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State of India
Seal of Bihar & Jharkhand
Location of Jharkhand  (marked in red) in India
Location of Jharkhand (marked in red) in India
Map of Jharkhand
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Jamshedpur): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33Coordinates: 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35°N 85.33°E / 23.35; 85.33
Country India
Region East India
Formation 15 November 2000
Capital Ranchi
Largest city Jamshedpur
 • Governor Droupadi Murmu
 • Chief Minister Raghubar Das (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (81 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 14
 • High Court Jharkhand High Court
 • Total 79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank 16th
 • Density 414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-JH
HDI Increase 0.376 (low)
HDI rank 19th (2007–08)
Literacy 67.6% (25th)
Official language(s)[1] Hindi
Website http://www.jharkhand.gov.in/
Formed by the Constitutional Amendment Act, 2000 by dividing Bihar on November 15, 2000

Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland") is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[2] The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital. Jharkhand is one of the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country.


Main article: History of Jharkhand

According to writers including Gautam Kumar Bera,[3] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu epic Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas,[4][5] who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[6] Many scholars now believe that the language used by tribes in the state of Jharkhand is identical to the one used by Harappan people. This has led to interest in deciphering Harappa inscriptions using rock paintings and language used by these tribes. For a greater part of Vedic age, Jharkhand remained unnoticed. During the age of Mahajanpadas around 500 BC, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. In those days the northern portion of Jharkhand state was a tributary state of Magadha (ancient Bihar) Empire and southern part was a tributary of Kalinga (ancient Orissa) Empire.


After the last Assembly election in the state threw up a hung Assembly, RJD's dependence on the Congress extended support on the precondition that RJD will not pose a hurdle to the passage of the Bihar Reorganization Bill (Jharkhand Bill). Finally, with the support from both RJD and Congress, the ruling coalition at the Centre led by the BJP which has made statehood its mail poll plank in the region in successive polls earlier, cleared the Jharkhand Bill in the monsoon session of the Parliament this year, thus paving the way for the creation of a separate Jharkhand state.[7]

Geography and climate[edit]

At present, the State is having 29.61% of its total landmass under forest cover. [8]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna,[9] as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).


State symbols of Jharkhand
State animal Elephant[10] Elephas maximus (Bandipur).jpg
State bird Koel Asian koel.jpg
State tree Sal[10] Sal (Shorea robusta)- flowering canopy W Picture 117.jpg
State flower Palash[10] STS 001 Butea monosperma.jpg
Main article: Tribes of Jharkhand

Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. The population density of the state is 414 persons per square kilometre of land; it varies from as low as 148 per square kilometre in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometre in Dhanbad district.

Census data since 1881 has shown a gradual decline of tribal population in Jharkhand as against the gradual increase of non-tribal population in the region. The reasons given for this are low birth rate and high death rate among the tribes; immigration of non-tribal peoples in the region; emigration of tribal peoples in the other places; and the adverse effects of industrialisation and urbanisation in the region.[citation needed] Tribal leaders assert, however, that their numbers are not as low as recorded by the census that they are still in the majority and that they remain a demographic force to reckon with.[citation needed]

From the first regular Indian census of 1872, tribal denominations of the population have been regularly recorded in some form or the other.[citation needed] The Schedules tribes have been last notified under the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs Notification issued under Article 341 (i) and 342 (ii) of the constitution in 1956.

During the first census of 1872 the following 18 tribal communities were listed as the Aboriginal Tribes: (1)Khorta (2) Binjhia, (3) Gond, (4) Ho, (5) Kharia, (6) Kharwar, (7) Khond, (8) Kisan, (9) Korwa, (10) Mal Paharia, (11) Munda, (12) Oraon, (13) Santhal, (14) Sauria Paharia, (15) Savar, (16) Bhumij, (17) Birhor Chero.

According to the 2001 census[12] Jharkhand had 26,945,829 inhabitants.


Main article: Sarnaism
Religion in Bihar[13]
Religion Percent

As per 2011 Census of India, Hinduism is the major religion in the state with 67.8% adherents followed by Islam (14.5%) and Christianity (4.3%).[14] Other religions constitute 12.8% of state population, which is primarily Sarnaism. The total population of Jharkhand is 3.2 crore, of which Hindus are 2.2 crore(67.8%).

Divisions and Districts[edit]

Palamu Division North Chotanagpur Division South Chotanagpur Division Kolhan Division Santhal Pargana Division

Major Cities[edit]

Government and politics[edit]

Jharkhand is represented by 14 seats in the Lok Sabha and 6 in the Rajya Sabha. The State Legislative Assembly consists of 82 seats. Jharkhand was under the Chief Minister Mr. Raghuvar Das after, Hemant Soren of the JMM, resigned as the eighth Chief Minister of Jharkhand, from 13 July 2013. On 28 December 2014 Mr. Raghubar Das of the Bhartiya Janata Party sworned-in as the tenth CM of the state, after his party emerged as the biggest party in assembly elections.

Jagannathpur Temple

Jharkhand have many parties politics like national and regional e.g., INC, AAP, BJP, JMM, JVM, AJSU, RJD, JD(U), CPI(M),etc. are the major party.

Naxal insurgency[edit]

Jharkhand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary forces .[16]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[17] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkhand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[17] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants[18] fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[19] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[19] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[19] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[17]

A crocodile at Muta crocodile breeding centre at Ormanjhi, Ranchi

On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, 160 km (99 mi) east of the state capital, Ranchi.[16] His wife, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007. Mahato defeated her nearest rival, Dinesh Sarangi of the Bharatiya Janata Party, by a margin of 58,816 votes.[16]


Coal Mining in Jharkhand

Jharkhand has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 24.1% and the per capita annual income is US$726.8.[20] Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal(3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centres like Jamshedpur,Dhanbad, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of . 204,910 million for 2005. NTPC will start coal production from its captive mine in state in 2011–12, for which the company will be investing about Rs 1,800 crore.[21]


As per the 2011 census conducted by Government of India the official literacy rate for the state was 67.63% (Male: 78.45%; Female: 56.21%) with 9 districts above the average literacy rate:[22][23]

  1. Ranchi: 77.13% (Male: 85.53%; Female: 68.20%)
  2. East Singhbhum (Jamshedpur): 76.13% (Male: 84.51%; Female: 67.33%)
  3. Dhanbad: 75.71% (Male: 85.68%; Female: 64.70%)
  4. Ramgarh: 73.92% (Male: 83.51%; Female: 63.49%)
  5. Bokaro: 78.48% (Male: 84.50%; Female: 61.46%)
  6. Hazaribagh: 70.48% (Male: 81.15%; Female: 59.25%)
  7. Saraikela Khasawan: 68.85% (Male: 81.01%; Female: 56.19%)
  8. Kodarma: 68.35% (Male: 81.25%; Female: 54.77%)
  9. Lohardaga: 68.29% (Male: 78.62%; Female: 57.86%)
  10. Deoghar: 66.34% (Male: 79.13%; Female: 53.39%)

Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school.

After formation of new state, Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects for spread of elementary education namely DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, KGBV. Hence works have been accomplished in the state towards achieving the goal of UEE but due to slow pace, the target of hundred percent enrolment and retention of children in schools is not yet attained.[24]

Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6–11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993–94, so this will likely to improve literacy a great deal. Some of the better known schools which operate chain of school nationally and regionally are Vikas Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, DAV Hehal, St. Thomas School, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, De Nobili School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Public School, Loyola school, Sacred Heart School, St. Xavier's, Shishu Mandir, Surendranath centenary School, etc. Students from Jharkhand have proved themselves on national as well as international level. Students from the state have always ranked well in almost all the national level competitive exams.[25]


Loyola School, Jamshedpur is one of the oldest schools in Jharkhand. The institution was established in 1947 by the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a Roman Catholic religious order founded by St. Ignatius Loyola in 1540.

The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/English with English/Hindi/Sanskrit/Bengali/Odia as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).[26]

Universities and colleges[edit]

Jharkhand has 7 universities:[27]

The Xavier School of Management (XLRI), in Jamshedpur, has consistently been ranked among the best private business schools in India.

Engineering and Management Institutes[edit]

Jharkhand has a number of engineering and management colleges:

Medical Colleges[edit]


On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged.[31][better source needed][not in citation given] European Mental Hospital was established along with Indian Mental Hospital. Today they are called Central Institute of Psychiatry and Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences respectively. In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing exemplary work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. The Itki TB Sanatorium is well equipped and accredited by Government of India for quality assurance and Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing for M.TB. It provides free of cost treatment for TB as well as Drug resistant TB. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur,[32][better source needed] is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.

Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines.[33] Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition.[34] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants.[35] Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions.[36][37]

Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.[38]


Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni is from Ranchi in Jharkhand

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. This international stadium has hosted an International Match between India and England on 19 January 2013.[39] Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for KKR and qualifier 2 of IPL 8 between CSK and RCB and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A Tennis Academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the Cricket stadium.[40] Ranchi is among six cities in Hockey India League to be played in January 2013. Ranchi franchise was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos which is now being co-hosted by Mahendra Singh Dhoni and named as Ranchi Rays.[41] Ranchi is also famous for being the hometown of World Cup winning Captain of Indian Cricket team, Mahendra Singh Dhoni. India's ace archer Deepika Kumari, gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010, also hails from Ranchi.[42]


Actress Priyanka Chopra was born in Jamshedpur in Jharkhand
  • Print media include the Hindi newspapers, namely, Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan and Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar and Jharkhand Jagran published from the state capital, Ranchi and available in almost all parts of the state. English newspapers like The Pioneer,[43] the Times of India and the Hindustan Times are published from Ranchi and are available across Jharkhand. "Hindi Hain Hum" Hindi news paper is published from New Delhi available all over Jharkhand, Other important Indian newspapers in Hindi, English and local languages are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi and English are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places where supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors. The internet media like jharkhandmirror[44] and newswings[45] are also available.
  • Johar Disum Khabar[46] is only fortnightly newspaper published in local tribal & regional language from Ranchi. A monthly magazine "Johar Sahiya" is also published in the state's popular regional language Nagpuri-Sadri."Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra"[47] also a multilingual quarterly magazine in tribal & Regional languages of Jharkhand.
  • There are also many lesser known news website like BiharAndJharkhand.com[48] ranchiexpress.com[49] and a more recent news website JHnews.co.in.[50] These websites have been made exclusively keeping in mind the needs of Jharkhand.
  • Landline telephone connectivity is provided by BSNL, Tata Indicom and Reliance Communications and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by Vodafone, Airtel (GSM Service), Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular and Reliance Communications and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all the districts.
  • ETV News is one of the round-the-clock electronic media being aired from Jharkhand.[51] www.bhaskar.com/jharkhand/
  • Naxatra News Hindi is another round the clock regional channel of Jharkhand.[52] www.naxatranewshindi.com
  • FinalJustice.in is the news portal running from Ranchi, Jharkhand serves news in hindi from all over the world. http://finaljustice.in/
  • Dainik Bhaskar News[53]
  • Jamshedpur Research Review is a multi-disciplinary English Quarterly Research Journal(ISSN: 2320-2750 & RNI-JHA/ENG/2013/53159)published from Jamshedpur city of Jharkhand.[54]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Languages of Jharkhand". 
  2. ^ "Jharkhand – At a Glance". 
  3. ^ Gautam Kumar Bera (2008). The unrest axle: ethno-social movements in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-81-8324-145-8. 
  4. ^ "Munda Rajas". Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  5. ^ jharkhandstatenews http://www.jharkhandstatenews.com/arjun-munda-unveils-ancient-tribal-rajas-statue-in-pithoria/. Retrieved 10 October 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ J.B. Hoffmann (1984). A missionary social worker in India. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 54. ISBN 978-88-7652-539-1. 
  7. ^ gigisoftsolutions. "History of Jharkhand, Jharkhand History". traveljharkhand.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ "Birds and animals found in the forest of the Palamau district". Official website of the Palamau district. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  10. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  11. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  12. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/data_on_language.aspx; Part A and B
  13. ^ "Population by religion community - 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. 
  14. ^ "In Jharkhand's Singhbhum, religion census deepens divide among tribals". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  15. ^ "Jharkhand". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  16. ^ a b Bhaumik, Subir (5 February 2009). "Cell phones to fight India rebels". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India". Global Politician. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  18. ^ Maoists who menace India, New York Times, 17 April 2006
  19. ^ a b c 9 Aug 2006 (9 August 2006). "Hidden civil war drains India's energy". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  20. ^ "Jharkhand" (PDF). India Brand Equity Foundation. Retrieved 2014-01-28. 
  21. ^ "NTPC eyes 20K crore thermal plant in MP". business.rediff.com. Retrieved 27 Oct 2010. 
  22. ^ Dr. Arun C. Mehta. "District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates, 2001". Educationforallinindia.com. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  23. ^ "National Family Health Survey, 1998–99: Fact Sheet, Jharkhand, Section: Basic Socio-Demographic Features of Jharkhand" (PDF). p. 3. 
  24. ^ Sanjay Pandey (16 October 2007). "The poor state of girl child education in Jharkhand State". MyNews.in. 
  25. ^ Sanjiv Shekhar (26 May 2009). "Many clear IIT-JEE in Jharkhand". TNN. 
  26. ^ Tewary, Amarnath (13 May 2008). "South Asia | Free haircuts for India students". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  27. ^ "HugeDomains.com – InstituteOfIndia.com is for sale (Institute Of India)". instituteofindia.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  28. ^ "Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi – 834001, Jharkhand, India". Xiss.ac.in. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  29. ^ "Redeemer Institute of Management And Technology, Ramgarh – 829122, Jharkhand, India". rimt.in. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  30. ^ "Redeemer Engisoft Pvt Ltd, Ramgarh – 829122, Jharkhand, India". rimt.in. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  31. ^ Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi.
  32. ^ "Welcome to Tata Memorial Centre". Tatamemorialcentre.com. 1 January 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  33. ^ "Fluoride alert for groundwater" The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008
  34. ^ Khandare, AL; Harikumar, R; Sivakumar, B (2005). "Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India". Calcified tissue international 76 (6): 412–8. doi:10.1007/s00223-005-0233-2. PMID 15895280. 
  35. ^ "Fluoride Toxicity in Jharkhand State of India," Disability News India[dead link]
  36. ^ "Fluoride alert for groundwater," The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008.[2]
  37. ^ MacDonald, L. "Water and Health:An effective, sustainable treatment strategy to halt the fluorosis endemic in rural villages of Jharkhand State, India"
  38. ^ Pandey, Geeta (1 August 2009). "Jharkhand farmers despair at drought". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  39. ^ "Ranchi's new stadium set to host maiden One-Day International on January 19". The Times Of India. 19 October 2012. 
  40. ^ http://www.ndtv.com/album/listing/news/tennis-takes-sania-shoaib-to-ranchi-7204.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 14 September 2012. 
  42. ^ Deepika Kumari – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  43. ^ The Pioneer
  44. ^ "Chicago Now: The Online Magazine Dedicated To Chicago". Chicago Now. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  45. ^ "NewSwings.com". newswings.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  46. ^ "Johar Disum Khabar". Johardisum.in. 15 November 2010. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  47. ^ "Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra". Akhra.org.in. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  48. ^ "ネットの有効活用". biharandjharkhandnews.com. Retrieved 20 July 2015. 
  49. ^ ranchiexpress
  50. ^ "JHnews.co.in". JHnews.co.in. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  51. ^ Etv Bihar-Channel Home. Etv.co.in. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  52. ^ [3].
  53. ^ Jharkhand News – Jharkhand Hindi News – Jharkhand Daily News Paper – Jharkhand Local News Headlines – Dainik Bhaskar. Bhaskar.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-28.
  54. ^ jamshedpurresearchreview.blogspot.com/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]