Alwar has been a part of Matsya region of olden times whose capital was Viratnagar. "Alwar" was formerly known as "Ulwar". This placed it in last position in alphabetically ordered lists, so a king renamed it to "Alwar" to bring it to the top. Till the 1602 A.D. this area was ruled by a powerful Bargujar King. During the Muslim period Akbar demanded a daughter in marriage from Ishwar Das the Gurjar Raja of Alwar in A.D.1602. On his refusal to comply the Gujar's were slaughtered where ever found and forced to scatter by Akber, but some escaped, among them Raja Dalku Rao a chief of clan, fled and founded the Sikarwar branch of Badgujar Rajputs.
Historically, the territory of modern Alwar state was under the sway of the Gujar with capital at Rajorgarh (Rajor).A Gujar king named Mathandeva were ruling here aroumd 11th century.
Hemu also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, a Hindu Emperor of India was born in this district at village 'Maccheri Devat' in the year 1501. His father Rai Puran Das, a Brahmin was a Purohit and was beheaded by Akbar's forces on refusal to convert to Islam, at the age of 82, in the year 1556 in Machheri village only. Hemu had won 22 battles against Afghan rebels during 1553-56 spanning entire North India from Punjab to Bengal and had acceeded to the throne of Delhi on 7 October 1556 after defeating Akbar's forces at Agra and Delhi. Hemu had his Rajyabhishake at Purana Quila in Delhi. Hemu Vikramaditya had established 'Hindu Raj' in North India after a foreign rule of 350 years by Islamic invaders and rulers. He had sacrificed his life fighting Mughals in the Second battle of Panipat.
The princely state of Alwar was founded by Pratap Singh, a Rajput of the Kachwaha lineage, in the second half of the 18th century. His adopted son, Bakhtawar Singh, aided the British against the Marathas. After the battle of Laswari (1803), Alwar became the first state of Rajputana to sign a treaty of 'Offensive and Defensive Alliance' with the British East India Company. A few years later, Bakhtawar Singh ventured an armed incursion into neighboring Jaipur, the senior Kachwaha state, and the erstwhile overlord of his predecessor. Bakhtawar Singh was defeated; a fresh engagement was made with him by the HEIC, prohibiting him from political intercourse with other states without British consent. During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, Raoraja Bane Singh sent a force consisting mainly of Muslims and Rajputs, to relieve the British garrison in Agra. The Muslims deserted and the rest were defeated by the rebels. Pran Sukh Yadav, who fought beside Rao Tula Ram of Rewari in 1857, settled along with the kinsmen of dead soldiers at Village Nihalpura, Behror Tehsil, of Alwar District. Kishorpura Village of Bansur Tehsil is dominated by Bhati clan of Gurjar Community.
Following the independence of India in 1947, Alwar acceded unto the dominion of India. On March 18, 1948, the state merged with three neighboring princely states (Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli) to form the Matsya Union. This union in turn merged unto the Union of India. On May 15, 1949, it was united with certain other princely states and the territory of Ajmer to form the present-day Indian state of Rajasthan.
Rulers of Alwar state
- Pratap Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1775–1791) Rao Raja of Alwar
- Bakhtawar Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1791–1815) Rao Raja of Alwar
- Bane Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1815–1857) Maharao Raja of Alwar
- Sheodan Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1857–1874) Maharao Raja of Alwar
- Mangal Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1874–1892) Maharaja of Alwar
- Jai Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1892–1937) Maharaja of Alwar
- Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur (1937–1971) Maharaja of Alwar (The titles were abolished in 1971)
- According to Imperial Gazeteer of India v.23, p.419
- Asiatic Society of Bombay; Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Bombay Branch (1904). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay, Volume 21. p. 416. "It is thus plain that Mathandeva, himself a Gurjara and .....occupied by Gurjaras."