A child being prepared to go under anesthesia
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), or unconsciousness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized.
Anesthesia enables the painless performance of medical procedures that would cause severe or intolerable pain to an unanesthetized patient. Three broad categories of anaesthesia exist:
- General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in unconsciousness and total lack of sensation.
- Sedation suppresses the central nervous system to a lesser degree, inhibiting both anxiety and creation of long-term memories without resulting in unconsciousness.
- Regional anesthesia and local anesthesia, which block transmission of nerve impulses between a targeted part of the body and the central nervous system, causing loss of sensation in the targeted body part. A patient under regional or local anesthesia remains conscious, unless general anaesthesia or sedation is administered at the same time. Two broad classes exist:
- Peripheral blockade inhibits sensory perception in an isolated part of the body, such as numbing a tooth for dental work or administering a nerve block to inhibit sensation in an entire limb.
- Central, or neuraxial, blockade administers the anesthetic in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing incoming sensation from outside the area of the block. Examples include epidural anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia.
In preparing for a medical procedure, the health care provider giving anesthesia chooses and determines the doses of one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotic, and analgesics.
There are both major and minor risks of anesthesia. Examples of major risks include death, heart attack and pulmonary embolism whereas minor risks can include postoperative nausea and vomiting and hospital readmission. The likelihood of a complication occurring is proportional to the relative risk of a variety of factors related to the patient's health, the complexity of the surgery being performed and the type of anesthetic used. Of these factors, the person's health prior to surgery (stratified by the ASA physical status classification system) has the greatest bearing on the probability of a complication occurring. Patients typically wake within minutes of an anesthetic being terminated and regain their senses within hours. One exception is a condition called long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction, characterized by persistent confusion lasting weeks or months, which is more common in those undergoing cardiac surgery and in the elderly.
- 1 Medical uses
- 2 Techniques
- 3 Risks and complications
- 4 Recovery
- 5 History
- 6 Society and culture
- 7 Special populations
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The purpose of anesthesia can be distilled down to three basic goals or end points::236
- hypnosis (a temporary loss of consciousness and with it a loss of memory. In a pharmacological context, the word hypnosis usually has this technical meaning, in contrast to its more familiar lay or psychological meaning of an altered state of consciousness not necessarily caused by drugs—see hypnosis).
- analgesia (lack of sensation which also blunts autonomic reflexes)
- muscle relaxation
Different types of anesthesia (which are discussed in the following sections) affect the endpoints differently. Regional anesthesia, for instance, affects analgesia; benzodiazepine-type sedatives (used in twilight sleep) favor amnesia; and general anesthetics can affect all of the endpoints. The goal of anesthesia is to achieve the endpoints required for the given surgical procedure with the least risk to the patient.
To achieve the goals of anesthesia, drugs act on different but interconnected parts of the nervous system. Hypnosis, for instance, is generated through actions on the nuclei in the brain and is similar to the activation of sleep. The effect is to make people less aware and less reactive to noxious stimuli.:245
Loss of memory (amnesia) is created by action of drugs on multiple (but specific) regions of the brain. Memories are created as either declarative or non-declarative memories in several stages (short-term, long-term, long-lasting) the strength of which is determined by the strength of connections between neurons termed synaptic plasticity.:246 Each anesthetic produces amnesia through unique effects on memory formation at variable doses. Inhalational anesthetics will reliably produce amnesia through general suppression of the nuclei at doses below those required for loss of consciousness. Drugs like midazolam produce amnesia through different pathways by blocking the formation of long-term memories.:249
Tied closely to the concepts of amnesia and hypnosis is the concept of consciousness. Consciousness is the higher order process that synthesizes information. For instance, the "sun" conjures up feelings, memories and a sensation of warmth rather than a description of a round, orange warm ball seen in the sky for part of a 24‑hour cycle. Likewise, a person can have dreams (a state of subjective consciousness) during anesthetic or have consciousness of the procedure despite having no indication of it under anesthetic. It is estimated that 22% of people dream during general anesthesia and 1 or 2 cases per 1000 have some consciousness termed "awareness during general anesthesia".:253
Anesthesia is unique, in that it is not a direct means of treatment, rather it allows others to do things that may treat, diagnose, or cure an ailment which would otherwise be painful or complicated. The best anesthetic, therefore is the one with the lowest risk to the patient that still achieves the endpoints required to complete the procedure. The first stage of an anesthetic is the pre-operative risk assessment made up of the medical history, physical examination and lab tests. Diagnosing a person's pre-operative physical status allows the clinician to minimize anesthetic risks. A well completed medical history will arrive at the correct diagnosis 56% of the time which increases to 73% with a physical examination. Lab tests help in diagnosis but only in 3% of cases, underscoring the need for a full history and physical examination prior to anesthetics. Incorrect pre-operative assessments or preparations are the root cause of 11% of all adverse anesthetic events.:1003
|ASA class||Physical status|
|ASA 1||Healthy person|
|ASA 2||Mild systemic disease|
|ASA 3||Severe systemic disease|
|ASA 4||Severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life|
|ASA 5||A moribund person who is not expected to survive without the operation|
|ASA 6||A declared brain-dead person whose organs are being removed for donor purposes|
|E||Suffix added for patients undergoing emergency procedure|
One part of the risk assessment is based on the patients' health. The American Society of Anesthesiologists have developed a six-tier scale which stratifies the pre-operative physical state of the patient called the ASA physical status. The scale assesses a high-order of risk as the patient's general health relates to an anesthetic.
The more detailed pre-operative medical history aims to discover genetic disorders (such as malignant hyperthermia or pseudocholinesterase deficiency), habits (tobacco, drug and alcohol use), physical attributes (such as obesity or a difficult airway) and any coexisting diseases (especially cardiac and respiratory diseases) that might impact the anesthetic. The physical examination helps quantify the impact of anything found in the medical history in addition to lab tests.:1003–1009
Aside from the generalities of the patients health assessment, an evaluation of the specific factors as they relate to the surgery also need to be considered for anesthesia. For instance, anesthesia during childbirth must consider not only the mother but the baby. Cancers and tumors that occupy the lungs or throat create special challenges to general anesthesia. After determining the health of the person undergoing anesthetic and the endpoints that are required to complete the procedure, the type of anesthetic can be selected. Choice of surgical method and anaesthetic technique aims to reduce risk of complications, shorten time needed for recovery and minimise the surgical stress response.
Anesthesia is the combination of the endpoints (discussed above) which are reached by drugs acting on different but overlapping sites in the central nervous system. General anesthesia (as opposed to sedation or regional anesthesia) has three main goals: lack of movement (paralysis), unconsciousness, and blunting of the stress response. In the early days of anesthesia, anesthetics could reliably achieve the first two, allowing surgeons to perform necessary procedures, but many patients died because the extremes of blood pressure and pulse caused by the surgical insult were ultimately harmful. Eventually, the need for blunting of the surgical stress response was identified by Harvey Cushing, who injected local anesthetic prior to hernia repairs.:30 This led to the development of other drugs that could blunt the response leading to lower surgical mortality rates.
The most common approach to reach the endpoints of general anesthesia is through the use of inhaled general anesthetics. Each has its own potency which is correlated to its solubility in oil. This relationship exists because the drugs bind directly to cavities in proteins of the central nervous system, although several theories of general anaesthetic action have been described. Inhalational anesthetics are thought to exact their effects on different parts of the central nervous system. For instance, the immobilizing effect of inhaled anesthetics results from an effect on the spinal cord whereas sedation, hypnosis and amnesia involve sites in the brain.:515 The potency of an inhalational anesthetic is quantified by its minimum alveolar concentration or MAC. The MAC is the percentage dose of anaesthetic that will prevent a response to painful stimulus in 50% of subjects. The higher the MAC, generally, the less potent the anesthetic.
The ideal anesthetic drug would provide hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation without undesirable changes in blood pressure, pulse or breathing. In the 1930s, physicians started to augment inhaled general anesthetics with intravenous general anesthetics. The drugs used in combination offered a better risk profile to the person under anesthesia and a quicker recovery. A combination of drugs was later shown to result in lower odds of dying in the first 7 days after anesthetic. For instance, propofol (injection) might be used to start the anesthetic, fentanyl (injection) used to blunt the stress response, midazolam (injection) given to ensure amnesia and sevoflurane (inhaled) during the procedure to maintain the effects. More recently, several intravenous drugs have been developed which, if desired, allow inhaled general anesthetics to be avoided completely.:720
The core instrument in an inhalational anesthetic delivery system is an anesthetic machine. It has vaporizers, ventilators, an anesthetic breathing circuit, waste gas scavenging system and pressure gauges. The purpose of the anesthetic machine is to provide anesthetic gas at a constant pressure, oxygen for breathing and to remove carbon dioxide or other waste anesthetic gases. Since inhalational anaesthetics are flammable, various checklists have been developed to confirm that the machine is ready for use, that the safety features are active and the electrical hazards are removed. Intravenous anesthetic is delivered either by bolus doses or an infusion pump. There are also many smaller instruments used in airway management and monitoring the patient. The common thread to modern machinery in this field is the use of fail-safe systems that decrease the odds of catastrophic misuse of the machine.
Patients under general anesthesia must undergo continuous physiological monitoring to ensure safety. In the US, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) have established minimum monitoring guidelines for patients receiving general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, or sedation. This includes electrocardiography (ECG), heart rate, blood pressure, inspired and expired gases, oxygen saturation of the blood (pulse oximetry), and temperature. In the UK the Association of Anaesthetists (AAGBI) have set minimum monitoring guidelines for general and regional anesthesia. For minor surgery, this generally includes monitoring of heart rate, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, and inspired and expired concentrations for oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inhalational anesthetic agents. For more invasive surgery, monitoring may also include temperature, urine output, blood pressure, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, cardiac output, cerebral activity, and neuromuscular function. In addition, the operating room environment must be monitored for ambient temperature and humidity, as well as for accumulation of exhaled inhalational anesthetic agents, which might be deleterious to the health of operating room personnel.
Sedation (also referred to as dissociative anesthesia or twilight anesthesia) creates hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, amnesic, anticonvulsant, and centrally produced muscle-relaxing properties. From the perspective of the person giving the sedation, the patient will appear sleepy, relaxed and forgetful, allowing unpleasant procedures to be more easily completed. Sedatives such as benzodiazepines are usually given with pain relievers (such as narcotics, or local anesthetics or both) because they don't, by themselves, provide significant pain relief.
From the perspective of the person receiving sedative, the effect is a feeling of general relaxation, amnesia (loss of memory) and time passing quickly. Many drugs can produce a sedative effect including benzodiazepines, propofol, thiopental, ketamine and inhaled general anesthetics. The advantage of sedation over a general anesthetic is that it generally does not require support of the airway or breathing (no tracheal intubation or mechanical ventilation) and can have less of an effect on the cardiovascular system which may add to a greater margin of safety in some patients.:736
When pain is blocked from a part of the body using local anesthetics, it is generally referred to as regional anesthesia. There are many types of regional anesthesia either by injecting into the tissue itself, a vein that feeds the area or around a nerve trunk that supplies sensation to the area. The latter are called nerve blocks and are divided into peripheral or central nerve blocks.
The following are the types of regional anesthesia::926–931
- Infiltrative anesthesia: a small amount of local anesthetic is injected in a small area to stop any sensation (such as during the closure of a laceration, as a continuous infusion or "freezing" a tooth). The effect is almost immediate.
- Peripheral nerve block: local anesthetic is injected near a nerve that provides sensation to particular portion of the body. There is significant variation in the speed of onset and duration of anesthesia depending on the potency of the drug (e.g. Mandibular block).
- Intravenous regional anesthesia (also called a Bier block): dilute local anesthetic is infused to a limb through a vein with a tourniquet placed to prevent the drug from diffusing out of the limb.
- Central nerve blockade: Local anesthetic is injected or infused in or around a portion of the central nervous system (discussed in more detail below in Spinal, epidural and caudal anesthesia).
- Topical anesthesia: local anesthetics that are specially formulated to diffuse through the mucous membranes or skin to give a thin layer of analgesia to an area (e.g. EMLA patches).
- Tumescent anesthesia: a large amount of very dilute local anesthetics are injected into the subcutaneous tissues during liposuction.
- Systemic local anesthetics: local anesthetics are given systemically (orally or intravenous) to relieve neuropathic pain
When local anesthetic is injected around a larger diameter nerve that transmits sensation from an entire region it is referred to as a nerve block or regional nerve blockade. Nerve blocks are commonly used in dentistry, when the mandibular nerve is blocked for procedures on the lower teeth. With larger diameter nerves (such as the interscalene block for upper limbs or psoas compartment block for lower limbs) the nerve and position of the needle is localized with ultrasound or electrical stimulation. The use of ultrasound may reduce complication rates and improve quality, performance time, and time to onset of blocks. Because of the large amount of local anesthetic required to affect the nerve, the maximum dose of local anesethetic has to be considered. Nerve blocks are also used as a continuous infusion, following major surgery such as knee, hip and shoulder replacement surgery, and may be associated with lower complications. Nerve blocks are also associated with a lower risk of neurologic complications compared to the more central epidural or spinal neuraxial blocks.:1639–1641
Spinal, epidural and caudal anesthesia
Central neuraxial anesthesia is the injection of local anesthetic around the spinal cord to provide analgesia in the abdomen, pelvis or lower extremities. It is divided into either spinal (injection into the subarachnoid space), epidural (injection outside of the subarachnoid space into the epidural space) and caudal (injection into the cauda equina or tail end of the spinal cord). Spinal and epidural are the most commonly used forms of central neuraxial blockade.
Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of anesethetic, and is usually associated with neuromuscular blockade (loss of muscle control). Epidural anesthesia uses larger doses of anesthetic infused through an indwelling catheter which allows the anesthetic to be augmented should the effects begin to dissipate. Epidural anesthesia does not typically affect muscle control.
Because central neuraxial blockade causes arterial and vasodilation, a drop in blood pressure is common. This drop is largely dictated by the venous side of the circulatory system which holds 75% of the circulating blood volume. The physiologic effects are much greater when the block is placed above the 5th thoracic vertebra. An ineffective block is most often due to inadequate anxiolysis or sedation rather than a failure of the block itself.:1611
Acute pain management
Pain that is well managed during and immediately after surgery improves the health of patients (by decreasing physiologic stress) and the potential for chronic pain. Nociception (pain sensation) is not hard-wired into the body. Instead, it is a dynamic process wherein persistent painful stimuli can sensitize the system and either make pain management difficult or promote the development of chronic pain. For this reason, preemptive acute pain management may reduce both acute and chronic pain and is tailored to the surgery, the environment in which it is given (in-patient/out-patient) and the individual patient.:2757
Pain management is classified into either pre-emptive or on-demand. On-demand pain medications typically include either opioid or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but can also make use of novel approaches such as inhaled nitrous oxide or ketamine. On demand drugs can be administered by a clinician ("as needed drug orders") or by the patient using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). PCA has been shown to provide slightly better pain control and increased patient satisfaction when compared with conventional methods. Common preemptive approaches include epidural neuraxial blockade or nerve blocks. One review which looked at pain control after abdominal aortic surgery found that epidural blockade provides better pain relief (especially during movement) in the period up to three postoperative days. It reduces the duration of postoperative tracheal intubation by roughly half. The occurrence of prolonged postoperative mechanical ventilation and myocardial infarction is also reduced by epidural analgesia.
Risks and complications
Risks and complications as they relate to anesthesia are classified as either morbidity (a disease or disorder that results from anesthesia) or mortality (death that results from anesthesia). Attempting to quantify how anesthesia contributes to morbidity and mortality can be difficult because a person's health prior to surgery and the complexity of the surgical procedure can also contribute to the risks.
Prior to the introduction of anesthesia in the early 19th century, the physiologic stress from surgery caused significant complications and many deaths from shock. The faster the surgery was, the lower the rate of complications (leading to reports of very quick amputations). The advent of anesthesia allowed more complicated and life-saving surgery to be completed, decreased the physiologic stress of the surgery, but added an element of risk. It was two years after the introduction of ether anesthetics that the first death directly related to the use of anesthesia was reported.
Morbidity can be major (myocardial infarction, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, renal failure/insufficiency, postoperative cognitive dysfunction and allergy) or minor (minor nausea, vomiting, readmission). There is usually overlap in the contributing factors that lead to morbidity and mortality between the health of the patient, the surgery being performed and the anesthetic. To understand the relative risk of each contributing factor, consider that the rate of deaths totally attributed to the patient's health is 1:870. Compare that to the rate of deaths totally attributed to surgical factors (1:2860) or anesthesia alone (1:185,056) illustrating that the single greatest factor in anesthetic mortality is the health of the patient. These statistics can also be compared to the first such study on mortality in anesthesia from 1954, which reported a rate of death from all causes at 1:75 and a rate attributed to anesthesia alone at 1:2680.:993 Direct comparisons between mortality statistics cannot reliably be made over time and across countries because of differences in the stratification of risk factors, however, there is evidence that anesthetics have made a significant improvement in safety but to what degree is uncertain.
Rather than stating a flat rate of morbidity or mortality, many factors are reported as contributing to the relative risk of the procedure and anesthetic combined. For instance, an operation on a person who is between the ages of 60–79 years old places the patient at 2.32 times greater risk than someone less than 60 years old. Having an ASA score of 3, 4 or 5 places the person at 10.65 times greater risk than someone with an ASA score of 1 or 2. Other variables include age greater than 80 (3.29 times risk compared to those under 60), gender (females have a lower risk of 0.77), urgency of the procedure (emergencies have a 4.44 times greater risk), experience of the person completing the procedure (less than 8 years experience and/or less than 600 cases have a 1.06 times greater risk) and the type of anesthetic (regional anesthetics are lower risk than general anesthetics).:984 Obstetrical, the very young and the very old are all at greater risk of complication so extra precautions may need to be taken.:969–986
On 14 December 2016 the Food and Drug Administration issued a Public Safety Communication warning that "repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children’s brains." The warning was criticized by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which pointed out the absence of direct evidence regarding use in pregnant women and the possibility that "this warning could inappropriately dissuade providers from providing medically indicated care during pregnancy."  Patient advocates noted that a randomized clinical trial would be unethical, that the mechanism of injury is well-established in animals, and that studies had shown exposure to multiple uses of anesthetic significantly increased the risk of developing learning disabilities in young children, with a hazard ratio of 2.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.26–3.54).
The immediate time after anesthesia is called emergence. Emergence from general anesthesia or sedation requires careful monitoring because there is still a risk of complication. Nausea and vomiting are reported at 9.8% but will vary with the type of anesthetic and procedure. There is a need for airway support in 6.8%, there can be urinary retention (more common in those over 50 years of age) and hypotension in 2.7%. Hypothermia, shivering and confusion are also common in the immediate post-operative period because of the lack of muscle movement (and subsequent lack of heat production) during the procedure.:2707
Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (also known as POCD and post-anesthetic confusion) is a disturbance in cognition after surgery. It may also be variably used to describe emergence delirium (immediate post-operative confusion) and early cognitive dysfunction (diminished cognitive function in the first post-operative week). Although the three entities (delirium, early POCD and long-term POCD) are separate, the presence of delirium post-operatively predicts the presence of early POCD. There does not appear to be an association between delirium or early POCD and long-term POCD. According to a recent study conducted at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, the brain navigates its way through a series of activity clusters, or "hubs" on its way back to consciousness. Dr. Andrew Hudson, an assistant professor in anesthesiology states, "Recovery from anesthesia is not simply the result of the anesthetic 'wearing off,' but also of the brain finding its way back through a maze of possible activity states to those that allow conscious experience. Put simply, the brain reboots itself."
Long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a subtle deterioration in cognitive function, that can last for weeks, months, or longer. Most commonly, relatives of the person report a lack of attention, memory and loss of interest in activities previously dear to the person (such as crosswords). In a similar way, people in the workforce may report an inability to complete tasks at the same speed they could previously. There is good evidence that POCD occurs after cardiac surgery and the major reason for its occurrence is the formation of microemboli. POCD also appears to occur in non-cardiac surgery. Its causes in non-cardiac surgery are less clear but older age is a risk factor for its occurrence.:2805–2816
The first attempts at general anesthesia were probably herbal remedies administered in prehistory. Alcohol is one of the oldest known sedatives and it was used in ancient Mesopotamia thousands of years ago. The Sumerians are said to have cultivated and harvested the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) in lower Mesopotamia as early as 3400 BC.
The ancient Egyptians had some surgical instruments, as well as crude analgesics and sedatives, including possibly an extract prepared from the mandrake fruit. Bian Que (Chinese: 扁鹊, Wade–Giles: Pien Ch'iao, c. 300 BC) was a legendary Chinese internist and surgeon who reportedly used general anesthesia for surgical procedures.
Throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas a variety of Solanum species containing potent tropane alkaloids were used for anesthesia. In 13th century Italy, Theodoric Borgognoni used similar mixtures along with opiates to induce unconsciousness, and treatment with the combined alkaloids proved a mainstay of anesthesia until the nineteenth century. Local anesthetics were used in Inca civilization where shamans chewed coca leaves and performed operations on the skull while spitting into the wounds they had inflicted to anesthetize. Cocaine was later isolated and became the first effective local anesthetic. It was first used in 1859 by Karl Koller, at the suggestion of Sigmund Freud, in eye surgery in 1884. German surgeon August Bier (1861–1949) was the first to use cocaine for intrathecal anesthesia in 1898. Romanian surgeon Nicolae Racoviceanu-Piteşti (1860–1942) was the first to use opioids for intrathecal analgesia; he presented his experience in Paris in 1901.
Early Arab writings mention anesthesia by inhalation. This idea was the basis of the "soporific sponge" ("sleep sponge"), introduced by the Salerno school of medicine in the late twelfth century and by Ugo Borgognoni (1180–1258) in the thirteenth century. The sponge was promoted and described by Ugo's son and fellow surgeon, Theodoric Borgognoni (1205–1298). In this anesthetic method, a sponge was soaked in a dissolved solution of opium, mandragora, hemlock juice, and other substances. The sponge was then dried and stored; just before surgery the sponge was moistened and then held under the patient's nose. When all went well, the fumes rendered the patient unconscious.
The most famous anesthetic, ether, may have been synthesized as early as the 8th century, but it took many centuries for its anesthetic importance to be appreciated, even though the 16th century physician and polymath Paracelsus noted that chickens made to breathe it not only fell asleep but also felt no pain. By the early 19th century, ether was being used by humans, but only as a recreational drug.
Meanwhile, in 1772, English scientist Joseph Priestley discovered the gas nitrous oxide. Initially, people thought this gas to be lethal, even in small doses, like some other nitrogen oxides. However, in 1799, British chemist and inventor Humphry Davy decided to find out by experimenting on himself. To his astonishment he found that nitrous oxide made him laugh, so he nicknamed it "laughing gas". In 1800 Davy wrote about the potential anesthetic properties of nitrous oxide in relieving pain during surgery, but nobody at that time pursued the matter any further.
American physician Crawford W. Long noticed that his friends felt no pain when they injured themselves while staggering around under the influence of ether. He immediately thought of its potential in surgery. Conveniently, a participant in one of those "ether frolics", a student named James Venable, had two small tumors he wanted excised. But fearing the pain of surgery, Venable kept putting the operation off. Hence, Long suggested that he have his operation while under the influence of ether. Venable agreed, and on 30 March 1842 he underwent a painless operation. However, Long did not announce his discovery until 1849.
Horace Wells conducted the first public demonstration of the inhalational anesthetic at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston in 1845. However, the nitrous oxide was improperly administered and the patient cried out in pain. On 16 October 1846, Boston dentist William Thomas Green Morton gave a successful demonstration using diethyl ether to medical students at the same venue. Morton, who was unaware of Long's previous work, was invited to the Massachusetts General Hospital to demonstrate his new technique for painless surgery. After Morton had induced anesthesia, surgeon John Collins Warren removed a tumor from the neck of Edward Gilbert Abbott. This occurred in the surgical amphitheater now called the Ether Dome. The previously skeptical Warren was impressed and stated, "Gentlemen, this is no humbug." In a letter to Morton shortly thereafter, physician and writer Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. proposed naming the state produced "anesthesia", and the procedure an "anesthetic".
Morton at first attempted to hide the actual nature of his anesthetic substance, referring to it as Letheon. He received a US patent for his substance, but news of the successful anesthetic spread quickly by late 1846. Respected surgeons in Europe including Liston, Dieffenbach, Pirogov, and Syme quickly undertook numerous operations with ether. An American-born physician, Boott, encouraged London dentist James Robinson to perform a dental procedure on a Miss Lonsdale. This was the first case of an operator-anesthetist. On the same day, 19 December 1846, in Dumfries Royal Infirmary, Scotland, a Dr. Scott used ether for a surgical procedure. The first use of anesthesia in the Southern Hemisphere took place in Launceston, Tasmania, that same year. Drawbacks with ether such as excessive vomiting and its explosive flammability led to its replacement in England with chloroform.
Discovered in 1831 by an American physician Samuel Guthrie (1782–1848), and independently a few months later by Frenchman Eugène Soubeiran (1797–1859) and Justus von Liebig (1803–73) in Germany, chloroform was named and chemically characterised in 1834 by Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800–84). In 1842, Dr Robert Mortimer Glover in London discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform on laboratory animals. In 1847, Scottish obstetrician James Y. Simpson was the first to demonstrate the anaesthetic properties of chloroform on humans and helped to popularise the drug for use in medicine. Its use spread quickly and gained royal approval in 1853 when John Snow gave it to Queen Victoria during the birth of Prince Leopold. During the birth itself, chloroform met all the Queen’s expectations, stating it was “delightful beyond measure”. Unfortunately, though free of ether's flammability and consequent explosion hazard, chloroform is not as safe pharmacologically, especially when administered by an untrained practitioner (medical students, nurses, and occasionally members of the public were often pressed into giving anesthetics at this time). This led to many deaths from the use of chloroform that (with hindsight) might have been preventable. The first fatality directly attributed to chloroform anesthesia was recorded on 28 January 1848 after the death of Hannah Greener.
John Snow of London published articles from May 1848 onwards "On Narcotism by the Inhalation of Vapours" in the London Medical Gazette. Snow also involved himself in the production of equipment needed for the administration of inhalational anesthetics, the forerunner of today's anesthesia machines.
The first comprehensive medical textbook on the subject, Anesthesia, was authored in 1914 by anesthesiologist Dr. James Tayloe Gwathmey and the chemist Dr. Charles Baskerville. This book served as the standard reference for the specialty for decades and included details on the history of anesthesia as well as the physiology and techniques of inhalation, rectal, intravenous, and spinal anesthesia.
Of these first famous anesthetics, only nitrous oxide is still widely used today, with chloroform and ether having been replaced by safer but sometimes more expensive general anesthetics, and cocaine by more effective local anesthetics with less abuse potential.
Society and culture
Almost all healthcare providers use anesthesia to some degree, however most health professions have their own field of specialists in the field including medicine, nursing and dentistry.
Doctors specializing in perioperative care, development of an anesthetic plan, and the administration of anesthetics are known in the US as anesthesiologists and in the UK, Canada, Australia, and NZ as anaesthetists or anaesthesiologists. All anesthetics in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Japan are administered by doctors. Nurse anesthetists also administer anesthesia in 109 nations. In the US, 35% of anesthetics are provided by physicians in solo practice, about 55% are provided by anesthesia care teams (ACTs) with anesthesiologists medically directing anesthesiologist assistants or certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), and about 10% are provided by CRNAs in solo practice. There can also be anesthesiologist assistants (US) or physician assistant (anaesthesia) (UK) who assist with anesthesia.
There are many circumstances when anesthesia needs to be altered for special circumstances due to the procedure (such as in cardiac surgery, cardiothoracic anesthesiology or neurosurgery), the patient (such as in pediatric anesthesia, geriatric, bariatric or obstetrical anesthesia) or special circumstances (such as in trauma, prehospital care, robotic surgery or extreme environments).
- Miller, Ronald D (2010). Erikson, Lars I; Fleisher, Lee A; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P; Young, William L, eds. Miller's Anesthesia Seventh edition. USA: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06959-8.
- Fitz-Henry, J (Apr 2011). "The ASA classification and peri-operative risk". Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England. 93 (3): 185–187. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2011.93.3.185a. PMC . PMID 21477427.
- Goneppanavar, U; Prabhu, M (Sep–Oct 2013). "Anaesthesia Machine: Checklist, Hazards, Scavenging". Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 57 (5): 533–540. doi:10.4103/0019-5049.120151. PMC . PMID 24249887.
- Subrahmanyam M, Mohan S (Sep 2013). "Safety Features in Anaesthesia Machine". Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 57 (5): 472–480. doi:10.4103/0019-5049.120143. PMC . PMID 24249880.
- Standards for Basic Anesthetic Monitoring. Committee of Origin: Standards and Practice Parameters (Approved by the ASA House of Delegates on 21 October 1986, amended 20 October 2010 with an effective date of 1 July 2011)
- Birks RJS, ed. (March 2007). RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STANDARDS OF MONITORING DURING ANAESTHESIA AND RECOVERY 4th Edition (PDF). Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Reddy S, Patt RB (Nov 1994). "The benzodiazepines as adjuvant analgesics". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 9 (8): 510–4. doi:10.1016/0885-3924(94)90112-0.
- Walker KJ; et al. (Oct 2009). "Ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blockade". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009 (4): CD006459. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006459.pub2. PMID 19821368.
- Ullah H; et al. (April 2014). "Continuous interscalene brachial plexus block versus parenteral analgesia for postoperative pain relief after major shoulder surgery". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): #. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007080.pub2. PMID 24492959.
- Andreae, MH Andreae DA (17 Oct 2012). "Local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia for preventing chronic pain after surgery". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012 (10). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007105.pub2. PMC .
- Klomp T; et al. (Sep 2012). "Inhaled analgesia for pain management in labour". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (9): CD009351. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009351.pub2.
- Bell, Rae F; Dahl, Jørgen B; Moore, R Andrew; Kalso, Eija A (Jan 2006). "Perioperative ketamine for acute postoperative pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 25 (1): CD004603. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004603.pub2. PMID 16437490.
- Hudcova J, McNicol E, Quah C, Lau J, Carr DB (18 Oct 2006). "Patient controlled opioid analgesia versus conventional opioid analgesia for controlling postoperative pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2006 (4): CD003348. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003348.pub2.
- Jones L; et al. (Mar 2012). "Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD009234. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009234.pub2. PMID 22419342.
- Novikova N; et al. (Sep 2012). "Local anaesthetic nerve block for pain management in labour". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (9): CD009351. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009351.pub2.
- Nishimori M, Low JH, Zheng H, Ballantyne JC (11 Jul 2012). "Epidural pain relief versus systemic opioid-based pain relief for abdominal aortic surgery". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012 (11): CD005059. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005059.pub3.
- Lagasse, RS (Dec 2002). "Anesthesia Safety: Model or Myth?". Anesthesiology. 97 (6): 1609–17. doi:10.1097/00000542-200212000-00038. PMID 12459692.
- Chaloner EJ, Ham RJ (Aug 2001). "Amputations at the London Hospital 1852–1857". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 94 (8): 409–412. PMC . PMID 11461989.
- Braz LG (Oct 2009). "Mortality in Anesthesia: A Systematic Review". Clinics. Faculdade de Medicina of the University of São Paulo. 64 (10): 999–1006. doi:10.1590/S1807-59322009001000011. PMC . PMID 19841708.
- Food and Drug Administration "FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA review results in new warnings about using general anesthetics and sedation drugs in young children and pregnant women", FDA Website, 14 December 2016. Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
- American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists "Practice Advisory: FDA Warnings Regarding Use of General Anesthetics and Sedation Drugs in Young Children and Pregnant Women", ACOG Website, 21 December 2016. Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
- Kennerly Loutey "Anesthesia in Pregnant Women And Young Children: The FDA Versus ACOG", Website, Retrieved on 3 January 2017.
- Whitaker DK, Booth H (Mar 2013). "Immediate post-anaesthesia recovery 2013: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland". Anaesthesia. 68 (3): 288–97. doi:10.1111/anae.12146. PMID 23384257.
- Rudolph JL; et al. (Sep 2008). "Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction". Anaesthesia. 63 (9): 941–947. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2008.05523.x. PMC . PMID 18547292.
- How brain 'reboots' itself to consciousness after anesthesia. Science Daily (18 June 2014)
- Deiner S, Silverstein JH (2009). "Postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 103 (Suppl 1): i41–i46. doi:10.1093/bja/aep291.
- Powell MA (1996). "Chapter 9: Wine and the vine in ancient Mesopotamia: the cuneiform evidence". In McGovern PE, Fleming SJ, Katz SH. The origins and ancient history of wine (Food and nutrition in history and anthropology). 11 (1 ed.). Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers. pp. 96–124. ISBN 978-90-5699-552-2.
- Evans, TC (1928). "The opium question, with special reference to Persia (book review)". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 21 (4): 339–340. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(28)90031-0. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
The earliest known mention of the poppy is in the language of the Sumerians, a non-Semitic people who descended from the uplands of Central Asia into Southern Mesopotamia ...
- Booth M (1996). "The discovery of dreams". Opium: A History. London: Simon & Schuster, Ltd. p. 15. ISBN 0-312-20667-4.
- Ludwig Christian Stern (1889). Ebers G, ed. Papyrus Ebers (in German). 2 (1 ed.). Leipzig: Bei S. Hirzel. OCLC 14785083. Retrieved 2010-09-18.
- Pahor, AL (1992). "Ear, nose and throat in ancient Egypt: Part I". The Journal of Laryngology & Otology. 106 (8): 677–87. doi:10.1017/S0022215100120560. PMID 1402355. Retrieved 2010-09-16.
- Sullivan, R (1996). "The identity and work of the ancient Egyptian surgeon". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 89 (8): 467–73. PMC . PMID 8795503.
- Ruetsch, YA; Böni, T; Borgeat, A (2001). "From Cocaine to Ropivacaine: The History of Local Anesthetic Drugs". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 1 (3): 175–82. doi:10.2174/1568026013395335. PMID 11895133.
- Koller, K (1884). "Über die verwendung des kokains zur anästhesierung am auge" [On the use of cocaine for anesthesia on the eye]. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift (in German). 34: 1276–1309.
- Bier, A (1899). "Versuche über cocainisirung des rückenmarkes" [Experiments on the cocainization of the spinal cord]. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie (in German). 51 (3–4): 361–9. doi:10.1007/BF02792160.
- Brill, S; Gurman, GM; Fisher, A (2003). "A history of neuraxial administration of local analgesics and opioids". European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 20 (9): 682–9. doi:10.1017/S026502150300111X. PMID 12974588.
- Toski, Judith A; Bacon, Douglas R; Calverley, Rod K (2001). The history of Anesthesiology. In: Barash, Paul G; Cullen, Bruce F; Stoelting, Robert K. Clinical Anesthesia (4 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-2268-1.
- Hademenos, George J.; Murphree, Shaun; Zahler, Kathy; Warner, Jennifer M. (2008-11-12). McGraw-Hill's PCAT. McGraw-Hill. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-07-160045-3.
- Fenster, JM (2001). "Power Struggle". Ether Day: The Strange Tale of America's Greatest Medical Discovery and the Haunted Men Who Made It. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 106–16. ISBN 978-0-06-019523-6.
- Hardman, Jonathan G. (2017). Oxford Textbook of Anaesthesia. Oxford University Press. p. 529.
- Long, CW (1849). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anesthetic in Surgical Operations". Southern Medical and Surgical Journal. 5: 705–713.
- "Miniature Portrait of Horace Wells". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-06-30.
- Morkel, H (16 October 2013). "The painful story behind modern anesthesia". pbs.org.
- Baillie, Thomas W. (1965). "The first European trial of anaesthetic ether: The Dumfries claim". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 37: 952–957. doi:10.1093/bja/37.12.952.
- Defalque, R. J.; Wright, A. J. (2004). "The short, tragic life of Robert M. Glover" (PDF). Anaesthesia. 59 (4): 394–400. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2044.2004.03671.x. PMID 15023112.
- "Sir James Young Simpson". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- "Queen Victoria uses chloroform in childbirth, 1853". Financial Times. 28 November 2017.
- Wawersik, J. (1997-01-01). "History of chloroform anesthesia". Anaesthesiologie und Reanimation. 22 (6): 144–152. PMID 9487785.
- Zorab, John (June 1992). "On Narcotism by the Inhalation of Vapours by John Snow MD". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 85 (6): 371.
- "Anesthesia LAND". patinaa.blogfa.com. Retrieved 2016-12-02.
- Cope, Doris K. (1993). "James Tayloe Gwathmey: Seeds of a Developing Specialty". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 76: 642–647.
- McAuliffe, MS; Henry, B (2010). "Nurse anesthesia worldwide: practice, education and regulation" (PDF). Downloads. Silver Spring, Maryland: International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists. Retrieved 2012-06-13.
- Abenstein, JP; Long, KH; McGlinch, BP; Dietz, NM (2007). "Is Physician Anesthesia Cost-Effective?". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 98 (3): 750–7. doi:10.1213/01.ANE.0000100945.56081.AC. PMID 14980932.
- Rosenbach, ML; Cromwell, J (2007). "When do anesthesiologists delegate?". Medical Care. 27 (5): 453–65. doi:10.1097/00005650-198905000-00002. PMID 2725080.
- "Five facts about AAs". American Academy of Anesthesiologist Assistants. Archived from the original on 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2010-11-25.