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Coordinates: 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778
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Anticlockwise from top:
  1. Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Imaculada Conceição
  2. Typical Portuguese influenced architecture
  3. Statue of Hindu-Christian Unity
  4. Entrance to the Goa Police HQ
Panaji is located in Goa
Location of Panaji in Goa
Panaji is located in India
Panaji (India)
Coordinates: 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778
Country India
DistrictNorth Goa
Elevated to Capital1843
 • MayorRohit Monserrate
 • Deputy MayorSanjeev Naik[1]
 • Member of the Legislative Assembly of GoaAtanasio Monserrate (BJP)
 • City8.27 km2 (3.19 sq mi)
 • Metro
76.3 km2 (29.5 sq mi)
7 m (23 ft)
 • City40,017
 • Rank3rd in Goa
 • Density4,800/km2 (13,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • OfficialKonkani, English
 • Additional/CulturalRomi Konkani,[2] Portuguese[3]
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code0832
Vehicle registrationGA-01, GA-07

Panaji (/ˈpʌnəi/; Goan Konkani: Ponnjem, IPA: [pɵɳdʒĩ]; also known as Panjim) is the capital of the Indian state of Goa and the headquarters of North Goa district. Previously, it was the territorial capital of the former Portuguese India. It lies on the banks of the Mandovi river estuary in the Tiswadi sub-district (taluka). With a population of 114,759 in the metropolitan area, Panaji is Goa's largest urban agglomeration, ahead of Margao and Mormugao.

Panaji has terraced hills, concrete buildings with balconies and red-tiled roofs, churches, and a riverside promenade. There are avenues lined with gulmohar, acacia and other trees. The baroque Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church is located overlooking the main square known as Praça da Igreja. Panaji has been selected as one of a hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission.[4]

The city was built with stepped streets and a seven kilometre long promenade on a planned grid system after the Portuguese relocated the capital from Velha Goa in the 17th century.[5] It was elevated from a town to a city on 22 March 1843.[6]


The city was renamed from Panjim in English to Panaji, its present official name in the 1980s. The Portuguese name is Pangim. The city is sometimes spelt as पणजें in Devanagari or Ponnjé in Romi Konkani. The city had been renamed Nova Goa (Portuguese for "New Goa") when it officially replaced the city of Goa (now Old Goa) as the capital of Portuguese India, though the Viceroy had already moved there in 1759.

The justification of the modern word Panaji is derived from the words panjani and khali, which mean a boat and a small creek respectively, in Sanskrit. Thus the modern word Panjim is believed to be a corruption of the old word Panjanakhani as inscribed on the discovered Panjim copper-plates dated 1059 CE, belonging to the rule of Kadamba king Jayakesi I.[7][8] According to legend, this northern capital city was mentioned in a stone inscription of Kadamba king Jayakesi I dated 1054 CE as 'Panjanakhani', giving him the epithet of Padavalendra which is Kannada for lord of the western ocean.[9]


Panaji was made the capital of Portuguese India, after a devastating epidemic decimated the population of the City of Goa in the mid-18th century.[10]

Panaji was annexed by India with the rest of Goa and the former Portuguese territories after the Indian annexation of Portuguese India in 1961. It became a state-capital on Goa's elevation to statehood in 1987and between 1961 and 1987, it was the capital of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. A new Legislative Assembly complex was inaugurated in March 2000, across the Mandovi River, in Alto Porvorim. Panaji is also the administrative headquarters of North Goa district.


Panaji is located at 15°29′56″N 73°49′40″E / 15.49889°N 73.82778°E / 15.49889; 73.82778.[11] It has an average elevation of 7 metres (23 feet).


Panaji has various vāde or sub-divisions, including:

Some areas outlying it are:

Besides lying on the banks of the Mandovi River, Panaji is bound by two creeks called pői by the locals, namely Ourém creek and Santa Inêz creek.


During the 2011 census of India,[12] Panaji had a population of 114,405. Males constituted 52% of the population and females 48%. It had an average literacy rate of 90.9%; male literacy was 94.6% and female literacy 86.9%. In Panaji, 9.6% of the population was under 7 years of age.


Panaji comprises three major religions, with Hinduism being the majority with 64.08% followers, Christianity with 26.51% followers, and the smallest being Islam with 8.84% followers. 0.4% of the population count as other which include Buddhist, Jain, and Sikh followers.[13]


Panaji features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am). The climate in Panaji is hot in summer and equable in winter. During summers (from March to May) the temperature reaches up to 32 °C (90 °F) and in winters (from November to February) it is usually between 31 °C (88 °F) and 23 °C (73 °F).

The monsoon period is from June to October with heavy rainfall and gusty winds. The annual average rainfall is 2,932 mm (115.43 in).

Climate data for Panaji (1991–2020, extremes 1901–2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 32.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 20.0
Record low °C (°F) 14.4
Average rainfall mm (inches) 1.0
Average rainy days 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 3.6 21.2 26.7 23.0 13.7 6.8 1.5 0.2 97.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 57 59 65 67 69 83 87 86 82 76 65 58 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 303.8 291.0 288.3 279.0 285.2 132.0 96.1 120.9 180.0 232.5 270.0 294.5 2,773.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.8 10.3 9.3 9.3 9.2 4.4 3.1 3.9 6.0 7.5 9.0 9.5 7.6
Source 1: India Meteorological Department (sun, 1971–2000)[14][15][16]
Source 2: Tokyo Climate Center (mean temperatures 1981–2010)[17]


Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Church
Panaji People's Art Gallery & Café
The Menezes Bragança Institute

The heart of the city is the Praça da Igreja (Church Square) where the Jardim Garcia de Orta (municipal garden) with the Portuguese Baroque Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Imaculada Conceição, originally built in 1541. Other tourist attractions include the old and rebuilt Adilshahi Palace (or Idalção Palace), dating from the sixteenth century, the Institute Menezes Braganza, the Chapel of St. Sebastian and the Fontainhas area—which is considered to be the old Latin Quarter—as well as the nearby beach of Miramar. Panaji hosted the relics of Saint John Bosco (also known as Don Bosco) until 21 August 2011 at the Don Bosco Oratory.

One of the capital city's most discerning assets is the Mahalaxmi Temple. Located on the Dada Vaidya road (Rua de Saudade during the Portuguese times), the Mahalaxmi deity is the chief object of veneration for all Panjimites, irrespective of caste, class, sex or creed.[18]

The carnival celebrations in February include a colourful parade on the streets. This is followed by the Shigmo / Xigmo, or Holi. The Narkāsūr parade on the night before Diwali in the city is very colourful.

Well-known places in Panaji are the 18th June Road (a busy thoroughfare in the heart of the town and a shopping area for tourists and locals), Mala area, Miramar beach and the Kala Academy (a cultural centre known for its structure built by architect Charles Correa). Kala Academy is a place where Goa showcases its art and culture.

Palace of Adil Shah (Secretariat Building)[edit]

Situated on the banks of Mandovi River in the heart of Panaji is ‘Old Secretariat’ building popularly known as ‘Adil Shah's Palace’.[19] It was built by Yusuf Adil Shah of the Bijapur Sultanate in around 1500, as a summer residence and fortress. The building was armed with 55 cannons and surrounded by a moat. The Palace was besieged by Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque in 1510[20] and in the mid-1500s the Portuguese conquerors renamed it as ‘Idalcao's Palace’[21] and was the temporary residence of the first ‘Viceroy of Goa’. In 1963 this ancient structure was renovated by Goa government to house Goa Legislative Assembly. This structure today is 'The Goa State Museum'.

Other attractions[edit]

Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary named after the ornithologist Dr. Salim Ali. The sanctuary, located in the village of Chorão, near Panaji, plays host to rare and endangered bird species—both migratory and resident.

Goa is famous for its beaches, and Miramar, Bambolim, and Dona Paula are three popular beaches located near Panaji.

Dona Paula is the meeting point for two of Goa's famous rivers, Zuari and Mandovi. These two rivers meet at the Arabian Sea. The official residence of the governor of Goa, known as Cabo Raj Bhavan, is situated on the westernmost tip of Dona Paula.

Miramar Beach is one of the more crowded beaches in Goa, which remains full with local and international tourists throughout the year.

Also located near Panaji, is the Goa Science Centre which was opened to the public in December 2001. The Caculo Mall is also located in St. Inez near Panaji. Also Madhuban Complex, at St.inez is very popular among Panjimites.

Panaji is widely acknowledged as being both the Casino capital ₹ Gin capital of India.


The renovated building of Goa Medical College (established in 1842 as Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de [Nova] Goa) in Campal. The institution has since been relocated and this building now serves as the headquarters of the Entertainment Society of Goa.

Goa's only university, the Goa University, is situated at Taleigão on the outskirts of Panaji. Some other educational institutes in Panaji are:

  • Don Bosco College, Panjim[22]
  • Goa Medical College, Bambolim
  • Goa College of Pharmacy
  • Goa Polytechnic Panaji
  • Goa College of Fine Arts
  • The Rosary High School, Miramar
  • Our lady of Rosary (Green Rosary), Dona Paula
  • Santa Cruz High School, Santa Cruz
  • Don Bosco High School
  • Goa Institute of Management
  • Dempo College of Commerce and Economics, Altinho
  • Dhempe College of Arts and Sciences, Miramar
  • Mary Immaculate Girls High School, São Tomé/Fontainhas
  • Sharada Mandir School,Miramar

Research centres[edit]

The National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO) is situated at Dona Paula, on the outskirts of Panaji city. It specialises in marine science research.



The nearest airport is Dabolim Airport which is 30 kilometres (19 miles) away.[23] Transport is done mainly by buses.

The other recently developed airport near to Panjim is Mopa Airport which is 40 kilometres (25 miles) away.[24] Transport is done mainly by buses. Mapusa is the nearest city, from where you can find ample public transport to the coastal areas in the form of buses, cabs, etc

Media and communications[edit]

State-owned All India Radio has a local station in Panaji which transmits various programs of mass interest. The annual International Film Festival of India (IFFI), is held in Panaji.[25]


The Goa government, as well as the Indian government, has its major offices in Goa.

The Goa Legislative Assembly is situated at Alto Porvorim, about 2 km (1.2 mi) from Panaji. The hillock called Altinho houses some major central government offices and the residences of prominent officials and politicians.

Panaji is part of Panaji (Goa Assembly constituency) and North Goa (Lok Sabha constituency).


The current Chief Minister of Goa, Pramod Sawant, resides here. The Corporation of the City of Panaji (CCP) administers the city and its Mayor is Rohit Monserrate.[26] Vasant Agshikar is the Deputy Mayor.[26][27]

The Governor of Goa stays at the Cabo Raj Bhavan at Dona Paula, about 8 km (5 mi) from Panaji. The current Governor is S. Pillai.


Two of Goa's premier association football clubs Dempo S.C. and Sporting Clube de Goa are based in Panaji and they both compete in India's one of the top-tier league I-League. Clube Tennis de Gaspar Dias in Miramar was founded in the year 1926 and remains among the most sought after Tennis clubs in Goa.[28] The multipurpose Campal Indoor Complex is planned in Campal besides the existing football ground.[citation needed] The Don Bosco college football grounds on General Bernardo Guedes road has been long a long established sports field in the city. It also has a football club named FC Goa in Indian Super League.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Panaji is twinned with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Rohit gets second term as CCP mayor". The Times of India. 31 March 2022.
  2. ^ "HC Notice to Govt on Romi Script". The Times of India. 22 January 2013. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  3. ^ Portuguese is culturally present as various creoles, and in places like churches.
  4. ^ "IPSCDL - Panaji Smart City". imaginepanaji.com. Retrieved 18 November 2023.
  5. ^ "Corporation of The City of Panaji: Official Site". ccpgoa.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Panaji Completes 174 Years as State's Capital City". The Times of India. 23 March 2017. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  7. ^ Gazetteer of the Union Territory Goa, Daman and Diu: District Gazetteer, Volume 1. Gazetteer Dept., Govt. of the Union Territory of Goa, Daman and Diu. 1979.
  8. ^ Rao, Gopala V. (2003). "Epigraphical And Literary Sources On Worship In Goa's Past" (PDF). Temples of Goa: An Architectural Study (PhD thesis). Goa University. hdl:10603/35652. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  9. ^ De Souza, Teotonio R., ed. (1990). Goa Through the Ages: An Economic History, Volume 2. Concept Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 9788170222590. Archived from the original on 15 January 2023. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Rise and Fall of 'Old Goa'". ItsGoa. 14 January 2016. Archived from the original on 26 December 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  11. ^ "Falling Rain Genomics, Inc – Panaji". Fallingrain.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  12. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Paper 2, Volume 2 of 2011: Goa State Tables" (PDF). censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
  13. ^ "C-1 Population By Religious Community". censusindia.gov.in. Archived from the original on 12 January 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  14. ^ "Station: Panjim Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 585–586. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M47. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  16. ^ "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India" (PDF). Daily Normals of Global & Diffuse Radiation (1971–2000). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  17. ^ "Normals Data: Goa/Pangim - India Latitude: 15.48°N Longitude: 73.82°E Height: 58 (m)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  18. ^ "mahalakshmi temple". 2021. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  19. ^ Sayed, Nida (2017). "Adil Shah Palace Crowded, 18th Century Artefacts Left on Road". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  20. ^ "Adil Shah's Palace". Government of Goa. Archived from the original on 3 August 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  21. ^ "Old Secretariat". Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  22. ^ "Higher Education". Don Bosco South Asia. 9 May 2024. Retrieved 9 May 2024.
  23. ^ "Goa". Airports Authority of India. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  24. ^ "Goa". Goa App. 11 April 2024.
  25. ^ "International Film Festival of India to host its 51st edition in Goa, check details". Zee News. 15 January 2021. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  26. ^ a b "Chopdekar is CCP Mayor". The Navhind Times. 15 March 2018. Archived from the original on 15 March 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  27. ^ "Goa: Vithal Chopdekar & Asmita Kerkar to Be Elected Unopposed as Mayor & DY Mayor". The Neutral View. 13 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  28. ^ "Club Tennis de Gaspar Dias – GoGoaNow !". GoGoaNow !. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  29. ^ "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship]. Camara Municipal de Lisboa (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.

External links[edit]