Percentages agreement

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Churchill's copy of his secret agreement with Stalin[1]

The Percentages agreement was an agreement between Soviet premier Joseph Stalin and British prime minister Winston Churchill during the Fourth Moscow Conference in 1944, about how to divide various European countries into spheres of influence. The agreement was originally made public by Churchill. The US ambassador, who was supposed to represent Roosevelt in these meetings, was excluded from this particular discussion.[2]

The agreement[edit]

According to Churchill's account of the incident, Churchill suggested that the Soviet Union should have 90 percent influence in Romania and 75 percent in Bulgaria; the United Kingdom should have 90 percent in Greece; and they should have 50 percent each in Hungary and Yugoslavia. Churchill wrote it on a piece of paper which he pushed across to Stalin, who ticked it off and passed it back.[3][4][5][6][7][8] The result of these discussions was that the percentages of Soviet influence in Bulgaria and, more significantly, Hungary were amended to 80 percent.

Churchill called it a "naughty document".[9]

A draft document of the agreement, which was yet to be made in 1944, appeared under strange circumstances when it was supposedly intercepted in 1943 and fell into the hands of Spanish dictator Francisco Franco's secret service. This was mentioned by General Jordana, in a famous speech he gave in April 1943 in Barcelona.[10]

Historian Gabriel Kolko has argued:

There is little significance to the memorable and dramatic passage in Churchill's autobiography recalling how he and Stalin divided Eastern Europe ... Stalin's "tick," translated into real words, indicated nothing whatsoever. The very next day Churchill sent Stalin a draft of the discussion, and the Russian carefully struck out phrases implying the creation of spheres of influence, a fact Churchill excluded from his memoirs. Eden assiduously avoided the term, and considered the understanding merely as a practical agreement on how problems would be worked out in each country, and the very next day he and Molotov modified the percentages in a manner which Eden assumed was general rather than precise.[11]

However Henry Butterfield Ryan notes that "Eden and Molotov haggled over these quantities as though they were bargaining over a rug in a bazaar, with Molotov trying, eventually successfully, to trim Britain’s figures."[12]

Geoffrey Roberts says similarly of the agreement: "It's a good story but, like so many of Churchill's tales, the lily was somewhat gilded.[13]

Stalin did keep to his promise about Greece, but did not keep his promise for Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, which became one-party communist states with no British influence. Yugoslavia remained a non-aligned state in line with the Percentages agreement, though it was a one-party communist state, with very limited British influence. Britain supported the Greek government forces in the civil war but the Soviet Union did not assist the communist guerrillas.[14]

Countries Soviet Union Percentages UK/USA Percentages
 Bulgaria 75% 25%
 Greece 10% 90%
 Hungary 50% 50%
 Romania 90% 10%
 Yugoslavia 50% 50%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The document is contained in Britain's Public Record Office, PREM 3/66/7 (169).
  2. ^ The Vision of Anglo-America: The US-UK Alliance and the Emerging Cold War, 1943 – 1946; By Henry Butterfield Ryan, pg 137 at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=uRGu4C1FgKsC&pg=PA137&dq=Percentages+agreement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CIuUU7vZB_SI7Ab7goH4Ag&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=alliance&f=false
  3. ^ The American Historical Review, Vol. 83, No. 2, Apr., 1978 , pg 368, at http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/1862322?uid=3739368&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21103834377131
  4. ^ The Vision of Anglo-America: The US-UK Alliance and the Emerging Cold War, 1943 – 1946; By Henry Butterfield Ryan, pg 137 at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=uRGu4C1FgKsC&pg=PA137&dq=Percentages+agreement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CIuUU7vZB_SI7Ab7goH4Ag&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=alliance&f=false
  5. ^ Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939-1953 By Geoffrey Roberts, pg 217-218, at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=5GCFUqBRZ-QC&pg=PA406&dq=Percentages+agreement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CIuUU7vZB_SI7Ab7goH4Ag&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Percentages%20agreement&f=false
  6. ^ Winston S. Churchill, 1874-1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography, By Eugene L. Rasor pg 269 at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=6PpNUK5u1lkC&pg=PA269&dq=percentages+agreement,+churchill&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UZOUU4iGBcyS7AbUioCwDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=percentages%20agreement%2C%20churchill&f=false
  7. ^ Churchill: The Unruly Giant, By Norman Rose, pg 383, at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=oNSCKLkokakC&pg=PA383&dq=percentages+agreement,+churchill&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UZOUU4iGBcyS7AbUioCwDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=percentages%20agreement%2C%20churchill&f=false
  8. ^ American Influence in Greece, 1917-1929, By Louis P. Cassimatis, pg 240, at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=SjXLZWQWqkkC&pg=PA204&dq=percentages+agreement
  9. ^ Winston S. Churchill, 1874-1965: A Comprehensive Historiography and Annotated Bibliography, By Eugene L. Rasor pg 269 at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=6PpNUK5u1lkC&pg=PA269&dq=percentages+agreement,+churchill&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UZOUU4iGBcyS7AbUioCwDA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=percentages%20agreement%2C%20churchill&f=false
  10. ^ This letter—that Stalin no doubt intentionally put into circulation—fell into the hands of general Franco and was used by his Foreign Minister, general Jordana, in the famous speech he gave in April 1943 in Barcelona. It was a desperate cry against Roosevelt's concessions to Bolshevism... in, Nicolas Baciu: L'Europe de l'Est trahie et vendue: les erreurs tragiques de Churchill et Roosevelt: les documents secrets accusent, Pensée universelle, 1984, p. 49].
  11. ^ Kolko 1990, p. 145.
    See also Tsakaloyannis 1986.
  12. ^ The Vision of Anglo-America: The US-UK Alliance and the Emerging Cold War, 1943 – 1946; By Henry Butterfield Ryan, pg 137 at http://books.google.co.za/books?id=uRGu4C1FgKsC&pg=PA137&dq=Percentages+agreement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=CIuUU7vZB_SI7Ab7goH4Ag&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=alliance&f=false
  13. ^ Roberts 2006, p. 218.
  14. ^ P. M. H. Bell, The World Since 1945: An International History (2001), ISBN 0-340-66235-2

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]