31st century BC
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|Millennium:||4th millennium BC|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments
The 31st century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3100 BC to 3001 BC.
- c. 3100 BC: Narmer (Menes) unifies Upper and Lower Egypt into one country; he rules this new country from Memphis.
- c. 3100 BC: Predynastic period (Neolithic) ends in Ancient Egypt (other date is 3150 BC).
- c. 3100 BC: Early Dynastic (Archaic) period starts in Ancient Egypt (other date is 3150 BC).
- c. 3100 BC: The first temple of Tarxien is in use by the Neolithic inhabitants of Malta.
- c. 3100 BC: First stage in the construction of Stonehenge.
- c. 3100 BC – 2600 BC: Skara Brae, Orkney Islands, Scotland is inhabited.
- c. 3100 BC: The first known human writing system, the cuneiform script, is developed in Sumer.
- c. 3051 BC: The oldest currently living organism, a Great Basin bristlecone pine, undergoes germination in the White Mountains of California. It is still alive at the present day.
- Iry-Hor, earliest ruler of Egypt known by name and possibly the earliest historical person known by name
- Scorpion II, presumably the last pre-dynastic pharaoh of ancient Upper Egypt
- Narmer, founder of the first dynasty of Egypt
- Neithhotep, wife of Narmer and possibly the earliest woman known by name
- Hor-Aha, the second pharaoh of the First dynasty of Egypt
- Djer, the third pharaoh of the First dynasty of Egypt
- Ötzi, the oldest natural mummy ever found in Europe, lived around this time.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Drainage and sewage system in the Indus Valley
- Dams, canals, stone sculptures using inclined plane and lever in Sumer and the Tigris-Euphrates Valley
- Copper was in use, both as tools and weapons
- Senet is one of the oldest known board games in the world.
- c. 3100 BC – Invention of writing in Mesopotamia and Egypt
- The Sydney rock engravings date to around 3000 BC (Sydney, Australia).
- Cilia, Daniel (April 8, 2004). "Tarxien". The Megalithic temples of Malta. http://web.infinito.it/utenti/m/malta_mega_temples/tarxien/tarxien.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
- "FACTBOX - Stonehenge hosts Summer solstice revellers". Reuters India. June 20, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
- Trudy Ring; Noelle Watson; Paul Schellinger (28 October 2013). Northern Europe: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 686. ISBN 978-1-136-63944-9.
- Australia's top 7 Aboriginal rock art sites by Australian Geographic