Munger

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This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Munger district.
For other uses, see Munger (disambiguation).
Munger
Angdesh
Metropolitan City
Nickname(s): Twin City, Yoga Capital of the World
Munger is located in Bihar
Munger
Munger
Location in Bihar, India
Coordinates: 25°22′52″N 86°27′54″E / 25.381°N 86.465°E / 25.381; 86.465Coordinates: 25°22′52″N 86°27′54″E / 25.381°N 86.465°E / 25.381; 86.465
Country  India
State Bihar
District Munger
Government
 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Body Munger Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Kumkum Devi
Area
 • Total 68 km2 (26 sq mi)
Area rank 3rd in Bihar
Elevation 43 m (141 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 3,88,000
 • Rank 5th in Bihar
 • Density 5,700/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
Demonym Mungerites
Languages
 • Official Angika, Similar to Maithili language, Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 811201,811202,811214
Telephone code +91-6344
Vehicle registration BR-08
Website munger.bih.nic.in

Munger is a twin city and a Municipal Corporation situated in the Indian state of Bihar.[1] It is the Administrative headquarters of Munger district and Munger Division.The twin city is one of the most industrialised cities of Bihar. It is a hub for railway, gun, tobacco and dairy product manufacturing. Historically, Munger is known for the ancient 'Seat of rule' and the Bihar School of Yoga. It is the fourth largest city of Bihar and the second largest city of Eastern Bihar. It comprises Munger and Jamalpur situated on the southern bank of the river Ganges.[2] It is one of the oldest cities of Bihar situated 60 km west of Bhagalpur and 180 km east of capital city Patna.

History[edit]

Ancient history[edit]

Munger's history dates back to the period of Ramayana and Mahabharata. The territory included within the district of Munger (famously Monghyr) formed part of the Madhyadesha as "Midland" of first Aryan settlers. It has been identified with Mod-Giri a place mentioned in Mahabharata, which was capital of a Kingdom in Eastern India near Vanga and Tamrilapta. In the Digvijaya parva of Mahabharata, we find the mention of Moda-Giri, which seems similar to Mod-Giri. Digvijaya parva suggest that it was a monarchical state during early times. A passage in the Sabha-Parva describes Bhima's conquest in Eastern India and says that after defeating Karna, the King of Anga he fought battle at Mada-Giri and killed it's chief. It was also known as Maudal after Maudgalya who was a disciple of Gautam Buddha. The derivation of name Munger has found much speculation. Tradition arcribes the foundation of the city to Chandragupta, after which it was called Guptagars a name which has been found inscribed on rock at Kastaharni Ghat at north-western corner of present Munger Fort. At the dawn of history, the present site of the city was apparently comprised within the Kingdom of Anga, with the capital at Champa near Bhagalpur. According to pargiter the territory of Anga included present District of Bhagalpur division and Munger division. The Anga dominion ones included territory of Magadha and the Shanti-parva refers to an Anga king who sacrificed at Mount Vihsnupada. In the epic period Moda-Giri finds mention as a separate state. The success of Anga did not last long and about the middle of sixth century B.C Bimbisara of Magadha has said to killed Brahmadutta, the last ruler of ancient Anga. An epicgraphic evidence of Guptas show that Munger was under Guptas. However the first historical account of district appears in the travels of HIUAN TSIANG, who visited the area towards the first half of the SEVENTH CENTURY A.D. He had to pass through thick forest and strange mountains in to the country of Hiranaya parvat.unfortunately, there is a historical gap of two centuries when we find its fresh mention in the Munger copper plate of Devpala discovered at Munger about 1780.we learn from copper plate about Dharmapala(c.770-810) who preceded far beyond the Kannauj in his military campaigns. Munger prominence is also corroborated by Nawalgarh inscriptions of Begusarai. Till the advent of Turkish rule in India, Munger was under the Karnataka dynasty of Mithila.however Bakhtiyar Khilji took possessions of territory of Munger in AD1225. After a tussle Munger came under the possessions of Khilji ruler Gyasuddin. After a tussle and aftermath a peace treaty Munger came under the control of Sultan of Bengal between 1301-1322, which is coroborrated by Lakhisarai inscription. For some time Munger was ruled by different princes. Nasrat shah succeeded Hussain shah in Bengal in 1590. His brother-in-law Makhdun Alam took possession of Munger Fort under his possession and entrusted its responsibility to his General. Kutub Khan made Munger the headquarters of Bihar Army of the ruler of Gaur. In 1534 again a powerful army in command of Ibrahim Khan moved out to Munger. The battle took place in narrow planes of Surajgarha, a place 32 km from Munger in which he was defeated and slain.after which Munger came under Sher Shah Suri. He captured Dilawar Khan and thus Mughal rule came over Afghan rule.during the Akbar's rule Munger was headquarters of Akbar's officers in their expeditions against the rebels. Raja Tador Mall took the possessions of Munger. The name of Munger is also mentioned in famous book Ain-I-Akbari written by Abul Fazal.according to the book Sarkar Munger consisted of 31 Mahals paying revenue of 10,96,25,981 dams (40 dams=1 Akbar shahi rupee).

Modern history[edit]

In modern history Munger again came in to prominence in the year 1762 when Mir Kasim made Munger his capital instead of Murshidabad in Bengal. The new ruler established arsenal for the manufacture of fire-arms.the tradition of manufacturing of arm is continued till now.it has become like a cottage industry.subsequently Mir Kasim lost the Battle of Buxar and Munger came in to the hands of British Empire and was subsequently ruled by them till the independence of India in 1947.[3]

See:Karna See: Munger Fort

Climate[edit]

The climate of Munger is subtropical (warm in summer and cold during winter). The Köppen climate classification sub-type for this climate is humid subtropical.[4]

Climate data for Munger, India
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
26.4
(79.6)
32.5
(90.5)
37
(98.6)
37.9
(100.3)
35.5
(95.9)
31.9
(89.4)
31.2
(88.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.8
(87.5)
27.7
(81.9)
24.2
(75.6)
30.84
(87.53)
Average low °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
11.9
(53.4)
16.9
(62.4)
21.8
(71.3)
24.6
(76.3)
25.4
(77.7)
24.9
(76.8)
24.8
(76.6)
24.2
(75.5)
20.9
(69.7)
14.4
(57.9)
10
(50)
19.1
(66.38)
Precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
18
(0.7)
13
(0.5)
13
(0.5)
41
(1.6)
173
(6.8)
297
(11.7)
280
(11)
226
(8.9)
81
(3.2)
5
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
1,165
(45.8)
Source: weatherbase[5]

Demographics[edit]

As per 2011 census, Munger Municipal Corporation had a total population of 3,88,000, out of which 2,00,000 were males and 1,88,000 were females. It had a sex ratio of 883. The population below 5 years was 42,260. The literacy rate of the 7+ population was 81.83 per cent.[6]

Religion in Munger
Religion
Hinduism
  
91.02%
Islam
  
7.36%
Christians
  
0.98%
Sikhism
  
0.30%
Others
  
0.34%
Distribution of religions [7]

Places of interest[edit]

  • Bihar School of Yoga. One of the major institutions in Munger is Bihar School of Yoga.[8] It is one of the foremost learning center in the world for Yoga and frequented by people all over the globe.
  • Munger Fort, covers an area of around 222 acres, annexed by the Khiljis, Tughlaqs, Lodis, Nawabs of Bengal, Mughals and British.
  • Chandika Asthan, considered one of the sacred Shakti-Peeth out of 64 Shakti-Peet available on the earth.
  • Kastaharni Ghat, beautiful bank of The Ganga.
  • Tomb of Pir Shah Nufa, Sufi saint from Persia who was sent to Munger by Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti of Ajmer in 1177.
  • Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary, covers an area of around 682 km2 consist of a hot water spring, sambar, chital, nilgai, wild boar, tiger and panther.
  • Pirpahar, tomb on hill near bank of Ganga.
  • Sitla Mandir, a marbled Lord Shiva temple made between a small pond near Matriye Sadan hospital.
  • Lord Badi Durga Maa temple situated at Shadipur, a place in Munger.
  • Jai Prakash Udayan also known as Company Garden, because it has been made during an era of British rule when they came here as East India Company. It is a very beautiful garden and it is also a famous picnic-spot.
  • The Kali Pahadi at Jamalpur is also a place of interest in Munger. It is a range of hills and mountains where people go for fun.it is a famous picnic spot.
  • Ecological Golf course at Jamalpur.it is one of the oldest golf course of India.it is an 18 hole Golf Course owned by Indian Railways.
  • Sita Kund in Daryapur, Munger. It is a place where Maa Sita had given her Agni Pariksha it had hot water spring .
  • Rishi kund, a hot water spring.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Munger city has two railway station Jamalpur Junction and purabsarai. Jamalpur Junction is the main rail head for the Munger city while Purabsarai Railway Station act as suburban Railway Station connecting Jamalpur to the city.It is situated around 9 km from Munger city center. Munger is well connected to major cities of India like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Banglore, Surat, Guwahati, Lucknow, Kanpur, Jammutawi, Vishakhapatnam, Bhagalpur, Patna, Gaya, Muzzafarpur, Ranchi, Jamshedpur and other major cities of the country by rail.a mega rail cum road bridge Munger Ganga Bridge is under construction which would connect Munger city to nearby cities of Begusarai, Khagaria and various other Districts of North Bihar in the near future.the bridge is most likely to be thrown open to public by 2014 year end.[9] it will be the 3rd largest rail cum road bridge in India.[10]Jamalpur Junction is one of the major railway junctions in India. Buses, taxis and autorickshaws are available round the clock at Jamalpur Junction for Munger city. Jamalpur Junction is originating station for many Express and Passenger trains. The important trains originating from the Jamalpur Junction are: 1. Jamalpur-Howrah express 2. Jamalpur-Malda town Inter city Express and many passengers trains originate for nearby destination.

Road[edit]

Munger is well connected to major parts of India by various National Highways and State Highways. It is well connected to major cities of Bihar and Jharkhand like Patna, Ranchi, Bhagalpur, Muzaffarpur, Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Gaya, Bokaro and Darbhanga by NH 80 and NH 333 and various other state Highways.regular Bus service are provided by BSRTC for all the major cities and nearby destination. Buses, Taxi and Auto Rickshaw are available for intra city transport. A mega Munger Ganga Bridge is under construction which will link Munger to various Districts of North Bihar and North Eastern part of the India by 2014 year end.

Air[edit]

Munger has a small airport with no commercial service and used only for VIP movements. Nearest domestic airport with commercial service is Patna airport around 180 km away. Patna is served by all major airlines. Nearest international airport is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport in Kolkata Which is around 480 km away from Munger.

Waterways[edit]

Munger is located on National Waterway No-1 running from Allahabad(U.P) to Haldia(W.B).it is well connected to major cities like Patna, Bhagalpur, Varanasi, Kolkata, and Allahabad through waterway.

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Munger city has many industries in and around the city. The Indian Railway has one of Asia's largest and oldest railway workshops at Jamalpur. This workshop was set up by the Britishers in the year 1862. Junior railway Minister Adhir Ranjan Chowdhury released a commemorative postal stamp on Jamalpur Locomotive Workshop on the completion of 150 years of the workshop.[11] Munger has India's oldest tobacco manufacturing unit. Initially it was started by Britishers; later it was taken over by ITC Limited. The tobacco manufacturing unit was started in 1905. Munger is also famous for gun manufacturing. Gun manufacturing in Munger is more than 200 years old.ITC Limited is also going to set up its first dairy plant in India in Munger city by mid-2014. It will be a modern state-of-the-art dairy plant set up at cost of 150 cr.[12] Munger city has many small scale industries in and around the city.

Retail[edit]

The commercial hub of city is situated at Bekapur, Purabsarai, Jamalpur, Konark road, Bari Bazaar, Neelam Road, Rajiv Gandhi Chowk, Chowk Bazaar, Kaura Maidan, Munger-Jamalpur Road, Safiabad Chowk and other different part of the city. Munger is major market for nearby districts. Many commercial buildings are under construction for business purpose. It is a fast-developing city in Bihar. Numerous people visit city for shopping purpose from nearby districts.

Hospitality[edit]

Munger being the Regional Headquarters and a major city of Bihar and a top tourist destination in Bihar famous for Bihar School of Yoga and various other Monuments numerous people visit the city for different purpose.there are many Hotels and restaurant in Munger-Jamalpur.the famous hotels are Raj palace, Hill view, Madras coffee house, Namita hotel, centre point, White House Residency, Samrat Palace, Murari Palace, Rajhans, Maurya, Karn Vihar. There are also many cheap lodging facilities available in the city.[13][14][15]

Education[edit]

Schools[edit]

  1. Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Puraniganj.
  2. Notre Dame Academy, Munger (Estd.1957).[16]
  3. Notre Dame Academy, Jamalpur(Estd.1950).[17]
  4. Kendriya Vidyalaya, Jamalpur(Estd.1973).
  5. Dav Public School, Purabsarai.[18]
  6. Dav Public School, Jamalpur.
  7. New Era Public School.[19]
  8. Arya Bal Santhi Niketan.
  9. Saraswati Vidya Mandir, Jamalpur
  10. Little Angels School
  11. Awadhoot Academy, Safiabad
  12. zila school(oldest)
  13. S.K.D Memorial Public School
  14. KIDZEE, Bekapur

There are many govt primary and secondary schools that run under Munger Municipal Corporation.

Colleges[edit]

  1. RD&DJ College (Estd. 1898).[20]
  2. Balmiki Rajniti mahila College (Estd. 1958).[21]
  3. Bishwanath Singh Institute of Legal Studies.
  4. JMS College Website(Estd.1964).
  5. Jamalpur College (Estd. 1969).[22]
  6. JRS college, Jamalpur.[23]
  7. Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (Estd. 1928)
  8. International Architecture Research Academy.
  9. Govt Medical College&Hospital(proposed)
  10. Govt Engineering College(proposed)
  11. Miracle Brain Institute (for vedic and abacus maths)
  12. Eastern Railway Inter college.

University[edit]

  1. Bihar School of Yoga (deemed university for yogic studies )

Computer Education[edit]

  1. Lal Bahadur Shastri Training Institute (ISO CERTIFIED INSTITUTE)

Tourism[edit]

People from various nearby place come to various Ganges ghats on religious occasions. The city also see huge crowd during Durga Puja festival.

Kastaharni Ghat is one of various bathing ghats on the Ganges and religiously the most significant. This is one of the few places where the Ganges meanders and flows in the northern direction (Uttarvahini Ganges). Because of this it is considered very auspicious by Hindu believers.

Chandika Sthan is one of the sixty-four shakti peeth spread across India and is situated on the north-east corner of Munger. It sees a huge crowd of devotees all round the year and specially during Navratras.

Munger has one of the oldest railway manufacturing units and also the Tobacco factory owned by ITC Limited.

Earlier spelled Monghyr and now Munger it has a rich and glorious past and stories abound. Madarsa Rahmania is the largest Islamic School in the state.

Bhimbandh and Kharagpur Lake are great picnic spot. It has a stream of hot water coming from the mountains nearby and one stream of cold water also, both the streams merge here only and then are later joined in ganges river.

Sita Kund, Shiv Guru Dham, TV Tower ( from where you can see whole city) are situated in Daryapur, Munger.

Rishi kund a hot water spring which is situated in Patam, Munger

Media[edit]

Print Media available in the city are The Times Of India, Hindustan Times, The Telegraph, Dainik Jagran, Prabhat khabar and Hindustan. Radio broadcasting is provided by All India Radio and various other FM channels. Tele communications are provided by BSNL, Airtel, Aircel, Idea, Vodafone, Uninor and Reliance. The city based local TV channels are NK channel and MCN channel.

Famous personalities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "CDP Munger". Urban department, Government of Bihar.  Retrieved 21 March 2014
  2. ^ "CDP Jamalpur". Urban Department, Government of Bihar. Retrieved on 21 January 2014
  3. ^ "Munger History". Government of Bihar. Retrieved on 12 April 2014
  4. ^ "Climate Data for Munger, India". weatherbase. Retrieved on April 8, 2014
  5. ^ "weatherbase.com". weatherbase. 2014.  Retrieved on April 8, 2014.
  6. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011. Retrieved 2012-04-16. 
  7. ^ "census of india:Socio-cultural aspects". Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. Retrieved on 9 March 2014
  8. ^ "Historic places in Bihar". Bihar School of Yoga. 
  9. ^ "Munger bridge likely to be operational by 2014 year end". The Times of India. 15 Apr 2013. Retrieved on 14 May 2014
  10. ^ "top ten rail road bridges in india". walkthroughindia. Retrieved on 10 May 2014
  11. ^ "Minister releases stamp on Jamalpur railway workshop". Times of India. 28 Nov 2013. Reterived on April 18, 2014
  12. ^ "ITC begins construction of milk plant". Economic Times. 17 December 2012. Retrieved on 15 April 2014
  13. ^ "Hotels in Munger". HolidayIQ.com. Retrieved on March 14, 2014
  14. ^ "Hotels in Jamalpur". Hotels and Resorts in Jamalpur. Retrieved on March 15, 2014
  15. ^ "Hotels in Munger". Asklaila.com. Retrieved on January 18, 2014
  16. ^ ndamunger.com
  17. ^ www.notredamejamalpur.org
  18. ^ davmunger.com
  19. ^ www.nepsmunger.com
  20. ^ www.rdanddjcollegemunger.org
  21. ^ www.brmcollege.in
  22. ^ www.jamalpurcollegetmbu.org
  23. ^ www.jrscollege.org
  24. ^ "D.P Yadav a great visionary". 

External links[edit]

Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.