Jharkhand

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Jharkhand
झारखंड
State of India
Seal of Bihar & Jharkhand
Seal
Location of Jharkhand  (marked in red) in India
Location of Jharkhand (marked in red) in India
Map of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Jamshedpur): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33Coordinates: 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33
Country India
Region East India
Formation 15 November 2000
Capital Ranchi
Largest city Jamshedpur
Government
 • Governor Draupadi Murmu
 • Chief Minister Raghubar Das (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (81 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 14
 • High Court Jharkhand High Court
Area
 • Total 79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank 16th
Population (2011)
 • Total 32,988,134
 • Rank 13th
 • Density 414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-JH
HDI Increase 0.376 (low)
HDI rank 19th (2007-08)
Literacy 67.6% (25th)
Official language(s)[1] Hindi
Website http://www.jharkhand.gov.in/
Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Bihar on November 15, 2000

Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland") is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[2] The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital.

History[edit]

Main article: History of Jharkhand

According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera,[3] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,[4][5] who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[6] Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappa people. This has led to interest in deciphering Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empire.

British rule[edit]

In 1765, the region came under the control of the British East India Company. The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, Adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against British colonial rule:

The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi,[7] a Santhal leader in Santal tribal belt in 1771. He wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors. The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau. They revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes. They too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in open revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords and the British troops for two years. This is called the Lakra Kol Risings 1820–1821. Then came the great Kol Risings of 1832. This was the first biggest tribal revolt that greatly upset the British administration in Jharkhand. It was caused by an attempt by the Zamindars to oust the tribal peasants from their hereditary possessions. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu. They fought bitterly against the British troops but finally they too were crushed down. Other notable Adivasi warriors are Jabra Paharia, Veer Budhu Bhagat, Poto Sardar, Telenga Kharia, Phulo-Jhano, Manki Munda, Gaya Munda.

Then Birsa Munda revolt,[8] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon, pulled its supporters from Oraon belt of Lohardaga, Sisai and even Barway. It was the longest and the greatest tribal revolt.[9] It was also the last tribal revolt in Jharkhand. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

British Government faced a lot of tribal revolt in Chhota Nagpur Division. Wherever resistance to British rule existed they tried to divide them. The policy of "Divide and rule" was made effective by Lord Curzon, when he was Governor General of India. He carried out Partition of Bengal in 1905, when the Princely states of Gangpur and Bonai of Chota Nagpur States were transferred from the control of Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur Division to Orissa Division and Princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Chang Bhakar and Koriya were transferred from Chhota Nagpur Division to Chhattisgarh Division of Central Provinces, leading to shrinkage of Chhota Nagpur Division. Due to popular resistance to Partition of Bengal, the two Bengals were reunited in 1912 by Governor General Harding, and the province of Bihar and Orissa was created by taking out of Bengal the Bihar Division, Chhota Nagpur Division and Orissa Division. During this creation Midnapur, Purulia and Bankura remained with Bengal. Thus, whenever there was reorganisation of provinces, Chhota Nagpur Division lost some area. Thus during British rule, tribal areas, although geographically continuous, were put under different administrations.

Birsa Munda (1875-1900) and Sidho and Kanho are the legendary heroes of the tribal of Jharkhand state who fought against the oppressive rule of the British government. The Birsa Munda movement of 1885-1900 was the most important among early uprisings against exploitation of the original inhabitants by non-tribal landowners and money lenders. Birsa Munda fought for the tribal natural right over forests and land that was mercilessly being acquired by the British for exploitation. After a long fight, Birsa Munda was captured by the British authorities and died in prison. In 1914 the Tana Bhagat resistance movement started which gained the participation of more than 26,000 adivasis, and eventually merged with Mahatma Gandhi's Satyagraha and Civil Disobedience movement. A landmark in the movement was the formation of the Chotanagpur Unnati Samaj in 1915, which acquired political overtones with the demand for a sub-state for the adivasis. The demand was, however, turned down by the Simon commission.

The 20th-century Jharkhand movement may also be seen as moderate movement as compared to the bloody revolts of the 19th century. Having the Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act 1908 to protect their lands, the tribal leaders now turned to socio-economic development of the people. In 1914 Jatra Oraon started what is called the Tana Movement. Later this movement joined the Satyagrah Movement of Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 and stopped giving land tax to the Government. In 1915 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj was started for the socio-economic development of the tribals. This organisation had also political objectives in mind. When the Simon Commission came to Patna in 1928, the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj sent its delegation and placed its demand for a separate Jharkhand State for self-rule by the tribals. The Simon Commission however did not accede to the demand for a separate Jharkhand State. Thereafter Theble Oraon organised Kishan Sabha in 1931. In 1935 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj and the Kishan Sabha were merged with a view to acquire political power.

Post-independence[edit]

Panchet Lake, Jharkhand, India
Fishing at Subarnarekha river near Domohani (River meets) Tatanagar, Jharkhand, India

After the last Assembly election in the state threw up a hung Assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD will not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar reorganization Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which has made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.[10]

Geography and climate[edit]

Geography[edit]

Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Jonha Fall.
Hundru Fall.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

  1. Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area
  2. Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill
  3. Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
  4. Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
  5. Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu,Dumka and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum

Flora and fauna[edit]

State symbols of Jharkhand
Formation day 15 November (Day of
separation from Bihar)
State animal Elephant[11] Elephas maximus (Bandipur).jpg
State bird Koel Asian koel.jpg
State tree Sal[11] Sal (Shorea robusta)- flowering canopy W Picture 117.jpg
State flower Palash[11] STS 001 Butea monosperma.jpg
Palaash flowers, bright red, pepper the skyline in Jharkhand during fall, also known as forest fire
A crocodile at Muta crocodile breeding centre at Ormanjhi, Ranchi

Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.

Betla National Park in the Latehar district, located 8 km away from Barwadih, covers an area of about 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi). The national park has a large variety of wildlife, including tigers, elephants, bisons (which are locally known as gaurs), sambhars, wild boar, and pythons (up to 6.1 metres (20 ft) long), spotted deer(chitals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus monkeys, blue bulls and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupines, hares, wild cats, honey badgers, Malabar giant squirrels, mongooses, wolves, antelopes etc. In 1974, the park was declared a Project Tiger Reserve.

Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna,[12] as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).

The Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 kilometres (84 mi) away from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.

Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park in Bokaro Steel City is the large Zoological Garden in Jharkhand. It has many animal and bird species, spread over 80 hectares (200 acres), including an artificial waterpark with boating facilities.

Demography[edit]

Youth marching: parade for India's Republic Day, Jharkhand state, India
Main article: Tribes of Jharkhand

Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. The population density of the state is 414 persons per square kilometre of land; it varies from as low as 148 per square kilometre in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometre in Dhanbad district.

Census data since 1881 has shown a gradual decline of tribal population in Jharkhand as against the gradual increase of non-tribal population in the region. The reasons given for this are low birth rate and high death rate among the tribes; immigration of non-tribal peoples in the region; emigration of tribal peoples in the other places; and the adverse effects of industrialisation and urbanisation in the region. Tribal leaders assert, however, that their numbers are not as low as recorded by the census that they are still in the majority and that they remain a demographic force to reckon with.

From the first regular Indian census of 1872, tribal denominations of the population have been regularly recorded in some form or the other. The Schedules tribes have been last notified under the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs Notification issued under Article 341 (i) and 342 (ii) of the constitution in 1956.

During the first census of 1872 the following 18 tribal communities were listed as the Aboriginal Tribes: (1)Khorta (2) Binjhia, (3) Gond, (4) Ho, (5) Kharia, (6) Kharwar, (7) Khond, (8) Kisan, (9) Korwa, (10) Mal Paharia, (11) Munda, (12) Oraon, (13) Santhal, (14) Sauria Paharia, (15) Savar, (16) Bhumij, (17) Birhor Chero.

According to the 2001 census[14] Jharkhand had 26,945,829 inhabitants.

Religion[edit]

Hinduism is the major religion in the state with 68.57% adherents followed by Islam (14.5%) and Christianity (4.5%) as per 2001 census.[15][16]

Divisions and Districts[edit]

Palamu Division North Chotanagpur Division South Chotanagpur Division Kolhan Division Santhal Pargana Division

Major Cities[edit]

Government and politics[edit]

Jharkhand have currently 20(14+6) MPs and 82 MLA. Jharkhand was under the Chief Minister Mr. Hemant Soren after, Arjun Munda of the Bharatiya Janata Party, resigned as the eighth Chief Minister of Jharkhand, from 13 July 2013. On 28 December 2014 Mr. Raghubar Das of the Bhartiya Janata Party sworned-in as the tenth CM of the state, after his party emerged as the biggest party in assembly elections.

Jagannathpur Temple

Jharkhand have many parties politics like national and regional e.g., INC, AAP, BJP, JMM, JVM, AJSU, RJD, JD(U), CPI(M),etc. are the major party. http://www.mapsofindia.com/assemblypolls/jharkhand/election-results.html

Naxal insurgency[edit]

Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.[18]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[19] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[19] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants[20] fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[21] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[21] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[21] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[19]

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, 160 km (99 mi) east of the state capital, Ranchi.[16] His wife, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007. Mahato defeated her nearest rival, Dinesh Sarangi of the Bharatiya Janata Party, by a margin of 58,816 votes.[18]

Economy[edit]

Coal Mining in Dhanbad

Jharkhand has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 24.1% and the per capita annual income is US$726.8.[22] Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal(3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centres like Jamshedpur,Dhanbad, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of . 204,910 million for 2005. NTPC will start coal production from its captive mine in state in 2011–12, for which the company will be investing about Rs 1,800 crore.[23]

Education[edit]

As per the 2011 census conducted by Government of India the official literacy rate for the state was 67.63% (Male: 78.45%; Female: 56.21%) with 9 districts above the average literacy rate:[24][25]

  1. Ranchi: 77.13% (Male: 85.53%; Female: 68.20%)
  2. East Singhbhum (Jamshedpur): 76.13% (Male: 84.51%; Female: 67.33%)
  3. Dhanbad: 75.71% (Male: 85.68%; Female: 64.70%)
  4. Ramgarh: 73.92% (Male: 83.51%; Female: 63.49%)
  5. Bokaro: 78.48% (Male: 84.50%; Female: 61.46%)
  6. Hazaribagh: 70.48% (Male: 81.15%; Female: 59.25%)
  7. Saraikela Khasawan: 68.85% (Male: 81.01%; Female: 56.19%)
  8. Kodarma: 68.35% (Male: 81.25%; Female: 54.77%)
  9. Lohardaga: 68.29% (Male: 78.62%; Female: 57.86%)
  10. Deoghar: 66.34% (Male: 79.13%; Female: 53.39%)
Main building of Indian School of Mines,Dhanbad

Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school.

After formation of new state, Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects for spread of elementary education namely DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, KGBV. Hence works have been accomplished in the state towards achieving the goal of UEE but due to slow pace, the target of hundred percent enrolment and retention of children in schools is not yet attained.[26]

Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6–11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993–94, so this will likely to improve literacy a great deal. Some of the better known schools which operate chain of school nationally and regionally are Vikas Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, DAV Hehal, St. Thomas School, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, De Nobili School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Public School, Loyola school, Sacred Heart School, St. Xavier's, Shishu Mandir, Surendranath centenary School, etc. Students from Jharkhand have proved themselves on national as well as international level. Students from the state have always ranked well in almost all the national level competitive exams.[27]

Schools[edit]

Loyola School, Jamshedpur is one of the oldest schools in Jharkhand. The institution was established in 1947 by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Roman Catholic religious order founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1540.

The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/English with English/Hindi/Sanskrit/Bengali/Odia as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).[28]

Universities and colleges[edit]

[29] Jharkhand has 7 universities  :

The Xavier School of Management (XLRI), in Jamshedpur, has consistently been ranked among the best private business schools in India.

Engineering and Management Institutes[edit]

Jharkhand has a number of engineering and management colleges:

Medical Colleges[edit]

Health[edit]

On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged.[33][better source needed][not in citation given] European Mental Hospital was established along with Indian Mental Hospital. Today they are called Central Institute of Psychiatry and Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences respectively. In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing exemplary work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. The Itki TB Sanatorium is well equipped and accredited by Government of India for quality assurance and Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing for M.TB. It provides free of cost treatment for TB as well as Drug resistant TB. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur,[34][better source needed] is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.

Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines.[35] Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition.[36] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants.[37] Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions.[38][39]

Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.[40]

Sports[edit]

Cricket, Hockey and football are popular games with the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, Birendra Lakra and his brother Bimal Lakra, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Jaipal Singh was the captain of the hockey team that won the first gold medal for India in Olympic games 1928 at Amsterdam. Mahendra Singh Dhoni who is the captain of Indian cricket team and led the Indian Cricket Team to ICC Cricket World Cup Glory on 2 April 2011 ending a 28-year wait to repeat the feat achieved by former Indian captain Kapil Dev in 1983 at Lords, England. Another rising cricketer from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron, India's fastest bowler and Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Delhi Daredevils in 2015. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently.And one of the emerging sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young Indian athlete who competes in the event of Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women's individual recurve event.

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium has hosted an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013.[41] Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for KKR and qualifier 2 of IPL 8 between CSK and RCB and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A Tennis Academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the Cricket stadium.[42] Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos which is now being co-hosted by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and named as Ranchi Rays.[43] Ranchi is also famous for being the hometown of World Cup winning Captain of Indian Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni. India's ace archer Deepika Kumari, gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010 and current world no.1 rank holder, also hails from Ranchi.[44]

Media[edit]

  • Print media include the Hindi newspapers, namely, Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan and Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and Jharkhand Jagran published from the state capital, Ranchi and available in almost all parts of the state. English newspapers like The Pioneer,[45] the Times of India and the Hindustan Times are published from Ranchi and are available across Jharkhand. "Hindi Hain Hum" Hindi news paper is published from New Delhi available all over Jharkhand, Other important Indian newspapers in Hindi, English and local languages are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi and English are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places where supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors. The internet media like jharkhandmirror[46] and newswings[47] are also available.
  • Johar Disum Khabar[48] is only fortnightly newspaper published in local tribal & regional language from Ranchi. A monthly magazine "Johar Sahiya" is also published in the state's popular regional language Nagpuri-Sadri."Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra"[49] also a multilingual quarterly magazine in tribal & Regional languages of Jharkhand.
  • There are also many lesser known news website like BiharAndJharkhand.com[50] ranchiexpress.com[51] and a more recent news website JHnews.co.in.[52] These websites have been made exclusively keeping in mind the needs of Jharkhand.
  • Landline telephone connectivity is provided by BSNL, Tata Indicom and Reliance Communications and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by Vodafone, Airtel (GSM Service), Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular and Reliance Communications and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all the districts.
  • ETV News is one of the round-the-clock electronic media being aired from Jharkhand.[53] www.bhaskar.com/jharkhand/
  • Naxatra News Hindi is another round the clock regional channel of Jharkhand.[54] www.naxatranewshindi.com
  • Dainik Bhaskar News[55]
  • Jamshedpur Research Review is a multi-disciplinary English Quarterly Research Journal(ISSN: 2320-2750 & RNI-JHA/ENG/2013/53159)published from Jamshedpur city of Jharkhand.[56]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Languages of Jharkhand". 
  2. ^ "Jharkhand – At a Glance". 
  3. ^ Gautam Kumar Bera (2008). The unrest axle: ethno-social movements in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-81-8324-145-8. 
  4. ^ "Munda Rajas". Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  5. ^ jharkhandstatenews http://www.jharkhandstatenews.com/arjun-munda-unveils-ancient-tribal-rajas-statue-in-pithoria/. Retrieved 10 October 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ J.B. Hoffmann (1984). A missionary social worker in India. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 54. ISBN 978-88-7652-539-1. 
  7. ^ "Freedom Struggle". Wesanthals.tripod.com. 14 November 2000. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  8. ^ Birsa Munda and His Movement 1874–1901: A Study of a Millenarian Movement in Chotanagpur, by Kumar Suresh Singh. Oxford University Press, 1983
  9. ^ emerging jharkhand times impact awards- Advertising agencies in ranchi - public relations of jharkhand- information about jharkhand - event management companies in ranchi. Emergingjharkhand.com (2012-04-12). Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  10. ^ gigisoftsolutions. "History of Jharkhand, Jharkhand History". traveljharkhand.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  12. ^ "Birds and animals found in the forest of the Palamau district". Official website of the Palamau district. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  13. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  14. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/data_on_language.aspx; Part A and B
  15. ^ "Indian Census 2001 – Religion". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "Kerala, not Goa, has maximum no. of Christians". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
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