|Trade names||Robinul (tablets, intravenous), Seebri (inhalation), others|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||398.335 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)|
|By mouth, intravenous, inhalation|
|Biological half-life||0.6–1.2 hours|
|Excretion||85% renal, unknown amount in the bile|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||318.431 g/mol|
|3D model (Jmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Glycopyrronium bromide is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group. It does not cross the blood–brain barrier and consequently has no to few central effects. A synthetic quaternary amine, it is available in oral and intravenous forms and as inhalation. It was developed by Sosei and licensed to Novartis in 2005. The cation, which is the active moiety, is called glycopyrronium (INN) or glycopyrrolate (USAN).
In anesthesia, glycopyrronium injection can be used as a preoperative medication in order to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, as well as decreasing the acidity of gastric secretion. It is also used in conjunction with neostigmine, a neuromuscular blocking reversal agent, to prevent neostigmine's muscarinic effects such as bradycardia.
Since glycopyrronium reduces the body's sweating ability, it can even cause hyperthermia and heat stroke in hot environments. Dry mouth, difficulty urinating, headaches, diarrhea and constipation are also observed side effects of the medication. The medication also induces drowsiness or blurred vision, an effect exacerbated by the consumption of alcohol.
Mechanism of action
Glycopyrronium bromide affects the gastrointestinal tracts, liver and kidney but has a very limited effect on the brain and the central nervous system. In horse studies, after a single intravenous infusion, the tendency of glycopyrronium followed a tri-exponential equation, followed by rapid disappearance from the blood followed by a prolonged terminal phase. Excretion was mainly in urine and in the form of an unchanged drug. Glycopyrronium has a relatively slow diffusion rate, and in a standard comparison to atropine, is more resistant to penetration through the blood-brain barrier and placenta.
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