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||This article possibly contains original research. (July 2014)|
|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Trade names||Neupramir, Pramistar, Remen|
|Legal status||Unscheduled (US)|
|Mol. mass||269.383 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Pramiracetam is a nootropic drug derived from piracetam, and is more potent (i.e. lower dosage is used). It belongs to the racetam family of nootropics, and goes by the trade name Remen (Parke-Davis), Neupramir (Lusofarmaco) or Pramistar (Firma). Pramiracetam is used off-label for a wide range of applications.
Pramiracetam is a lipid-soluble moleculte and a exhibits a high-affinity choline uptake (HAUC)--thus, supplementation with choline or cholinergic substances (e.g. alpha GPC) is recommended.[medical citation needed] Pramiracetam has a similar chemical structure to aniracetam but is 15-30 times stronger than aniracetam and the majority of racetam derivatives (e.g. oxiracetam).[medical citation needed] Pramiracetam is thought to increase the long term memory of users and is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[medical citation needed] Although the mechanism underlying this response has not been fully elucidated, an increase in neuronal membrane fluidity has been posited as a potential mode of action.[unreliable medical source?]
Pramiracetam is thought to influence the glutamate (cholinergic) and specifically, the ACh (acetylcholine) receptor sites, by improving reuptake and the efficiency of their channels. Pramiracetam should be taken in conjunction with a source of choline,[medical citation needed] as acetylcholine is depleted while using pramiracetam. Pramiracetam is a cyclic derivative of GABA.
Pramiracetam was developed by Parke-Davis in the late 1970s. The first patents for this drug appeared in 1978 (Belgium) and 1979 (US), concurrent with its first reporting of nootropic characteristics.
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Staying hydrated while using pramiracetam is imperative[medical citation needed] because the drug causes the neurological metabolism of the brain to speed up. Without enough water intake, users potentially suffer from headaches, phyrosis (heartburn) and lethargy. Pramiracetam should not be used by pregnant women or people with lowered renal clearance capacities.
Further, it has been noted by researchers that drugs like pramiracetam may only work well if administered in the presence of a good supply of other hormones like estrogen or testosterone, so seniors should be cautious and seek medical advice before starting a pramiracetam regiment.
Pramiracetam, like other members of the racetam family, is generally well tolerated by humans. In a study where a small sample of human subjects with varying degrees of Alzheimer's disease were treated for 5–8 weeks, symptoms were few and mild. At relatively low dosages, a few participants reported headaches. One participant at the highest end of the dosage spectrum experienced sleepiness, decreased appetite, and dizziness. In another study where a small sample of healthy, male human subjects were treated for 10 days, no adverse events were reported.
- Axel Kleemann, Jürgen Engel, Bernd Kutscher und Dietmar Reichert: Pharmaceutical Substances, 4. Edition (2000), ISBN 978-1-58890-031-9