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Millennium: 2nd millennium
January 16: Sultan Mehmed III orders all of his brothers strangled upon becoming the new Ottoman ruler
1595 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1595
Ab urbe condita2348
Armenian calendar1044
Assyrian calendar6345
Balinese saka calendar1516–1517
Bengali calendar1002
Berber calendar2545
English Regnal year37 Eliz. 1 – 38 Eliz. 1
Buddhist calendar2139
Burmese calendar957
Byzantine calendar7103–7104
Chinese calendar甲午年 (Wood Horse)
4292 or 4085
    — to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4293 or 4086
Coptic calendar1311–1312
Discordian calendar2761
Ethiopian calendar1587–1588
Hebrew calendar5355–5356
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1651–1652
 - Shaka Samvat1516–1517
 - Kali Yuga4695–4696
Holocene calendar11595
Igbo calendar595–596
Iranian calendar973–974
Islamic calendar1003–1004
Japanese calendarBunroku 4
Javanese calendar1515–1516
Julian calendarGregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar3928
Minguo calendar317 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar127
Thai solar calendar2137–2138
Tibetan calendar阳木马年
(male Wood-Horse)
1721 or 1340 or 568
    — to —
(female Wood-Goat)
1722 or 1341 or 569

1595 (MDXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1595th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 595th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 16th century, and the 6th year of the 1590s decade. As of the start of 1595, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.






  • October 26Battle of Giurgiu: Michael the Brave, led by Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Báthory, again defeats the Turkish army led by Sinan Pasha, pushing them on the east side of the Danube.
  • October 30 – The surviving members of Spain's Mendaña expedition to Santa Cruz, including Mendaña's widow Isabel Barreto, decide to abandon the Santa Cruz colony in the South Pacific.
  • November 7 – Portuguese explorer Sebastião Rodrigues Soromenho, who had departed from the Philippines on the ship San Agustin on July 5 with cargo of Asian silk, porcelain, and almost 100 passengers and crew, drops anchor at Drakes Bay in what is now the U.S. state of California. [8] He and some of his crew come ashore, where they are greeted by Native Americans. A gale in a few weeks later sinks the San Agustin, killing at least 7 people and ruining the ship's cargo. The crew salvages a launch that they had brought with them.
  • November 8 – The Battle of Guadalupe Island is fought between nine English Navy warships (led by Sir Francis Drake) and eight Spanish frigates off in the North Atlantic Ocean. The Spanish force wins the battle, capturing one ship and killing 45 English sailors. Both sets of ships proceed toward Puerto Rico.
  • November 9 – In India, Prince Man Singh I, Maharaja of Amber within the Mughal Empire, becomes the Mughal Governor (subahdar) of Bengal in what is now Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. He lays the foundations of a new capital of Bengal, Akbarnagar (now Rajmahal, Jharkhand state). [9]
  • November 17 – In the remodeling of the Church of Saint Sylvester in Rome, the ashes of Pope Anterus are discovered almost 1,360 years after his death. Anterus had served as Pope for six weeks before dying on January 3, 236. [10]
  • November 18 – The settlers of the first attempt to create a European colony in the South Pacific depart from Santa Cruz Island on three surviving ships, the San Geronimo, the San Felipe and the Santa Catalina (which disappears during the attempt to return home). Despite the lack of navigation charts, navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós brings the San Geronimo and the San Felipe back to Manila Bay, arriving on February 11 after 12 weeks and the deaths of 50 passengers.
  • November 22 – The Battle of San Juan is fought off of the island of Puerto Rico as an English fleet of 27 ships and 2,500 men, led by Francis Drake, attempts to invade the Spanish colony. In a three-day battle, the English lose at least eight ships and 400 men, including Admiral John Hawkins. Drake's fleet withdraws and attempts to conquer Panama. [11]
  • December 8 – A group of 80 people from the sunken ship San Agustin, are able to leave California on the launch which they had brought along, which they name the San Buenaventura. The group sails past San Francisco Bay and arrives at Chacala in Mexico on January 17. [8]
  • December 9 – What is probably the first performance of William Shakespeare's play, Richard II, takes place in London.
  • December 14 – Sultan Murad, 4th son of Emperor Akbar of the Mughal Empire invades Ahmednagar Sultanate which is defended by Chand Bibi.

Date unknown[edit]


Hedwig of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Jan Marek Marci
Guru Hargobind
Albrycht Stanisław Radziwiłł



Date unknown[edit]



Murad III
Torquato Tasso
Saint Philip Neri
Magnus, Duke of Östergötland
Patriarch Jeremias II of Constantinople
Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira


  1. ^ Donald Quataert, The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922 (Cambridge University Press, 2000) p.90
  2. ^ Michael Bormann, Beitrag zur Geschichte der Ardennen ("Contribution to the history of the Ardennes") (Lintzschen Buchhandlung, 1841) pp. 242–243
  3. ^ "The Cockpit of Ulster: War along the River Blackwater 593-1603", by James O'Neill, in Ulster Journal of Archaeology (2013) p.186
  4. ^ John Lothrop Motley, The History of the United Netherlands: From the Death of William the Silent to the Twelve Year's Truce, Complete (1584-1609) (1860, reprinted by Library of Alexandria, 2004)
  5. ^ a b Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 233–238. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  6. ^ Russia. Posolstvo (Great Britain) (1994). England and the North: The Russian Embassy of 1613-1614. American Philosophical Society. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-87169-210-8.
  7. ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 163–165. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  8. ^ a b Aker, Raymond (1965). The Cermen̄o Expedition at Drake's Bay (PDF). Drake Navigators Guild. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  9. ^ Jadunath Sarkar, A History of Jaipur, c. 1503-1938 (Orient Longman, 1984) p.81
  10. ^ Artaud de Montor, The Lives and Times of the Popes: Including the Complete Gallery of Portraits of the Pontiffs Reproduced from Effigies (The Catholic Publication Society of America, 1911) pp. 49–50
  11. ^ Thomas Maynarde, Sir Francis Drake: His Voyage, 1595, including an Account off What Took Place at San Juan de Puerto Rico (reprinted by Routledge, 2016) pp. 46-63
  12. ^ Green, Toby (21 March 2019). A fistful of shells : West Africa from the rise of the slave trade to the age of revolution. Chicago. ISBN 9780226644578. OCLC 1051687994.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  13. ^ Stanley Wells (28 November 2002). Shakespeare Survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-521-52374-5.
  14. ^ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1979). Torquato Tasso: A Play. Manchester University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-7190-0720-0.
  15. ^ Montague Summers (1928). The Vampire: His Kith and Kin. K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Company, Limited. p. 132.