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This article is about the year 1564.
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|1564 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2317|
|English Regnal year||6 Eliz. 1 – 7 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸亥年 (Water Pig)
4260 or 4200
— to —
甲子年 (Wood Rat)
4261 or 4201
|- Vikram Samvat||1620–1621|
|- Shaka Samvat||1485–1486|
|- Kali Yuga||4664–4665|
|Japanese calendar||Eiroku 7
|Minguo calendar||348 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2106–2107|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1564.|
- January 26 – Battle of Ula (Livonian War): A Lithuanian surprise attack results in a decisive defeat of the numerically superior Russian forces.
- March 25 – Battle of Angol in Chile: Spanish Conquistador Lorenzo Bernal del Mercado defeats and kills the toqui Illangulién.
- June 22 – French settlers abandon Charlesfort, the first French attempt at colonizing what is now the United States, and establish Fort Caroline in Florida.
- July – English merchant Anthony Jenkinson returns to London from his second expedition to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, having gained a considerable extension of trading rights for the English Muscovy Company.
- September 4 – The Ronneby Bloodbath take place in Ronneby in Denmark.
- September 10 – Takeda Shingen fights the forces of Uesugi Kenshin for the final time during the Battle of Kawanakajima in Japan.
- November 21 – Spanish Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi sails from Mexico. Later, he will conquer the Philippine Islands, founding Manila.
- First recorded report of a 'rat king'.
- approx. date – Idris Alooma starts to rule the Kanem-Bornu Empire.
- January 1 – Šurhaci, Chinese prince (d. 1611)
- February 15 – Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer and physicist (d. 1642)
- February 26 (baptized) – Christopher Marlowe, English poet and dramatist (d. 1593)
- March 7 – Pierre Coton, French Jesuit and royal confessor (d. 1626)
- March 9 – David Fabricius, Frisian astronomer (d. 1617)
- March 15 – William Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Harburg (d. 1642)
- April 2 – William Bathe, Irish priest (d. 1614)
- April 26 (baptized) – William Shakespeare, English poet and dramatist. Believed to be born on April 23 (d. 1616)
- April 27 – Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland (d. 1632)
- April 30 – Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll, Scottish noble (d. 1631)
- May 27 – Margherita Gonzaga, Duchess of Ferrara, Italian noble, sponsor of the arts (d. 1618)
- June 11 – Joseph Heintz the Elder, Swiss artist (d. 1609)
- June 12 – John Casimir, Duke of Saxe-Coburg (d. 1633)
- June 28 – Cort Aslakssøn, Astronomer (d. 1624)
- July 6 – Johanna Sibylla of Hanau-Lichtenberg, Wife of William V of Wied-Runkel and Isenburg (d. 1646)
- August 18 – Federico Borromeo, Cardinal Archbishop of Milan (d. 1631)
- August 24 – Patrick Forbes, bishop in the Church of Scotland (d. 1635)
- September 13 – Vincenzo Giustiniani, Italian banker and art collector (d. 1637)
- September 24 – William Adams, English navigator and samurai (d. 1620)
- September 25 – Magnus Brahe, Swedish noble (d. 1633)
- September 28 – Sibylla of Anhalt, Duchess consort of Württemberg (1593-1608). (d. 1614)
- October 15 – Henry Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1589-1613) (d. 1613)
- October 26 – Hans Leo Hassler, German composer and organist (d. 1612)
- November 3 (baptized) – Francisco Pacheco, Spanish artist (d. 1644)
- November 11 – Martinus Smiglecius, Polish philosopher (d. 1618)
- November 22 – Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, English peer and traitor (d. 1619)
- November 24 – Joseph Gaultier de la Vallette, French astronomer (d. 1647)
- December 25
- December 31 – Ernest II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, German suke (d. 1611)
- date unknown
- William Bathe, Jesuit priest (d. 1614)
- Daniel Chamier, minister of religion in France (d. 1621)
- Kryštof Harant z Polžic a Bezdružic, Bohemian composer and Protestant rebel (d. 1621)
- Paul Miki, Japanese Catholic saint and martyr (d. 1597)
- Thomas Morton, English churchman (d. 1659)
- Pedro Páez, Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia (d. 1622)
- Thomas Shirley, English pirate (d. 1620)
- January 4 – Hosokawa Ujitsuna, Japanese military commander (b. 1514)
- January 25 – Margaret Howard, Duchess of Norfolk (b. 1540)
- February 18 – Michelangelo Buonarroti, Italian artist, architect and sculptor (b. 1475)
- February 19 – Guillaume Morel, French classical scholar (b. 1505)
- April – Pierre Belon, French naturalist (b. 1517) (murdered)
- May 2 – Cardinal Rodolfo Pio da Carpi, Italian humanist (b. 1500)
- May 27 – John Calvin, French Protestant reformer (b. 1509)
- June 24 – Rani Durgavati, Indian queen (b. 1524)
- July 25 – Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1503)
- July 31 – Luis de Velasco, Viceroy of New Spain (b. 1511)
- October 5 – Pierre de Manchicourt, Flemish composer
- October 15 – Andreas Vesalius, Flemish anatomist (b. 1514)
- October 18 – Johannes Acronius Frisius, German physician and mathematician (b. 1520)
- date unknown
- probable – Maurice Scève, French poet (b. 1500)