Aptiganel

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Aptiganel
Aptiganel.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-(3-ethylphenyl)-1-methyl-2-naphthalen-1-ylguanidine
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Uncontrolled
Identifiers
CAS number 137159-92-3 N
ATC code None
PubChem CID 60840
ChemSpider 54827 YesY
UNII 46475LV84I YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL92484 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C20H21N3 
Mol. mass 303.401 g/mol
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Aptiganel (Cerestat; CNS-1102) is a drug which acts as a noncompetitive NMDA antagonist.[1] It has neuroprotective effects and was researched for potential use in the treatment of stroke,[2] but despite positive results in animal studies,[3] human trials showed limited efficacy,[4] as well as undesirable side effects such as sedation and hallucinations,[5][6] and clinical development was ultimately not continued.[7]

Synthesis[edit]

Aptiganel synth.png

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reddy NL, Hu LY, Cotter RE, Fischer JB, Wong WJ, McBurney RN, Weber E, Holmes DL, Wong ST, Prasad R, et al. Synthesis and structure-activity studies of N,N'-diarylguanidine derivatives. N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-(3-ethylphenyl)-N'-methylguanidine: a new, selective noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 1994 Jan 21;37(2):260-7. PMID 8295213
  2. ^ Muir KW, Grosset DG, Gamzu E, Lees KR. Pharmacological effects of the non-competitive NMDA antagonist CNS 1102 in normal volunteers. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1994 Jul;38(1):33-8. PMID 7946934
  3. ^ Schäbitz WR, Li F, Fisher M. The N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist CNS 1102 protects cerebral gray and white matter from ischemic injury following temporary focal ischemia in rats. Stroke. 2000 Jul;31(7):1709-14. PMID 10884477
  4. ^ Albers GW, Goldstein LB, Hall D, Lesko LM; Aptiganel Acute Stroke Investigators. Aptiganel hydrochloride in acute ischemic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001 Dec 5;286(21):2673-82. PMID 11730442
  5. ^ Muir KW, Grosset DG, Lees KR. Effects of prolonged infusions of the NMDA antagonist aptiganel hydrochloride (CNS 1102) in normal volunteers. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 1997 Aug;20(4):311-21. PMID 9260729
  6. ^ Lees KR. Cerestat and other NMDA antagonists in ischemic stroke. Neurology. 1997 Nov;49(5 Suppl 4):S66-9. PMID 9371155
  7. ^ Hoyte L, Barber PA, Buchan AM, Hill MD. The rise and fall of NMDA antagonists for ischemic stroke. Current Molecular Medicine. 2004 Mar;4(2):131-6. PMID 15032709