|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Legal status||US IND filed 2/9/2014|
|Mol. mass||368.47 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
(–)-18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a derivative of ibogaine invented in 1996 by the research team around the pharmacologist Stanley D. Glick from the Albany Medical College and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne from the University of Vermont. In animal studies it has proved to be effective at reducing self-administration of morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and sucrose.  18-MC is a α3β4 nicotinic antagonist and, in contrast to ibogaine, has no affinity at the α4β2 subtype nor at NMDA-channels nor at the serotonin transporter, and has significantly reduced affinity for sodium channels and for the σ receptor, but retains modest affinity for the μ- and κ-opioid receptors, where it acts as an antagonist and an agonist, respectively. The sites of action in the brain include the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, dorsolateral tegmentum and basolateral amygdala. It has also been shown to produce anorectic effects in obese rats, most likely due to the same actions on the reward system which underlie its anti-addictive effects against drug addiction.
18-MC has not yet been tested in humans. In 2002 the research team started trying to raise funds for human trials, but were unable to secure the estimated $5 million needed. In January 2010, Obiter Research, a chemical manufacturer in Champaign, Illinois, signed a patent license with Albany Medical College and the University of Vermont allowing them the right to synthesize and market 18-MC and other congeners. National Institute on Drug Abuse gave a $6.5 million grant in 2012 to California based drug developer company Savant HWP for the human trials.
A number of derivatives of 18-MC have also been developed, with several of them being superior to 18-MC itself, the methoxyethyl congener ME-18-MC being more potent than 18-MC but with similar efficacy, and the methylamino analogue 18-MAC being more effective than 18-MC but with around the same potency. These compounds were also found to act as selective α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine antagonists, with little or no effect on NMDA receptors.
- S.D. Glick; Kuehne, ME; Maisonneuve, IM; Bandarage, UK; Molinari, HH (1996). "18-Methoxycoronaridine, a non-toxic iboga alkaloid congener: effects on morphine and cocaine self-administration and on mesolimbic dopamine release in rats". Brain Res. 719 (1–2): 29–35. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(96)00056-X. PMID 8782860.
- Glick, Stanley D.; Sell, Elizabeth M.; Maisonneuve, Isabelle M. (2008). "Brain regions mediating α3β4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on methamphetamine and sucrose self-administration". European Journal of Pharmacology 599 (1–3): 91–5. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.09.038. PMC 2600595. PMID 18930043.
- I.M. Maisonneuve; Glick, SD (2003). "Anti-addictive actions of an iboga alkaloid congener: a novel mechanism for a novel treatment". Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 75 (3): 607–18. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00119-9. PMID 12895678.
- Glick SD, Maisonneuve IM, Hough LB, Kuehne ME, Bandarage UK. (±)-18-Methoxycoronaridine: A Novel Iboga Alkaloid Congener Having Potential Anti-Addictive Efficacy. CNS Drug Reviews 1999;5(1):27-42.
- Antonio T, Childers SR, Rothman RB, et al. (2013). "Effect of Iboga alkaloids on µ-opioid receptor-coupled G protein activation". PLoS ONE 8 (10): e77262. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077262. PMC 3818563. PMID 24204784.
- Glick, SD; Ramirez, RL; Livi, JM; Maisonneuve, IM (2006). "18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula and/or interpeduncular nucleus to decrease morphine self-administration in rats". European Journal of Pharmacology 537 (1–3): 94–8. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.03.045. PMID 16626688.
- Taraschenko, OD; Shulan, JM; Maisonneuve, IM; Glick, SD (2007). "18-MC acts in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus to attenuate dopamine sensitization to morphine in the nucleus accumbens". Synapse 61 (7): 547–60. doi:10.1002/syn.20396. PMID 17447255.
- Taraschenko, OD; Rubbinaccio, HY; Shulan, JM; Glick, SD; Maisonneuve, IM (2007). "Morphine-induced changes in acetylcholine release in the interpeduncular nucleus and relationship to changes in motor behavior in rats". Neuropharmacology 53 (1): 18–26. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2007.04.010. PMC 2025684. PMID 17544456.
- Glick, SD; Sell, EM; Maisonneuve, IM (2008). "Brain regions mediating α3β4 nicotinic antagonist effects of 18-MC on methamphetamine and sucrose self-administration". European Journal of Pharmacology 599 (1–3): 91–5. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.09.038. PMC 2600595. PMID 18930043.
- Taraschenko, OD; Rubbinaccio, HY; Maisonneuve, IM; Glick, SD (2008). "18-methoxycoronaridine: a potential new treatment for obesity in rats?". Psychopharmacology 201 (3): 339–50. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1290-9. PMID 18751969.
- Addiction Treatment Strives for Legitimacy. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2002; 288: 3096-3101.
- Albany Med scientist closer to addiction drug success timesunion.com June 27, 2014.
- Kuehne, ME; He, L; Jokiel, PA; Pace, CJ; Fleck, MW; Maisonneuve, IM; Glick, SD; Bidlack, JM (2003). "Synthesis and biological evaluation of 18-methoxycoronaridine congeners. Potential antiaddiction agents". Journal of Medical Chemistry 46 (13): 2716–30. doi:10.1021/jm020562o. PMID 12801235.
- Pace, CJ; Glick, SD; Maisonneuve, IM; He, LW; Jokiel, PA; Kuehne, ME; Fleck, MW (2004). "Novel iboga alkaloid congeners block nicotinic receptors and reduce drug self-administration". European Journal of Pharmacology 492 (2–3): 159–67. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.03.062. PMID 15178360.
- S.D. Glick; Ramirez, RL; Livi, JM; Maisonneuve, IM (2006). "18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula and/or interpeduncular nucleus to decrease morphine self-administration in rats". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 537 (1–3): 94–8. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.03.045. PMID 16626688.