated from Texas. Subsequent introductions and fast breeding spread the species statewide.[87]

The Virginia opossum is the only marsupial found in North America north of the Rio Grande. It lives in wooded areas and can be easily found statewide.

Name Species Authority Order Family ASM state status and native range[3] Red List
Red deer
Rothirsch.jpg
Cervus elaphus
Linnaeus, 1758
Artiodactyla Cervidae introduced; single population in Highlands County.
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[94]
Sambar deer
Sambar deer.JPG
Cervus unicolor
Kerr, 1792
Artiodactyla Cervidae introduced on St. Vincent Island
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[95]
White-tailed deer
Key Deer on Deer Key.jpg
Odocoileus virginianus
Zimmermann, 1780
Artiodactyla Cervidae common statewide; rare in Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[96]
Feral pig
Wild Pig KSC02pd0873.jpg
Sus scrofa
Linnaeus, 1758
Artiodactyla Suidae common; statewide except Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[97]
Nine-banded armadillo
Nine-banded Armadillo.jpg
Dasypus novemcinctus
Linnaeus, 1758
Cingulata Dasypodidae common; statewide, except possibly some parts of Everglades
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[98]
Virginia opossum
Possum20040508.jpg
Didelphis virginiana
Kerr, 1792
Didelphimorphia Didelphidae common; statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[99]
Black-tailed jackrabbit
Btjackrabbit.jpg
Lepus californicus
Gray, 1837
Lagomorpha Leporidae introduced; established in Homestead area
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[100]
Eastern cottontail
Eastern Cottontail Bunny (5797152749).jpg
Sylvilagus floridanus
(J.A. Allen, 1890)
Lagomorpha Leporidae common; statewide except Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[101]
Marsh rabbit
Marsh Rabbit.jpg
Sylvilagus palustris
(Bachman, 1837)
Lagomorpha Leporidae common; statewide
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[102]
Swamp rabbit
Southern swamp rabbit baby.jpg
Sylvilagus aquaticus
(Bachman, 1837)
Lagomorpha Leporidae rare and unconfirmed; possibly present in Escambia County but no known records
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[103]
Rhesus macaque
Rhesus Macaque 2.jpg
Macaca mulatta
(Zimmermann, 1780)
Primates Cercopithecidae introduced; Ocala and Silver Springs area
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[104]
North American least shrew
Exhibit Museum of Natural History, Ann Arbor - IMG 9033.JPG
Cryptotis parva
(Say, 1823)
Soricomorpha Soricidae common; statewide except for Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[105]
Southeastern shrew
Dismal Swamp southeastern shrew.jpg
Sorex longirostris
Bachman, 1837
Soricomorpha Soricidae uncommon; north, south through Central Florida and on central ridge through southcentral
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[106]
Southern short-tailed shrew
Southern short-tailed shrew.jpg
Blarina carolinensis
(Bachman, 1837)
Soricomorpha Soricidae common; statewide except for Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[107]
Eastern mole
ScalopusAquaticus.jpg
Scalopus aquaticus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Soricomorpha Talpidae common; statewide except for Keys
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[108]
Star-nosed mole
Condylura.jpg
Condylura cristata
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Soricomorpha Talpidae rare; Okefenokee Swamp area and possibly in Leon County
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[109]

Florida marine mammals[edit]

Carnivora and Sirenia[edit]

West Indian manatee

Trichechus manatus latirostris is one of the two subspecies of the West Indian Manatee. This herbivorous aquatic mammal lives in rivers, springs and shallow coastal waters. It was designated the state marine mammal in 1975[110] and is protected by federal and state laws. Threatened by habitat loss, entanglements in fishing gear and crab traps, or by being asphyxiated or crushed by canal locks and flood gates, the most common cause for manatee deaths is being struck by boats, which caused one quarter of all deaths recorded since 1974. The highest count recorded by statewide surveys was 3,276 in 2001.[111]

Florida does not have seal colonies, but stray seals wash ashore in Florida occasionally. The most prevalent of those species have been the Common Seal and the Hooded Seal, although a Bearded Seal was seen in 2007.[112] The Caribbean Monk Seal was native to the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Once a popular prey for Bahamas fishermen, their numbers diminished greatly in the 1800s. The last sighting of the species in Florida was in 1922, and specimens have not been seen anywhere since 1952.[113]

Name Species/Authority Order Family ASM state status and native range[3] Red List
Harbor seal
Seehund2cele4.jpg
Phoca vitulina
Linnaeus, 1758
Carnivora Phocidae rare; east coastal marine areas to Central Florida
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[114]
Hooded seal
Klappmuetze.jpg
Cystophora cristata
(Erxleben, 1777)
Carnivora Phocidae rare; east coastal marine areas to Central Florida
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[115]
Caribbean monk seal
Monachus tropicalis.jpg
Monachus tropicalis
(Gray, 1850)
Carnivora Phocidae extinct
1
Fl mammals ex.svg
[116]
West Indian manatee
Manatee photo.jpg
Trichechus manatus
Linnaeus, 1758
Sirenia Trichechidae rare; coastal marine areas, but not usually north of the Suwannee River in the Gulf of Mexico; enters rivers and connected springs
5
Fl mammals vu.svg
[117]

Cetacea[edit]

Common bottlenose dolphin in Boca Raton

Of the several whales seen close to Florida, the most frequent and notable visitor is the North Atlantic right whale. Named as such because they were the "right" whales to kill, their only known calving ground is located off the coasts of Georgia and Florida. Pregnant females migrate from feeding grounds located far north and deliver calves from mid December to March.[118] Humpback whales are also re-colonizing the area while Gray whales, once cavorting off Florida for the same reasons as the Right whales, became extinct in 17-18th century.[119]

The most common dolphin in the state is the common bottlenose dolphin. Dolphins, like manatees, are vulnerable to red tide and have mass fatalities when one occurs.[120] Dolphins were designated the Florida State Saltwater Mammal in 1975.[121]

Name Species/Authority Order Family ASM state status and native range[3] Red List
North Atlantic right whale
Eubalaena glacialis with calf.jpg
Eubalaena glacialis
P.L.S. Müller, 1776
Cetacea Balaenidae regular migrant (in very small number); coastal marine areas
4
Fl mammals en.svg
[122]
Bryde's whale
Balaenoptera brydei.jpg
Balaenoptera edeni
Anderson, 1878
Cetacea Balaenopteridae rare; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[123]
Fin whale
Fin whale from air.jpg
Balaenoptera physalus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Cetacea Balaenopteridae rare; coastal marine areas
4
Fl mammals en.svg
[124]
Humpback whale
Sanc0602.jpg
Megaptera novaeangliae
(Borowski, 1781)
Cetacea Balaenopteridae common (in small numbers); coastal marine areas
5
Fl mammals vu.svg
[125]
Minke whale
Minke.jpg
Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Lacépède, 1804
Cetacea Balaenopteridae rare; coastal marine areas
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[126]
Sei whale
Balaenoptera borealis 2.jpg
Balaenoptera borealis
Lesson, 1828
Cetacea Balaenopteridae rare; coastal marine areas
4
Fl mammals en.svg
[127]
Atlantic spotted dolphin
Stenella frontalis.JPG
Stenella frontalis
(G. Cuvier, 1829)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[128]
Common bottlenose dolphin
Bottlenose Dolphin KSC04pd0178.jpg
Tursiops truncatus
(Montagu, 1821)
Cetacea Delphinidae common; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[129]
Common dolphin
Dolphins 300.jpg
Delphinus delphis
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[130]
False killer whale
False killer whale 890002.jpg
Pseudorca crassidens
(Owen, 1846)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[131]
Risso's dolphin
Grampus griseus.jpg
Grampus griseus
(G. Cuvier, 1812)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[132]
Killer whale
JumpingOrca.jpg
Orcinus orca
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[133]
Spinner dolphin
SpinnerDolphinsoffKauai 1999-03-15.jpg
Stenella longirostris
(Gray, 1828)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[134]
Rough-toothed dolphin
Rough toothed dolphin.jpg
Steno bredanensis
(G. Cuvier in Lesson, 1828)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[135]
Short-finned pilot whale
PilotWhale.jpg
Globicephala macrorhynchus
Gray, 1846
Cetacea Delphinidae uncommon; coastal marine areas
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[136]
Striped dolphin
StripedDolpin.jpg
Stenella coeruleoalba
(Meyen, 1833)
Cetacea Delphinidae rare; coastal marine areas
6
Fl mammals nt.svg
[137]
Pygmy sperm whale
Kogia breviceps.jpg
Kogia breviceps
(Blainville, 1838)
Cetacea Kogiidae uncommon; coastal marine areas
7
Fl mammals lc.svg
[138]
Sperm whale
Sperm whale from above.jpg
Physeter macrocephalus
Linnaeus, 1758
Cetacea Physeteridae rare; coastal marine areas
5
Fl mammals vu.svg
[139]
Gervais' beaked whale
Gervais' beaked whale size.svg
Mesoplodon europaeus
(Gervais, 1855)
Cetacea Ziphiidae rare; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[140]
Cuvier's beaked whale
Cuvier's beaked whale size.svg
Ziphius cavirostris
G. Cuvier, 1823
Cetacea Ziphiidae rare; coastal marine areas
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[141]
True's beaked whale
True's beaked whale size.svg
Mesoplodon mirus
True, 1913
Cetacea Ziphiidae rare; Atlantic coastal marine areas south to Flagler County.
0
Fl mammals dd.svg
[142]

References[edit]

General
  • Brown, L. N. (1997). Mammals of Florida. Miami, Florida: Windward Publishing. 
  • Burt, W. H.; R. P. Grossenheider (1976). A field guide to the mammals of America north of Mexico (Third ed. ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 
  • Nowak, R. M. (1991). Walker's mammals of the world (Fifth ed. ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  • Stevenson, H. M. (1976). Vertebrates of Florida, identification and distribution (Fifth ed. ed.). Gainesville, Florida: University Presses of Florida. 
  • Whitaker, J. O.; W. J. Hamilton (1998). Mammals of the Eastern United States (Third ed. ed.). Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. 
  • "State Lists:Mammals of Florida". The American Society of Mammalogists. 2001-05-22. Retrieved 2007-07-18. 
Specific
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  2. ^ "§15.0353 2006 Florida Statutes". State of Florida. Retrieved 2007-07-19. 
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  115. ^ Seal Specialist Group (1996). Cystophora cristata. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on July 19, 2007.
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