|Industry||food, pet food, animal feeds|
|Fate||Merged with Friskies Pet Care to form Nestlé Purina PetCare|
|Founded||1894 as Purina Mills|
|Headquarters||St. Louis, Missouri|
|William H. Danforth, founder|
|Products||Dog food, cat food, animal health products, breakfast cereal, crisp bread|
Ralston Purina (originally hyphenated Ralston-Purina) traces its roots to 1894, when founder William H. Danforth established the animal feed company Purina Mills. Its predominant brand for each animal was generally referred to as "Chow"; hence "Purina Horse Chow", "Purina Dog Chow", "Purina Cat Chow", "Purina Rabbit Chow", "Purina Pig Chow" and even "Purina Monkey Chow". Later, in 1902, he merged with university professor Webster Edgerly, founder of Ralstonism, who was at the time producing breakfast cereals, to form the "Ralston-Purina Company".
In 1986, Ralston Purina sold Purina Mills, its US animal feed business, to British Petroleum. Purina Mills is now owned by Land O'Lakes. In 1994, the Ralston "human food" operations of the Ralston Purina Company were spun off into a new company called Ralcorp Holdings. In 1998, Ralston Purina spun off its international animal feed business as Agribrands which was acquired by Cargill in 2001. The animal feed businesses continue to use the Purina and Chow brands which Purina Mills and Cargill license for use in the US and internationally, respectively.
Merger with Nestlé
Ralston Purina became the subject of an acquisition bid by Swiss-based Nestlé, whose Friskies brand was the other leading US brand of pet food. Nestlé S.A. and Ralston Purina announced in January 2001 a definitive merger agreement. Under the agreement, Nestlé acquired all of Ralston Purina's (NYSE: RAL) outstanding shares for US$ 33.50 per share in cash. The offer represented a premium of 36 percent over the closing price on Friday, January 12, 2001. The transaction had an enterprise value of US$10.3 billion ($10.0 billion equity plus $1.2 billion of net debt, minus $0.9 billion of financial investments).
Both corporations saw this major strategic transaction as the ideal way to benefit from their combined know-how, complementary strengths and international presence in the growing pet-care market. Several brands of pet food (e.g., "Meow Mix") had to be divested separately to meet antitrust concerns. Purina brands are now made and marketed by a division of Nestlé (Nestlé Purina PetCare) which is still headquartered in St. Louis.
While primarily a pet food company, Ralston Purina also made some other pet-related products, such as Tidy Cats brand and Yesterday's News which is made from recycled newspaper cat litter, purchased from Edward Lowe Industries in 1990. Also, Purina has honoured several Canadian animals every year since 1968 in their Animal Hall of Fame. The latest inductees included a police service dog who "rushed and subdued an armed robber".
Acquisitions and diversifications
In 1977, Ralston Purina acquired Missouri Arena Corporation and the St. Louis Blues National Hockey League franchise. During the company's ownership of the team, they changed the name of the St. Louis Arena to the Checkerdome, reflecting the Ralston Purina logo. The franchise was sold to Harry Ornest on July 27, 1983.
Ralston Purina purchased the Eveready Battery Company in 1986, owner of the Eveready and Energizer brands. The company was spun off in 2000.
Ralston Purina purchased Continental Baking Company, makers of Wonder bread and Hostess cakes, from ITT in 1984. Ralston spun off Continental Baking Company, subsequently bought by Irving, Texas-based Interstate Brands Corporation (IBC).
Ralston Purina opened test market pizza stores called Checkerboard Pizza in 1986. The format was similar to Domino's and Little Caesars. They opened the stores in markets like Moorhead, MN, to test how the Midwestern market would accept the concept. They did well, but Ralston Purina decided not to enter the pizza franchise business and closed all pilots by late 1987.
Ralston Purina owned and further developed the Keystone ski resort in Colorado. The "Checkerboard" slope for kids / beginners at Keystone still bears their logo.
Ralston Purina also owned Jack-in-the-Box fast food restaurants in the 1970s-80s, along with several high end restaurants.
Ralston Purina owned Van Camp Sea Food Company in the 1970s and 1980s, a tuna cannery with Chicken of the Sea as its main product.
Ralston Purina owned an animal pharmaceutical company in the 1970s - 80s.
Ralston Purina is famed for its "checkerboard" trademark. The inspiration for the Ralston Purina logo came from a family from founder William Danforth's childhood who dressed in checkerboard cloth. The checkerboard trademark was introduced in 1904. Ralston Purina's headquarters was called Checkerboard Square. The checkerboard logo then evolved into personal development concept Danforth put forth in his book I Dare You, in which he proposed the four key components in life ("Physical", "Mental", "Social" and "Religious") need to be in balance, and one area was not to develop at expense of the other. The concept became intertwined with the company in 1921, when it began selling feed that was pressed in cubes called "checkers".
- Carman, Tim (2009-04-16), "Food History Potpourri: Ralston Purina’s D.C. Roots", Washington City Paper, retrieved 2009-10-19
- History at Cargill.com
- Ackman, Dan (2001-01-16). "Nestle Seals Ralston Deal". Forbes (Forbes.com LLC). Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- "A Glimpse from the Past to the Present". Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., Vevey, Switzerland. Retrieved 2009-10-19.
- Danforth, William. I Dare You!. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 0-7661-2786-9.
- "William H. Danforth, Founder". Société des Produits Nestlé S.A., Vevey, Switzerland. Retrieved 2009-10-19.[dead link]
- Purina Petcare Corporate Website
- Purina Mobile Website
- Purina Mills, LLC (U.S. animal feed brand)
- Cargill's Purina division (international animal feed brand)
- Agribrands Purina Canada Inc. (Canada animal feed brand)
- Purina Mills Poultry Nutrition
- Purina iPhone App
- Purina BlackBerry App