Timeline of programming languages

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This is a record of historically important programming languages, by decade.

Legend

( Entry ) means a non-universal programming language
* means a unique language (no direct predecessor)

Pre-1950[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
1943–45 Plankalkül (concept) Konrad Zuse *
1943–46 ENIAC coding system John von Neumann, John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert, Herman Goldstine after Alan Turing *
1946 ENIAC Short Code Richard Clippinger, John von Neumann after Alan Turing ENIAC coding system
1946 Von Neumann and Goldstine graphing system (Notation) John von Neumann and Herman Goldstine ENIAC coding system
1947 ARC Assembly Kathleen Booth[1][2] ENIAC coding system
1948 CPC Coding scheme Howard H. Aiken Analytical Engine order code
1948 Curry notation system Haskell Curry ENIAC coding system
1948 Plankalkül (concept published) Konrad Zuse *
1949 Short Code John Mauchly and William F. Schmitt ENIAC Short Code
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

1950s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
1950 Short Code William F Schmidt, Albert B. Tonik,[3] J.R. Logan Brief Code
1950 Birkbeck Assembler Kathleen Booth ARC
1951 Superplan Heinz Rutishauser Plankalkül
1951 ALGAE Edward A Voorhees and Karl Balke *
1951 Intermediate Programming Language Arthur Burks Short Code
1951 Regional Assembly Language Maurice Wilkes EDSAC
1951 Boehm unnamed coding system Corrado Böhm CPC Coding scheme
1951 Klammerausdrücke Konrad Zuse Plankalkül
1951 OMNIBAC Symbolic Assembler Charles Katz Short Code
1951 Stanislaus (Notation) Fritz Bauer *
1951 Whirlwind assembler Charles Adams and Jack Gilmore at MIT Project Whirlwind EDSAC
1951 Rochester assembler Nat Rochester EDSAC
1951 Sort Merge Generator Betty Holberton *
1952 A-0 Grace Hopper Short Code
1952 Autocode Alick Glennie after Alan Turing CPC Coding scheme
1952 Editing Generator Milly Koss SORT/MERGE
1952 COMPOOL RAND/SDC *
1953 Speedcoding John W. Backus *
1953 READ/PRINT Don Harroff, James Fishman, George Ryckman *
1954 Laning and Zierler system Laning, Zierler, Adams at MIT Project Whirlwind *
1954 Mark I Autocode Tony Brooker Glennie Autocode
1954–55 Fortran (concept) Team led by John W. Backus at IBM Speedcoding
1954 ARITH-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC A-0
1954 MATH-MATIC Team led by Charles Katz A-0
1954 MATRIX MATH H G Kahrimanian *
1954 IPL I (concept) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simon *
1955 FLOW-MATIC Team led by Grace Hopper at UNIVAC A-0
1955 BACAIC M. Grems and R. Porter
1955 PACT I SHARE FORTRAN, A-2
1955–56 Sequentielle Formelübersetzung Fritz Bauer and Karl Samelson Boehm
1955–56 IT Team led by Alan Perlis Laning and Zierler
1955 PRINT IBM
1958 IPL II (implementation) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simon IPL I
1956–58 LISP (concept) John McCarthy IPL
1957 COMTRAN Bob Bemer FLOW-MATIC
1957 Fortran I (implementation) John W. Backus at IBM FORTRAN
1957–58 UNICODE Remington Rand UNIVAC MATH-MATIC
1957 COMIT (concept) *
1958 Fortran II Team led by John W. Backus at IBM FORTRAN I
1958 ALGOL 58 (IAL) ACM/GAMM FORTRAN, IT, Sequentielle Formelübersetzung
1958 IPL V Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert A. Simon IPL II
1959 FACT Fletcher R. Jones, Roy Nutt, Robert L. Patrick *
1959 COBOL (concept) The CODASYL Committee FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN, FACT
1959 JOVIAL Jules Schwartz at SDC ALGOL 58
1959 LISP (implementation) John McCarthy IPL
1959 MAD – Michigan Algorithm Decoder Bruce Arden, Bernard Galler, and Robert M. Graham ALGOL 58
1959 TRAC (concept) Calvin Mooers
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

1960s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
1960 ALGOL 60 ALGOL 58
1960 COBOL 61 (implementation) The CODASYL Committee FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN
1961 COMIT (implementation) *
1962 FORTRAN IV IBM FORTRAN II
1962 APL (concept) Kenneth E. Iverson *
1962 Simula (concept) ALGOL 60
1962 SNOBOL Ralph Griswold, et al. FORTRAN II, COMIT
1963 CPL Barron, Christopher Strachey, et al. ALGOL 60
1963 SNOBOL3 Griswold, et al. SNOBOL
1963 ALGOL 68 (concept) Adriaan van Wijngaarden, et al. ALGOL 60
1963 JOSS I Cliff Shaw, RAND ALGOL 58
1964 MIMIC H. E. Petersen, et al. MIDAS
1964 COWSEL Rod Burstall, Robin Popplestone CPL, LISP
1964 PL/I (concept) IBM ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1964 BASIC John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College FORTRAN II, JOSS
1964 IBM RPG IBM FARGO
1964 Mark-IV Informatics
1964 Speakeasy-2 Stanley Cohen at Argonne National Laboratory Speakeasy
1964 TRAC (implementation) Calvin Mooers
1964 P′′ Corrado Böhm *
1964? IITRAN
1965 RPG II IBM FARGO, RPG
1965 MAD/I (concept) University of Michigan MAD, ALGOL 60, PL/I
1965 TELCOMP BBN JOSS
1965 Atlas Autocode Tony Brooker, Derrick Morris at Manchester University Algol 60, Autocode
1966 JOSS II Chuck Baker, RAND JOSS I
1966 ALGOL W Niklaus Wirth, C. A. R. Hoare ALGOL 60
1966 FORTRAN 66 FORTRAN IV
1966 ISWIM (Concept) Peter J. Landin LISP
1966 CORAL66 ALGOL 60
1966 APL (implementation)[4] Kenneth E. Iverson *
1967 BCPL Martin Richards CPL
1967 MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital FORTRAN, TELCOMP
1967 Simula 67 (implementation) Ole-Johan Dahl, Bjørn Myhrhaug, Kristen Nygaard at Norsk Regnesentral ALGOL 60
1967 InterLisp D.G. Bobrow and D.L. Murphy Lisp
1967 SNOBOL4 Ralph Griswold, et al. SNOBOL3
1967 XPL William McKeeman, et al. at University of California Santa Cruz, California
J. J. Horning, et al. at Stanford University
PL/I
1968 ALGOL 68 (UNESCO/IFIP standard) Adriaan van Wijngaarden, Barry J. Mailloux, John E. L. Peck and Cornelis H. A. Koster, et al. ALGOL 60
1968 POP-1 Rod Burstall, Robin Popplestone COWSEL
1968 DIBOL-8 DEC DIBOL
1968 Forth (concept) Moore
1968 LOGO Seymour Papert LISP
1968 MAPPER Unisys CRT RPS
1968 REFAL (implementation) Valentin Turchin *
1968 TTM (implementation) Steven Caine and E. Kent Gordon, California Institute of Technology GAP, GPM
1969 PL/I (implementation) IBM ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1969 B Ken Thompson, with contributions from Dennis Ritchie BCPL
1969 PPL Thomas A. Standish at Harvard University
1969 SETL Jack Schwartz at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
1969 TUTOR Paul Tenczar & University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
1969 Edinburgh IMP Edinburgh University Algol 60, Autocode, Atlas Autocode
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

1970s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
1970? Forth (implementation) Charles H. Moore
1970 POP-2 POP-1
1970 Pascal Niklaus Wirth, Kathleen Jensen ALGOL 60, ALGOL W
1970 BLISS Wulf, Russell, Habermann at Carnegie Mellon University ALGOL
1971 KRL Daniel G. Bobrow at Xerox PARC, Terry Winograd at Stanford University KM, FRL (MIT)
1971 Sue Ric Holt et al. at University of Toronto Pascal, XPL
1971 CDL Cornelis H.A. Koster at University of Nijmegen
1972 Smalltalk Daniel Henry Holmes Ingalls, Jr., Xerox PARC Simula 67
1972 PL/M Gary Kildall at Digital Research PL/I, ALGOL, XPL
1972 C Dennis Ritchie B, BCPL, ALGOL 68
1972 INTERCAL Don Woods and James M. Lyon *
1972 Prolog Alain Colmerauer 2-level W-Grammar
1972 SQL aka structured query language IBM ALPHA, Quel(Ingres)
1973 COMAL Børge Christensen, Benedict Løfstedt Pascal, BASIC
1973 ML Robin Milner
1973 LIS Jean Ichbiah et al. at CII Honeywell Bull Pascal, Sue
1973 Speakeasy-3 Stanley Cohen, Steven Pieper at Argonne National Laboratory Speakeasy-2
1974 CLU Barbara Liskov ALGOL 60, Lisp, Simula
1974 GRASS Thomas A. DeFanti BASIC
1974 BASIC FOUR MAI BASIC Four Inc. Business BASIC
1974 PROSE modeling language CDC 6600 Cybernet Services SLANG, FORTRAN
1975 ABC Leo Geurts and Lambert Meertens SETL
1975 Irvine Dataflow (concept) Arvind?, University of California, Irvine
1975 PROSE modeling language Time-Sharing Version CDC 6400 Cybernet KRONOS Services SLANG, FORTRAN
1975 Scheme Gerald Jay Sussman, Guy L. Steele, Jr. LISP
1975 Altair BASIC Bill Gates, Paul Allen BASIC
1975 CS-4 James S. Miller, Benjamin M. Brosgol et al. at Intermetrics ALGOL 68, BLISS, ECL, HAL
1975 Modula Niklaus Wirth Pascal
1976 Plus Allan Ballard, Paul Whaley at the University of British Columbia Pascal, Sue
1976 Smalltalk-76 Xerox PARC Smalltalk-72
1976 Mesa Xerox PARC ALGOL
1976 SAM76 Claude A.R. Kagan LISP, TRAC
1976 Ratfor Brian Kernighan C, FORTRAN
1976 S John Chambers at Bell Labs APL, PPL, Scheme
1976 SAS SAS Institute
1977 FP John Backus *
1977 Bourne Shell (sh) Stephen R. Bourne *
1977 Commodore BASIC Jack Tramiel Licensed from Microsoft
1977 IDL David Stern of Research Systems Inc Fortran
1977 Standard MUMPS MUMPS
1977 Icon (concept) Ralph Griswold SNOBOL
1977 Red Benjamin M. Brosgol et al. at Intermetrics for US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68, CS-4
1977 Blue John B. Goodenough et al. at SofTech for US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68
1977 Yellow Jay Spitzen et al. at SRI International for US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68
1978 C shell Bill Joy C
1978 RPG III IBM FARGO, RPG, RPG II
1978 HAL/S designed by Intermetrics for NASA XPL
1975 Irvine Dataflow (implementation) Arvind and Gostelow, University of California, Irvine
1978? MATLAB Cleve Moler at the University of New Mexico *
1978? SMALL Nevil Brownlee at the University of Auckland Algol60
1978 VisiCalc Dan Bricklin, Bob Frankston marketed by VisiCorp *
1979 Modula-2 Niklaus Wirth Modula, Mesa
1979 REXX Mike Cowlishaw at IBM PL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2
1979 AWK Alfred Aho, Peter J. Weinberger, Brian Kernighan C, SNOBOL
1979 Icon (implementation) Ralph Griswold SNOBOL
1979 Vulcan dBase-II Wayne Ratliff *
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

1980s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
1980 Ada 80 (MIL-STD-1815) Jean Ichbiah at CII Honeywell Bull Green
1980 C with classes Bjarne Stroustrup[5] C, Simula 67
1980–81 CBASIC Gordon Eubanks BASIC, Compiler Systems, Digital Research
1981 BBC BASIC Acorn Computers, Sophie Wilson BASIC
1981 IBM BASICA Microsoft BASIC
1982? Speakeasy-IV Stanley Cohen, et al. at Speakeasy Computing Corporation Speakeasy-3
1982? Draco Chris Gray Pascal, C, ALGOL 68
1982 PostScript Warnock InterPress
1983 GW-BASIC Microsoft IBM BASICA
1983 Turbo Pascal Hejlsberg at Borland Pascal
1983 Ada 83 (ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A) Jean Ichbiah at Alsys Ada 80, Green
1983 Objective-C Brad Cox Smalltalk, C
1983 C++ Bjarne Stroustrup C with Classes
1983 True BASIC John George Kemeny, Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College BASIC
1983 occam David May EPL
1983? ABAP SAP AG COBOL
1983 Korn Shell (ksh) David Korn sh
1984 CLIPPER Nantucket dBase
1984 Common Lisp Guy L. Steele, Jr. and many others LISP
1984? GOM – Good Old Mad Don Boettner, University of Michigan MAD
1984 RPL Hewlett-Packard Forth, Lisp
1984 Standard ML ML
1984 Redcode Alexander Dewdney and D.G. Jones
1984 OPL PSION BASIC
1985 PARADOX Borland dBase
1985 QuickBASIC Microsoft BASIC
1986 CorVision Cortex INFORM
1986 Eiffel Bertrand Meyer Simula 67, Ada
1986 GFA BASIC Frank Ostrowski BASIC
1986 Informix-4GL Informix
1986 LabVIEW National Instruments
1986 Miranda David Turner at University of Kent
1986 Object Pascal Apple Computer Inc. Pascal
1986 PROMAL C
1987 Ada ISO 8652:1987 ANSI/MIL-STD-1815A unchanged Ada 83
1987 Self (concept) Sun Microsystems Inc. Smalltalk
1987 occam 2 David May and INMOS occam
1987 HyperTalk Apple Computer Inc. *
1987 Perl Larry Wall C, sed, awk, sh
1987 Oberon Niklaus Wirth Modula-2
1987 Erlang Joe Armstrong and others in Ericsson Prolog
1987 Mathematica Wolfram Research *
1987 Turbo Basic Robert 'Bob' Zale BASIC/Z
1987 Clean Software Technology Research Group of Radboud University Nijmegen *
1988 RPG/400 IBM FARGO, RPG, RPG II, RPG III
1988 Octave MATLAB
1988 Tcl John Ousterhout Awk, Lisp
1988 STOS BASIC François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos BASIC
1988 Object REXX Simon C. Nash REXX
1988 SPARK Bernard A. Carré Ada
1988 A+ Arthur Whitney APL
1988 Hamilton C shell Nicole Hamilton C shell
1989 Turbo Pascal OOP Anders Hejlsberg at Borland Turbo Pascal, Object Pascal
1989 Modula-3 Cardeli, et al. DEC and Olivetti Modula-2
1989 PowerBASIC Robert 'Bob' Zale Turbo Basic
1989 VisSim Peter Darnell, Visual Solutions
1989 LPC Lars Pensjö
1989 Bash Brian Fox Bourne shell, C shell, Korn shell
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

1990s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
1990 AMOS BASIC François Lionet and Constantin Sotiropoulos STOS BASIC
1990 AMPL Robert Fourer, David Gay and Brian Kernighan at Bell Laboratories
1990 Object Oberon H Mössenböck, J Templ, R Griesemer Oberon
1990 J Kenneth E. Iverson, Roger Hui at Iverson Software APL, FP
1990 Haskell Miranda
1990 EuLisp Common Lisp, Scheme
1990 Z Shell (zsh) Paul Falstad at Princeton University ksh
1991 GNU E David J. DeWitt, Michael J. Carey C++
1991 Oberon-2 Hanspeter Mössenböck, Wirth Object Oberon
1991 Python Guido van Rossum ABC, ALGOL 68, Icon, Modula-3
1991 Oz Gert Smolka and his students Prolog
1991 Q Albert Gräf
1991 Visual Basic Alan Cooper, sold to Microsoft QuickBASIC
1992 Borland Pascal Turbo Pascal OOP
1992 Dylan many people at Apple Computer Inc. Common Lisp, Scheme
1993? Self (implementation) Sun Microsystems Inc. Smalltalk
1993 Brainfuck Urban Müller P′′
1993 Revolution Transcript HyperTalk
1993 AppleScript Apple Computer Inc. HyperTalk
1993 K Arthur Whitney APL, Lisp
1993 Lua Roberto Ierusalimschy et al. at Tecgraf, PUC-Rio Scheme, SNOBOL, Modula, CLU, C++
1993 R Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka S
1993 ZPL Chamberlain et al. at University of Washington C
1993 NewtonScript Walter Smith Self, Dylan
1994 Claire Yves Caseau Smalltalk, SETL, OPS5, Lisp, ML, C, LORE, LAURE
1994 ANSI Common Lisp Common Lisp
1994 RAPID ABB Group ARLA
1994 Pike Fredrik Hübinette et al. at Linköping University LPC, C, µLPC
1994 ANS Forth Elizabeth Rather, et al. Forth
1995 Ada 95 S. Tucker Taft, et al. at Intermetrics, Inc. Ada 83
1995 Borland Delphi Anders Hejlsberg at Borland Borland Pascal
1995 ColdFusion (CFML) Allaire
1995 Java James Gosling at Sun Microsystems C, Simula 67, C++, Smalltalk, Ada 83, Objective-C, Mesa
1995 LiveScript Brendan Eich at Netscape Self, C, Scheme
1995 PHP Rasmus Lerdorf Perl
1995 Ruby Yukihiro Matsumoto Smalltalk, Perl
1995 JavaScript Brendan Eich at Netscape LiveScript
1996 Curl David Kranz, Steve Ward, Chris Terman at MIT Lisp, C++, Tcl/Tk, TeX, HTML
1996 Lasso Blue World Communications Inc.
1996 Perl Data Language (PDL) Karl Glazebrook, Jarle Brinchmann, Tuomas Lukka, and Christian Soeller APL, Perl
1996 OCaml INRIA Caml Light, Standard ML
1996 NetRexx Mike Cowlishaw REXX
1997 Component Pascal Oberon microsystems, Inc Oberon-2
1997 E Mark S. Miller Joule, Original-E
1997 Pico Free University of Brussels Scheme
1997 Squeak Smalltalk Alan Kay, et al. at Apple Computer Inc. Smalltalk-80, Self
1997 ECMAScript ECMA TC39-TG1 JavaScript
1997 F-Script Philippe Mougin Smalltalk, APL, Objective-C
1997 ISLISP ISO Standard ISLISP Common Lisp
1997 Tea Jorge Nunes Java, Scheme, Tcl
1997 REBOL Carl Sassenrath, Rebol Technologies Self, Forth, Lisp, Logo
1998 Standard C++ ANSI/ISO Standard C++ C++, Standard C, C
1998 Open Source Erlang Ericsson Erlang
1998 M2001 Ronald E. Prather, Trinity University (Texas) *
1998 Pikt Robert Osterlund (then at University of Chicago) AWK, Perl, Unix shell
1998 PureBasic Frederic Laboureur, Fantaisie Software
1998 UnrealScript Tim Sweeney at Epic Games C++, Java
1999 XSLT (+ XPath) W3C, James Clark DSSSL
1999 GameMaker Language (GML) Mark Overmars Game Maker
1999 Harbour Antonio Linares dBase
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

2000s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
2000 Join Java G Stewart von Itzstein Java
2000 ActionScript Gary Grossman ECMAScript
2000 Joy Manfred von Thun FP, Forth
2000 D Walter Bright, Digital Mars C, C++, C#, Java
2000 XL Christophe de Dinechin Ada, C++, Lisp
2000 C# Anders Hejlsberg, Microsoft (ECMA) C, C++, Java, Delphi, Modula-2
2000 Ferite Chris Ross C, C++, Java, PHP, Python, Ruby, Scheme
2001 AspectJ Gregor Kiczales, Xerox PARC Java, Common Lisp
2001 Processing Casey Reas and Benjamin Fry *
2001 Visual Basic .NET Microsoft Visual Basic
2001 RPG IV (RPGLE, ILE RPG, RPG Free) IBM FARGO, RPG, RPG II, RPG III, RPG/400
2001 GDScript (GDS) OKAM Studio Godot
2002 Io Steve Dekorte Self, NewtonScript
2002 Gosu Guidewire Software GScript
2003 Nemerle University of Wrocław C#, ML, MetaHaskell
2003 Factor Slava Pestov Joy, Forth, Lisp
2003 Falcon Giancarlo Niccolai C++, Perl, Lua, Smalltalk, PHP, Lisp, Python, Ruby
2003 Scala Martin Odersky Smalltalk, Java, Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml
2003 Squirrel Alberto Demichelis Lua
2004 Subtext Jonathan Edwards *
2004 Alma-0 Krzysztof Apt, Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica *
2004 Boo Rodrigo B. de Oliveira Python, C#
2004 FreeBASIC Andre Victor QBasic
2004 Groovy James Strachan Java
2004 Little b Aneil Mallavarapu, Harvard Medical School, Department of Systems Biology Lisp
2005 F# Don Syme, Microsoft Research OCaml, C#, Haskell
2005 Seed7 Thomas Mertes *
2006 Links Philip Wadler, University of Edinburgh Haskell
2006 Cobra ChuckEsterbrook Python, C#, Eiffel, Objective-C
2006 Windows PowerShell Microsoft C#, ksh, Perl, CL, DCL, SQL
2006 OptimJ Ateji Java
2007 Ada 2005 Ada Rapporteur Group Ada 95
2007 Fantom Brian Frank, Andy Frank C#, Scala, Ruby, Erlang
2007 Vala GNOME C#
2007 Clojure Rich Hickey Lisp, ML, Haskell, Erlang
2007 Fortress Guy Steele Scala, ML, Haskell
2007 Oberon-07 Wirth[6] Oberon
2007 LOLCODE Adam Lindsay *
2008 Genie Jamie McCracken Python, Boo, D, Object Pascal
2008 Pure Albert Gräf Q
2009 Go Google C, Oberon, Limbo
2009 CoffeeScript Jeremy Ashkenas JavaScript, Ruby, Python, Haskell
2009 Idris Edwin Brady Haskell, Agda, Coq
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

2010s[edit]

Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)
2010 Chapel Brad Chamberlain, Cray Inc. HPF, ZPL
2010 RPG Open Access IBM FARGO, RPG, RPG II, RPG III, RPG 400, RPG IV (RPGLE, ILE RPG, RPG Free)
2010 Rust Graydon Hoare, Mozilla Alef, C++, Camlp4, Common Lisp, Erlang, Hermes, Limbo, Napier, Napier88, Newsqueak, NIL, Sather, Standard ML
2011 Ceylon Gavin King, Red Hat Java
2011 Dart Google Java, JavaScript, CoffeeScript, Go
2011 Elm Evan Czaplicki Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml, F#
2012 Elixir José Valim Erlang, Ruby, Clojure
2012 TypeScript Anders Hejlsberg, Microsoft JavaScript, CoffeeScript
2012 Julia Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral Shah, Alan Edelman MATLAB
2014 Hack Facebook PHP
2014 Swift Apple Inc. C, Objective-C
Year Name Chief developer, Company Predecessor(s)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Booth, Kathleen. "machine language for Automatic Relay Computer". Birkbeck College Computation Laboratory,. University of London. 
  2. ^ Campbell-Kelly, Martin "The Development of Computer Programming in Britain (1945 to 1955)", The Birkbeck College Machines, in (1982) Annals of the History of Computing 4(2) April 1982 IEEE
  3. ^ UNIVAC conference, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. 171-page transcript of oral history with computer pioneers, including Albert B. Tonik, involved with the Univac computer, held on 17–18 May 1990.
  4. ^ Smillie, Keith. ACM http://amturing.acm.org/award_winners/iverson_9147499.cfm.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ http://isocpp.org/tour
  6. ^ http://www.inf.ethz.ch/personal/wirth/Articles/Oberon.html

External links[edit]