|— Metropolitan City —|
|Nickname(s): Industrial Capital of Jharkhand|
|• Parliamentary constituency||Jamshedpur|
|• Assembly constituency||Jamshedpur East
|• Total||150 km2 (60 sq mi)|
|Elevation||159 m (522 ft)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Total||1,337,131 (UA)|
|• Density||1,404/km2 (3,640/sq mi)|
|• Major||Bengali, Hindi and English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|PIN||831001 to 831018, 832107, 832108, 832109, 832110|
|Vehicle registration||JH 05|
Jamshedpur //, pronunciation (help·info)) is the largest urban conglomeration and most populous city in the state of Jharkhand, India. Jamshedpur is the first planned industrial city of India, founded by the late Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata. It is also known as Steel City, TataNagar or simply Tata.
Jamshedpur is the headquarters of the East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. According to the 2011 census of India, Jamshedpur has a population of 1,337,131; the Jamshedpur urban agglomeration (UA), which includes the adjoining areas, Jamshedpur Urban Area is the third Largest city in Eastern India after Kolkata and Patna. It ranks 36th among the 53 million-plus cities in India. It is located on the Chota Nagpur plateau and is surrounded by the picturesque Dalma Hills. The city is bordered by the rivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai on the north and west parts of the city.
Jamshedpur is a major industrial centre of East India. It houses companies like Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Tata Power, Lafarge Cement, Telcon, BOC Gases, Praxair, TCE, TCS, Timken, TRF, Tinplate and many more. It is home to one of the largest industrial zones of India known as Adityapur which houses more than 1,200 small and medium scale industries.
Jamshedpur was declared the 7th cleanest city of India for the year 2010 according to survey by the Government of India. It has been predicted as the 84th fastest growing city in the world for the timeframe 2006–2020. A major part of the city is run by Tata Steel itself. Jamshedpur has been selected as one of the cities for the Global Compact Cities Pilot Programme by United Nations, the only one to be selected in India as well as South Asia.
In 1919 Lord Chelmsford named the city, which was early a village called Sakchi to Jamshedpur in honour of its founder, Jamshedji Nausserwanji Tata, whose birthday is celebrated on 3 March as Founder's Day. J. N. Tata had written to his son Dorabji Tata about his vision of a great city in the area. On Founders Day, the 225-acre (0.91 km2) Jubilee Park is decorated with brilliant lightwork for about a week.
The city has several nicknames including "Steel City" (which was referenced during TATA Steel's "Green City—Clean City—Steel City" campaign); "Tatanagar" after the name of its railway station Tatanagar Railway Station or simply "Tata" in deference to the presence of Tata companies. At one time it was also known as "Kalimati" (meaning "black soil") after the village near the Sakchi area. Sakchi was renamed to Jamshedpur in 1919. The only trace of the name is the main road through Sakchi area of Jamshedpur which is named Kalimati Road.
At the end of 19th century Jamshedji Nusserwanji Tata met steel makers in Pittsburgh to get the most advanced technology for his plant. It is said that he got the idea of building a steel plant when he heard Thomas Carlyle declaring that "the nation which gains control of iron soon acquires the control of gold" in a lecture in Manchester. At the turn of the twentieth century, Jamshetji Tata asked geologist Charles Page Perin to help him find the site to build India's first steel plant. The search for a site rich in iron, coal, limestone and water began in April 1904 in today's Madhya Pradesh.
The prospectors C. M. Weld, Dorabji Tata and Shapurji Saklatvala, took nearly three years in a painstaking search across vast stretches of inhospitable terrain to find a location. One day they came across a village called Sakchi, on the densely forested stretches of the Chota Nagpur plateau, near the confluence of the Subarnarekha and Kharkai rivers. It seemed to be the ideal choice and the place was selected.
Jamshedji's plan for the city was clear. He envisioned far more than a mere row of workers hutments. He insisted upon building all the comforts and conveniences a city could provide. As a result, many areas in the city are well planned and there are public leisure places such as the Jubilee Park. While building the city, Jamshedji Tata had said, "Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees, every other of a quick growing variety. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens; reserve large areas for football, hockey and parks; earmark areas for Hindu temples, Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches."
Messrs Julin Kennedy Sahlin from Pittsburgh prepared the first layout of the town of Jamshedpur. What the city looks like today is a testament to his visionary plans. Jamshedpur is the only million plus city in India without a municipal corporation.
Legend has it that in the late 1980s when the state government proposed a law to end the Tatas' administration of Jamshedpur and bring the city under a municipality, the local populace rose in protest and defeated the government's proposal. In 2005, a similar proposal was once again put up by lobbying politicians. The target audience was the working class. A large majority sided with the government and set up protest meetings outside the East-Singhbhum Deputy Commissioner's office. However, the objective was never achieved and Jamshedpur remains without a municipality.
Jamshedpur is situated in the southern end of the state of Jharkhand and is bordered by the states of Orissa and West Bengal. The average elevation of the city is 135 metres while the range is from 129 m to 151 m. Total geographical area of Jamshedpur is 150 km square. Jamshedpur is primarily located in a hilly region and is surrounded by the Dalma Hills running from west to east and covered with dense forests. The other smaller hill ranges near the city are Ukam Hill and the Jadugoda-musabani hill range. The city is also a part of the larger Chota Nagpur Plateau region. The region is formed of the sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks belonging to the Dharwarian period.
Jamshedpur is located at the confluence of Kharkai and Subarnarekha Rivers. Subarnarekha is the principal river of Jamshedpur, which flows from west to south-eastern part of the territory. Many small rivers, especially the tributaries, join the Subarnarekha river in this area. Kharkai flows from the south and joins the Subarnarekha river at a place called Domuhani. The two rivers are the major sources of drinking water and groundwater for the city. Several lakes of varying size are also located near the fringes of the city. The major of them being the Dimna lake located in between the Dalma range and the Sitarampur reservoir situated beside Kharkai river. Both of them also act as reservoirs for drinking water in the city.
Jamshedpur features a tropical wet and dry climate. Summers start in mid-March and can be extremely hot in May and June. The temperature variation during summer is from 35º – 49 °C The minimum temperature during winters is 1 °C. The climate of Jamshedpur is marked by south-west monsoon. Jamshedpur gets heavy rainfall from July to September and receives about 1200mm of rainfall annually.
|Climate data for Jamshedpur, India|
|Average high °C (°F)||24
|Average low °C (°F)||14
|Precipitation mm (inches)||10.8
As of 2011 India census, the Jamshedpur city proper has a population of 7,25,623. The Jamshedpur Urban Agglomeration had a population of 13,37,131 in 2011. It is designated as a Million plus Urban agglomeration as per Govt terminology. Males constitute 52.1% of the population and females 47.9%. Tribals constitute around 28% of the population. Jamshedpur has an average literacy rate of 85.94%, higher than the national average of 74%. In Jamshedpur, 11.5% of the population is under six years of age.
The major conversational languages are Bengali, Hindi and English though languages of other states are also spoken by immigrants in Jamshedpur. Tribal languages such as Santali and Ho are spoken in the city outskirts. The population is multi-ethnic owing to migration of people from all over the country to work in the numerous industries present in the city.
Jamshedpur is home to the first private iron and steel company of India. The areas surrounding Jamshedpur are rich in minerals, including iron ore, coal, manganese bauxite and lime. It is a modern, industrial city; the main industries being iron and steel, truck manufacturing, tinplate production, cement and other small and medium scale industries revolving around these products.
The largest factory is that of Tata Steel (the erstwhile Tata Iron and Steel Company or TISCO), situated almost at the center of the city. Tata Steel is the largest iron and steel producing plant in India, as well as the oldest. It is ranked 401 in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations. It is the eighth most-valuable Indian brand according to an annual survey conducted by Brand Finance and The Economic Times in 2010. Currently the plant has 9 Blast Furnaces and is an employer to some 26500 employees. Plans have been made for the expansion of Tata Steel's existing plant at Jamshedpur from 7 million tonnes per annum to 10 million tonnes per annum. It would then be the first plant in the world to have 10 million tonne capacity in a single campus. The steel plant covers around a fourth of the land area of Jamshedpur, and has two inland water lakes.
Tata has won awards like the Prime Minister's Trophy for Best Integrated Steel Plant for a record five times, ranked World’s Best Steel Maker for three times by World Steel Dynamics, world renowned Deming Prize for major advances in quality improvement.
The other major factory in the city is Tata Motors with Telcon, which manufactures heavy vehicles and construction/earth moving equipment. Tata Motors was previously called The Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company (TELCO), as railway locomotives were once manufactured here. The plant spread over 822 acres is one of the largest in the country and at peak rate can roll out 450 vehicles per day. It is the world's eighteenth-largest motor vehicle manufacturing company, fourth-largest truck manufacturer and second-largest bus manufacturer by volume.Tata Motors is ranked 314th in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 ranking of the world's biggest corporations.
Tata Cummins Ltd. (also known as TCL1) is situated beside Tata Motors.It is a joint venture of Tata Motors and Cummins India ltd., manufacting diesel engines for vehicles assembled at Tata Motors. Other than engines for vehicles, it also manufactures engines for generators and marine use.
Lafarge Cement, earlier Tata Cement, is located near Tata Motors. Along with the smokestacks of Tata Power, a coal fired captive power station that supplies a great deal of the city's electricity, it can be conspicuously seen from the railway tracks while coming to Jamshedpur by rail.
Tata Tinplate (the erstwhile Tinplate Co. of India Ltd.) manufactures tinplate. It was originally a British company built in Golmuri, later on taken over by Tata. Another factory, located near Tata Motors, is the Indian Steel and Wire products (ISWP). ISWP was reopened after more than five years by Tata Steel. ISWP resumed production in its wire mill on January 2, 2004, after its takeover by Tata Steel, and has commenced its rod mill operations.
Other industries in the city include TRF Limited, which manufactures bulk material handling and processing machines and other engineering goods, Timken manufacturers of industrial bearings, Tata Ryersons, Agrico, a subsidiary of Tata Steel, manufactures agricultural implements, and Tata Yodogawa Ltd manufactures rolls and dies for rolling mills.
Praxair and Brin's Oxygen Company (BOC), are producers of liquefied oxygen, nitrogen and other gases, they both have plants adjacent to the steel mill.Usha Martin located in Adityapur is a wire rope manufacturing company. Other companies are ABB, TCS, L&T, M.N.Dastur, Danielle, Italiam Pianti.
Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO) was carved out of Tata Steel from its Town Services Division in 2004. JUSCO is today India’s only comprehensive urban infrastructure service provider.
Most of the smaller companies are located in the 'Adityapur Industrial Estate' (33,970 acres, 53 sq. mile) which has been Asia's largest Industrial hub for long. About 1,200 industries are located here and about 250 are under construction. There are about 20 Large Scale Industries located like TGS, Usha Martin, Adhunik Group, RSB etc. Adityapur Industrial Estate have an average annual aroduction of Rs.4,950 crores.
The civic administration of the city is under multiple hands. They are
- Jamshedpur Notified Area Committee (JNAC)
- Adityapur Municipal Council (AMC)
- Jugsalai Municipality (JMC)
- Mango Notified Area Committee (MNAC) and
- Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO), a Tata Steel subsidiary
JNAC is divided into two parts, one is the Tata lease area while the other is the non-Tata lease area. The leased area which is 41 km² is managed by JUSCO while the rest is managed by JNAC itself.
AMC looks after the 49 km2 of Adityapur region comprising the residential as well the industrial belt. MNAC looks after the residential regions of Mango and Pardih, 18 km2 in area.
The government is considering creating a unified municipal administrative body called the Jamshedpur Urban Agglomeration or JUA. The proposed body would comprise the areas currently under the Jamshedpur Notified Area, Adityapur Municipal council, Mango Notified Area, Jugsalai Municipality and the towns of Parsudih, Ghorabanda, Chhota Govindpur, Hurlung, Luabasa, Dhanchatani, Chhota Gamharia, Gadra, Sarjamdah, Haludbani, Kitadih, Nandup and Bagbera, which are a part of the Jamshedpur Block, District of East Singhbhum and Gamharia Block, District of Seraikela-Kharsawan. The JUA would cover an area of 150 km square
The city is well connected via rail and road services. The intra city road network is very large and planned.
Tatanagar Junction is a railway junction and a model station on the South Eastern Railway and is the most important railway junction of the state and is the second busiest station of South Eastern Railway after Howrah station as it is connected directly to all the major cities of India, viz., Dhanbad, Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Alappuzha, Amritsar, Jabalpur, Patna, Nagpur, Kanpur, Ranchi, Pune, Jammu, Vishakapatnam, Guwahati, Bhubaneshwar etc. The main railway station of the city is known as Tatanagar Junction, city others railway station are Adityapur, Gamharia, Salgajhari, Kandra and Govindpur.
Jamshedpur is connected to other parts of India through national and state highways. The major highways are:
- National Highway 33 (NH 33) touches the city and connects it to Mumbai and further joins the NH32, which connects with Kolkata-Delhi NH2, NH33 and NH6 connects it to Kharagpur, Kolkata.
- National Highway 32 (NH 32) connects Jamshedpur to Govindpur via Dhanbad, Bokaro.
- 6 lane Expressway Highway (Adityapur-Kandra Road) connects Jamshedpur to Barbil via Seraikela, Chaibasa.
- Marine Drive connects Adityapur Toll Brige to Mango via Kadma, Sonari through the corridors of Jamshedpur.
For local transport, the commuters have the options of bus and auto-rickshaw. Auto rickshaws are the popular mode of local commuting. Jamshedpur City Bus Service is run by JNNURM.It was launched in March 2009 adding to the existing city bus fleet. There are 2 bus depots for city bus services that are Agrico, Baridih.
Each bus is equipped with GPS, electronic sign boards and computerized vending machines. As Jamshedpur is a participating city in centres 63 city urban development scheme JNNURM the state government has introduced around 50 LFB buses under the scheme.
Private Mini Buses also operate in the city areas. There are around 250 such buses.
Sonari Airport is a small airport serving the city at present. It is spread over a 25 acre area in the Sonari area of the city. The airport is primarily used for bringing in chartered planes of TATA group.
A few airlines that started operations from Jamshedpur in 2007 were forced to withdraw due to unviable operations following conversion of the airport from Category 3C to 2C which means that runway length will be shorter and that no more than 45 passengers can be accommodated on a flight. Kingfisher and MDLR airlines had flights from the airport till November 2009. From 16 August 2010, airlines services were resumed by Deccan Charters with three daily flights to Kolkata.
The airport has a flight training school and simulator center for commercial pilots called Alchemist Aviation (formerly known as Tatanagar Aviation). The Jamshedpur Co-operative Flying Club was started by the Tata Sons group chairman Mr. Ratan Tata who is a pilot himself. The nearest commercial airports are Kolkata and Ranchi.
Tata Steel had in proposed to set up a 600-acre (2.4 km2) greenfield airport on the outskirts of Jamshedpur in Adityapur-Seraikella region. In June 2011 Tata Steel and TRIL entered formally into a joint venture for building the airport. The new airport will be of international standard with a 10,000 ft runway, it will have the capacity to allow commercial airliners such as the Airbus A320 to land and take off which was not possible from the present airport. As of Dec 2012, Land acquisition process has started for the Airport. Out of 528 acres of required land 90% is owned by Govt. whereas rest is private land. The company is at present facing opposition in the acquisition process from the local villagers.
Education and research
Jamshedpur has a high literacy rate, close to the highest in India. The Steel City has 183 schools and 13 colleges. Of these, 25 schools and one inter-college are managed by the JUSCO Education Department. They cater to over thirty thousand children, with fees at a concessional rate.
Notable Institutes in the city include XLRI (Xavier Labour Relations Institute), the oldest and one of the best management institutes in India, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Medical College, and the National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, an Institute of National Importance in the field of engineering/technology.
The National Metallurgical Laboratory is located here. The third in the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) family of 38 laboratories, NML was inaugurated and dedicated to the nation on 26 November 1950 by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru "in a spirit of hope and faith in the future".
Jamshedpur has many schools, some of them acclaimed nationally. See Educational institutions in Jamshedpur for a complete list of the schools and colleges in the city.
Shavak Nanavati Technical Institute (SNTI) was one of the first labour training institutes of the country and gives technical education to the employees of Tata group of companies and others too. This institute has the largest library in town. Tata Steel also endows scholarships, enabling talented students to pursue higher studies. These include the Golden Jubilee scholarship (KUNAL) which is awarded to deserving students. It is one of the highest honour endowed upon the talented students from jamshedpur
Jamshedpur has a reputation as the sports capital of Jharkhand with Tata Steel promoting sporting activities. Jamshedpur's private clubs provide opportunities for activities, such as golf, tennis, squash, billiards, horse riding and water scootering.
Academies and stadiums include:
JRD Tata Sports Complex has an international standard multi-use stadium and an eight-lane monosynthetic track. It is primarily used for football and athletics but it has facilities for various other sports including archery, basketball, field hockey, swimming, table tennis, tennis, volleyball as well as a modern gymnasium, are available at the complex. The stadium hosted the women football competition & archery event of the 34th National Games in 2011.
Keenan Stadium has a backdrop of the Dalma Hills, providing a picturesque setting for cricket. The stadium is named after John Lawrence Keenan, a former general manager at Tata Steel. The stadium hosted its 1st International One Day Cricket match on December 7, 1983 in which India lost to the touring West Indies Team. Many other International matches have been played here in which India has won only one match against South Africa in 1999–2000. Yuvraj Singh scored his first class highest score of 358 against Bihar at this ground before being selected for the National Team to play the ICC Knock Out Trophy in 2000.
Tata Football Academy (TFA) was started in 1987 to nurture budding Indian footballers and raise the standard of Indian football. TFA is a football club in Jamshedpur, sponsored by Tata Steel. Today, Tata Football Academy is one of the premier football breeding grounds in India.
Tata Archery Academy: archery is a sport indigenous to the tribal people of Chhotanagpur and Santhal Pargana. Tata Steel has pursued and nurtured the local tribals and provided them with facilities and training to bring them up to international competition standards in archery. Its students have attributed a lot of fame to the institute by bringing in many medals in National and Intentional competitions.
Jamshedpur has two golf courses—the Beldih Golf Course and the Golmuri Golf Course. Both these courses are at the heart of the city. The biggest is the Beldih Golf Course which is around 6000 yards. The Golmuri Golf Course although smaller is also challenging. They together hold the annual Tata Open Golf Tournament which is an event held under the support of the Professional Golf Tour of India. The tournament was started in 2002.
All India Radio, Jamshedpur, District of Seraikela-Kharsawan.
Jamshedpur has the following FM radio stations:
- Big FM 92.7,
- Red FM 93.5,
- Radio Dhoom 104.8 FM,
- Vividh Bharati (All India Radio) is broadcast on 100.8 FM.
TV programming is provided by regional news channels like Sahara Samay, ETV Bihar and Jharkhand, Sadhna News, Mahua News. There are several news programmes broadcast by local cable operators in city areas.
Places of interest
Jamshedpur though being primarily an Industrial city has also started to attract tourists. It has the benefit of being near a hill and forest range hence it serves as a nodal point for all the further destinations. Some of the major tourist attractions of the city are Jubilee park which was a gift by Tata Steel to the citizens of Jamshedpur on the completion of its 50 years. It was inaugurated by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru the then Prime minister. It is famous for its lighting display on 3 March which is observed as founders day.
Dimna Lake is an artificial reservoir and one of the main sources for the city's drinking water. The Lake has facilities for water sports like jetskiing, rowing and water scooting. Dalma Hills are north of the Subarnarenkha river, they stretch 16 km from east to west. Accessible by road it is famous for herds of wild elephants, Trekking and mountain climbing are the major attractions.
The other important ones are Tata Steel Zoological Park, Chandil dam, Rivers Meet, Hudco Lake, Centre for Excellence (CE), Sir Dorabji Tata Park, Moolgaokar Park, Bhuvneswari temple and others. A small town named Ghatshila which is famous for its scenic beauty is some 40 km from the city.
Upcoming malls in Jamshedpur Centenary Mall ,P&M City Centre Mall ,Bindal mall ,Heritage Mall ,Ashiyana Marine Plaza ,Horizon Mall ,Balaji Mall ,Adityapur City Centre.
List of notable people from Jamshedpur
- Actor R. Madhavan
- Miss India World 2000; Miss World 2000 and Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra
- Miss India Universe 2004 Actress Tanushree Dutta
- Imtiaz Ali, Hindi film director
- Indian Cricketers Saurabh Tiwary and Varun Aaron.
UN selection for pilot project
Jamshedpur was chosen to be one of the six cities to participate in the UN Global Compact Cities pilot programme. The other five cities are Melbourne (Australia), Porto Alegre (Brazil), Tianjin (PRC), Nairobi (Kenya) and San Francisco (USA).
Jamshedpur represented south Asia. Tata Steel's record in community development and its close involvement in providing services to the steel city has been the reason behind Jamshedpur being nominated for the international pilot project.
Jamshedpur in popular culture
- The 2010 Hindi film Udaan was set in the city.
- The 2011 Hindi film Bubble Gum is about two teen brothers growing up in Jamshedpur.
- List of people from Jamshedpur
- Economy and Industries of Jamshedpur
- Tata Steel
- Tatanagar Railway Station
- List of mobile network operators in Jamshedpur
- 2011 Census of India
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Jamshedpur|
- jamshedpurcity—A Portal of Jamshedpur city.
- JsrLive—A City Portal for Jamshedpur
- MyJamshedpur.com—Complete information about Jamshedpur (or Tatanagar) city
- Website of the District Administration
- Fact File on Jamshedpur
- Jamshedpur travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Satellite images of Jamshedpur
- Photo essay on Tata City/Jamshedpur, Galli Magazine